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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzene, p-dichloro-

RTECS #

CZ4550000

CAS #

106-46-7

Updated

December 2015

Molecular Weight

147.00

Molecular Formula

C6H4Cl2

Synonyms

1,4-Dichloorbenzeen (Dutch)
1,4-Dichlor-benzol (German)
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
1,4-Diclorobenzene (Italian)
Di-chloricide
Evola
Globol
NCI-C54955
Para crystals
para-Chlorophenyl chloride
Paracide
Paradi
Paradichlorbenzol (German)
Paradichlorobenzene
para-Dichlorobenzene
Paradichlorobenzol
Paradow
Paramoth
Paranuggets
Parazene
p-Chlorophenyl chloride
PDB
PDCB
p-Dichloorbenzeen (Dutch)
p-Dichlorbenzol (German)
p-Dichlorobenzene
p-Dichlorobenzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
p-Dichlorobenzol
p-Diclorobenzene (Italian)
Persia-perazol
RCRA waste number U070
RCRA waste number U071
RCRA waste number U072
Santochlor

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 80 ppmAMIHAB 14,138,1956

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse2 gm/kgMUREAV 391,201,1997
DNA repairoral/mouse1000 mg/kgTCMUD8 18,309,1998
DNA repairoral/rat1000 mg/kgTCMUD8 18,309,1998
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1 mmol/LMUREAV 413,205,1998
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse355 mg/kg/24HMUTAEX 2,111,1987
mutation in microorganisms/Aspergillus nidulans200 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)CJMIAZ 16,369,1970
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/mouse1000 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse750 mg/kgMUREAV 343,157,1995
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human100 µg/LMUREAV 263,57,1991
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/rat800 mg/kgACDSEL 2,248,1985

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rabbit 800 ppm/6H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemFAATDF 5,190,1985
inhalation/rat 50 ppm (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Other effects on female
HPV173 -,-,2002
inhalation/rat 150 ppm (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
HPV173 -,-,2002
oral/rat 84 mg/kg (1-21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsBCLPT* 95,139,2004
oral/rat 7500 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemBECTA6 37,164,1986
oral/rat 10 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BECTA6 37,164,1986

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 155 gm/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-319,1987
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 309000 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB87-208617/AS
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 309000 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
NTIS** PB87-208617/AS
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14405.3 mg/kg/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
MUREAV 746,135,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 77250 mg/kg/13W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB87-208617/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 155 gm/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-319,1987

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 37 gm/m3/30MBehavioral: General anestheticYKYUA6 38,1045,1987
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 480 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
VCVGK* -,24,1984
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 12 gm/m3GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5000 mg/m3/4HBFUUA* 185,1,1996
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >6000 mg/m3/4HEye: Lacrimation

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Behavioral: Tremor
HPV173 -,-,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2000 mg/kgMUREAV 747,164,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 gm/kgMUTAEX 2,111,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2562 mg/kgJAPMA8 38,124,1949
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightTXAPA9 111,69,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)FCTOD7 49,49,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TXAPA9 111,69,1991
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionTXAPA9 111,69,1991
oral/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 2800 mg/kgAMIHAB 14,138,1956
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
PCOC** -,851,1966
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 857 mg/kg34ZIAG -,210,1969
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2600 mg/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2950 mg/kgGUCHAZ 6,183,1973
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2830 mg/kgYKYUA6 29,453,1978
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgWRPCA2 9,119,1970
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2 gm/kgSPEADM 78-1,18,1978
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2000 mg/kgBFUUA* 185,1,1996
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5145 mg/kgBehavioral: TremorTOIZAG 20,772,1973
unreported route/human lowest published lethal dose: 357 mg/kgYKYUA6 31,1499,1980
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 221 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 158 ppm/7H/31W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightAMIHAB 14,138,1956
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 100 gm/m3/20M/20D- intermittentBlood: Granulocytopenia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JAPMA8 38,124,1949
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 100 gm/m3/30M/31D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects

Blood: Granulocytopenia
JAPMA8 38,124,1949
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 950 mg/m3/7H/22W- intermittentLiver: Other changesVCVGK* -,24,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 158 ppm/7H/31W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
AMIHAB 14,138,1956
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 gm/m3/20M/25D- intermittentBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Tremor

Blood: Granulocytopenia
JAPMA8 38,124,1949
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 140 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
JTSCDR 22,357,1997
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2900 mg/kg/6W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductFCTOD7 49,49,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5800 mg/kg/6W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)FCTOD7 49,49,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weightFCTOD7 49,49,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10192 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightMUREAV 746,135,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 58500 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* NTP-TR-319,1987
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
FAATDF 39,67,1997
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/7D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 92 gm/kg/31W- intermittentBehavioral: Tremor

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHAB 14,138,1956
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/7D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 gm/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
EVHPAZ 110,363,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/14D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldNTPTR* NTP-TR-319,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 58500 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
NTPTR* NTP-TR-319,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
AMIHAB 14,138,1956
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 201 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightARTODN 81,505,2007
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/11D- intermittentSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, otherFCTOD7 49,49,2011
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3700 mg/kg/8W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
FCTOD7 49,49,2011
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7400 mg/kg/8W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
FCTOD7 49,49,2011
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/15D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
FCTOD7 49,49,2011
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8400 mg/kg/28D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOXID9 66,62,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMSUDL 7,192,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 73,223,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 7,231,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 7,231,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 29,213,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 29,213,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 73,223,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 73,223,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 1(1),93,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 196,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,5,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRTOPDW 49,138,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,36,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,250,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,77,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (150 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (300 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 20 ppm (122 mg/m3);KZW 50 ppm (306 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (61 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (306 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 122 mg/m3 (20 ppm);short term exposure limit 306 mg/m3 (50 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (120 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (300 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.75 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), VLE 50 ppm (306 mg/m3), C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 122 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 306 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (306 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 110 ppm (675 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 110 ppm (675 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 25 ppm (153 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 50 ppm (306 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 50 ppm, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 10 ppm (60 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 20 ppm (120 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 20 ppm, carc 3, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 150 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 25 ppm (153 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm (306 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 75 ppm (450 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-DICHLOROBENZENE-airCarcinogen (1.7 ppm LOQ)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 24006; Number of Industries 22; Total Number of Facilities 2629; Number of Occupations 21; Total Number of Employees Exposed 33978; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 9412
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 24006; Number of Industries 21; Total Number of Facilities 1963; Number of Occupations 18; Total Number of Employees Exposed 23116

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/121972)
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9004
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,rat
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Volatile organic compound, 2549
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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