Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Ammonia

RTECS #

BO0875000

CAS #

7664-41-7; 8007-57-6

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

17.04

Molecular Formula

H3N

Synonyms

AM-Fol
Ammonia (ACGIH:OSHA)
Ammonia anhydrous
Ammonia gas
Ammoniac (French)
Ammoniaca (Italian)
Ammoniak (German)
Amoniak (Polish)
Nitro-sil
R 717
Spirit of hartshorn

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat19800 µg/m3/16WBZARAZ 27(6),102,1974
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli1500 ppm/3H (-enzymatic activation step)AMNTA4 85,119,1951

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/24W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
CALEDQ 65,15,1992

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 15 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETOX* 49,28,2015
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETOX* 49,28,2015
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.NETOX* 49,28,2015
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/cat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement
JIHTAB 26,29,1944
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppmOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
AGGHAR 13,528,1955
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/8HCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1200 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 1500 mg/m3/30MVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 110 ppm/1HEye: Conjunctiva irritationTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 3500 mg/m3/90MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4600 mg/m3/2HVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2HBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/2HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerveVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 3317 ppm/1HTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4500 ppm/1HENTOX* -,101,2005
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4230 ppm/1HBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
FEPRA7 41,1568,1982
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21430 ppm/30MFEREAC 69,13740,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 582 mg/m3/45MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTXCYAC 276,135,2010
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement
JIHTAB 26,29,1944
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 18600 mg/m3/5MVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7040 mg/m3/30MVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2000 ppm/4H34ZIAG -,607,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: DyspneaVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17401 ppm/15MFEREAC 69,13740,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 905 mg/m3/45MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTXCYAC 276,135,2010
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9500 ppm/1HENTOX* -,101,2005
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 15 µL/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagusAJEMEN 3,320,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.095 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachJPETAB 323,308,2007
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 132 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentEye: LacrimationTXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 6 mg/m3/7H/17W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVN5* -,13,1989
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/5Y- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema
VCVN5* -,14,1989
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 0.058 gm/m3/18D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TPKVAL 11,106,1969
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 711 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsJJATDK 15,207,1995
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 145 ppm/5W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JANSAG 28,844,1969
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6D- continuousBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AJVRAH 55,1335,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentEye: Corneal damage

Eye: Other eye effects
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
PHTOEH 64,244,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 455 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 960 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSGISAAA 50(5),90,1985
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.058 gm/m3/19D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TPKVAL 11,106,1969
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 173 mg/kg/4W- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changesDDSCDJ 36,33,1991

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 25 ppm;short term exposure limit 35 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** AD-A094-501
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,30,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,101,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,1863,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWISMEA* 10,537,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 21,719,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPRESR* 7,123,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESActive registrationRBREV* -,352,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,11,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 20 ppm (14 mg/m3);KZW 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 14 mg/m3 (20 ppm);short term exposure limit 36 mg/m3 (50 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 ppm (7 mg/m3), VLE 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 14 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 36 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 27 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), KZG-week 40 ppm (28 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 14 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 50 ppm (30 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 35 ppm (25 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO AMMONIA-air10H time-weighted average 25 ppm;short term exposure limit 35 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 05250; Number of Industries 270; Total Number of Facilities 42116; Number of Occupations 174; Total Number of Employees Exposed 805962; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 287974
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 05250; Number of Industries 363; Total Number of Facilities 115139; Number of Occupations 198; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1168429

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180315/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ammonia, 6015
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Ammoinia by IC, 6016
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-164
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-188
TOP