Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

2,3-Butanedione

RTECS #

EK2625000

CAS #

431-03-8

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

86.10

Molecular Formula

C4H6O2

Synonyms

2,3-Butadione
2,3-Diketobutane
Biacetyl
Diacetyl
Dimethyl diketone
Dimethylglyoxal
Glyoxal, dimethyl-

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H moderateFCTXAV 17,765,1979

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/mouse200 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 46,2928,2008
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 mg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 67,367,1979
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat1500 mg/kgJJCREP 76,809,1985

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 94.0 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 24.4 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1729.5 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.FCTOD7 96,155,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3773.2 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)FCTOD7 96,155,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1611.8 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.FCTOD7 96,155,2016
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 138.8 µg/mL/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.FCTOD7 96,155,2016
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 530 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 530 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,51,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 198.4 ppm/6HOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,438,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 294.6 ppm/6HOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 78,438,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 294.6 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOPADD 36,330,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 224 ppm/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiTOPADD 36,330,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 198.4 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiTOPADD 36,330,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 356 ppm/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOPADD 36,330,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 92.9 ppm/15MOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsTOPADD 36,330,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation
FCTXAV 7,571,1969
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 990 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
FCTXAV 2,327,1964
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3000 mg/kgVCVGK* -,448,1994
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1580 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
FCTXAV 2,327,1964
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5 gm/kgFCTXAV 17,765,1979

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/5D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 90,210,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 48600 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells
FCTXAV 7,571,1969
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 48600 mg/kg/90D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
VCVGK* -,448,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.01 ppm;short term exposure limit 0.02 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84595; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 185; Number of Occupations 13; Total Number of Employees Exposed 3438; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 1628
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84595; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 126; Number of Occupations 6; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1503

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; selected, October 2000
TOP