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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Cyclohexanone

RTECS #

GW1050000

CAS #

108-94-1

Updated

October 2015

Molecular Weight

98.16

Molecular Formula

C6H10O

Synonyms

Anone
Cicloesanone (Italian)
Cyclohexanon (Dutch)
Cyclohexanone (ACGIH:OSHA)
Cyclohexyl ketone
Cykloheksanon (Polish)
Hexanon
Hytrol O
Ketohexamethylene
Nadone
NCI-C55005
Pimelic ketone
Pimelin ketone
RCRA waste number U057
Sextone

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 75 ppmJIHTAB 25,282,1943
eye /rabbit 20 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 250 µg/24H severe85JCAE -,289,1986
skin /human 50%/48H mildADVEA4 27,189,1992
skin /rabbit 500 mg open irritation test mildUCDS**

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human100 µmol/LDBTEAD 19,215,1971
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human5 µg/LGISAAA 46(5),76,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster7500 µL/LENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),60,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µL/L (-enzymatic activation step)EJMBA2 18,213,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Bacillus subtilis200 µL/L (-enzymatic activation step)EJMBA2 18,213,1983
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster7500 µL/LENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),60,1985

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 105 mg/m3/4H (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation/mouse 1400 ppm/6H (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** OTS0540574
inhalation/rat 105.2 mg/m3 (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)TPKVAL 14,26,1975
oral/mouse 11 gm/kg (8-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TCMUD8 6,361,1986

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 pph/5MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1855,2013
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 15000 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 15000 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 400 ppm/4HNTIS** AD-A066-307
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/1MEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 75 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JIHTAB 25,282,1943
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.09 mg/m3Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEGVCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/8HEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 25 gm/m3GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 15000 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 19200 mg/m3/90MGastrointestinal: Other changesTXAPA9 49,525,1979
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2375 mg/m3VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/40MBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 400 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 1203 mg/m3/4HBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: DyspneaVCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 19000 mg/m3VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8000 ppm/4HNPIRI* 1,18,1974
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 760 mg/kgNTIS** AD-A066-307
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 930 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1230 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1230 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesTXAPA9 49,525,1979
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1540 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesTXAPA9 49,525,1979
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1540 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1130 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesTXAPA9 49,525,1979
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1130 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
intravenous/monkey lowest published lethal dose: 284 mg/kgTXAPA9 37,115,1976
intravenous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 568 mg/kgTXAPA9 37,115,1976
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 714.3 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 gm/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1400 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
oral/pig lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 294,94,2012
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 1600 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticJIHTAB 25,199,1943
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1620 µL/kgAIHAAP 30,470,1969
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/kgVCVGK* -,455,1994
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mL/kgAIHAAP 30,470,1969
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 1900 mg/kgAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEXPBL 50,199,1903
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1300 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEXPBL 50,199,1903
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2170 mg/kgJIHTAB 25,415,1943

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/6H/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 3082 ppm/6H/3W- intermittentBehavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 25,323,1943
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 12000 mg/m3/6H/15D- intermittentBehavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/6H/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/122D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 105.2 mg/m3/17D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 11.5 mg/m3/17D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightTPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 11.5 mg/m3/20D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 105.2 mg/m3/75D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 460 mg/m3/90D- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 105 mg/m3/20D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/6H/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,455,1994
intravenous/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 4260 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 37,115,1976
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
VCVGK* -,455,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.5 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGK* -,455,1994
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 61000 mg/kg/122D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,455,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 20 ppm;short term exposure limit 50 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,157,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,1359,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 71,1359,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 71,1359,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESCancelledRBREV* -,248,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,66,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 ppm (20 mg/m3);KZW 20 ppm (80 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (40.8 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 20 ppm (81.6 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 40.8 mg/m3 (10 ppm);short term exposure limit 81.6 mg/m3 (20 ppm), skin, JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (41 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (82 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 ppm (40.8 mg/m3), VLE 20 ppm (81.6 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 40.8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 81.6 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (81.6 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 100 ppm (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 20 ppm (80 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 20 ppm (80 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 50 ppm (201 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 160 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 30 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), KZG-week 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (41 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 20 ppm (82 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CYCLOHEXANONE-air10H time-weighted average 25 ppm (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 21660; Number of Industries 160; Total Number of Facilities 33556; Number of Occupations 117; Total Number of Employees Exposed 436935; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 43406
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 21660; Number of Industries 123; Total Number of Facilities 13457; Number of Occupations 98; Total Number of Employees Exposed 151748

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ketones I, 1300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Volatile organic compound, 2549
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #01
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