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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acrylonitrile

RTECS #

AT5250000

CAS #

107-13-1; 29754-21-0; 63908-52-1

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

53.07

Molecular Formula

C3H3N

Synonyms

2-Propenenitrile
Acritet
Acrylnitril (German, Dutch)
Acrylon
Acrylonitrile (ACGIH:OSHA)
Acrylonitrile monomer
Akrylonitril (Czech)
Akrylonitryl (Polish)
Carbacryl
Cianuro di vinile (Italian)
Cyanoethylene
Cyanure de vinyle (French)
ENT 54
Fumigrain
Miller's fumigrain
Nitrile acrilico (Italian)
Nitrile acrylique (French)
Propenenitrile
RCRA waste number U009
TL 314
VCN
Ventox
Vinyl cyanide
Vinylcyanide (OSHA)
Vinylkyanid (Czech)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg moderateATDAEI 1,114,1990
skin /human 500 mg rinseINMEAF 17,199,1948
skin /rabbit 500 mg severeATDAEI 1,114,1990

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/rat30 mg/kgTXCYAC 16,67,1980
body fluid assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse30 mg/kgTXCYAC 16,67,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster4 mmol/LPMRSDJ 5,433,1985
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster6250 µg/LPMRSDJ 5,427,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisliver/hamster2500 µg/LPMRSDJ 5,397,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human0.8 mg/m3/146WMUREAV 537,93,2003
DNA adductlymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)68 mmol/LCBINA8 51,167,1984
DNA adductliver/rat16500 µmol/LXENOBH 13,19,1983
DNA adductoral/rat46500 µg/kgCBINA8 47,363,1983
DNA Damageother cell types/human200 mg/LMUREAV 241,355,1990
DNA Damageovary/hamster3710 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,359,1985
DNA Damageembryo/hamster200 mg/LJJIND8 62,1025,1979
DNA Damageinhalation/human0.8 mg/m3/146WMUREAV 537,93,2003
DNA Damageoral/rat187.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 786-788,104,2015
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Aspergillus nidulans806 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,307,1985
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae14 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,225,1985
micronucleus testovary/hamster100 mmol/LPMRSDJ 5,359,1985
morphological transformembryo/hamster2 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,665,1985
morphological transformembryo/mouse8800 µg/LPMRSDJ 5,639,1985
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse6300 µg/LCALEDQ 32,293,1986
morphological transformembryo/hamster50 mg/L/7DCRNGDP 21,727,2000
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse12500 nL/LPMRSDJ 5,555,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human25 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,497,1985
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/human40 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 5,497,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae800 µg/L (+/-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 5,271,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium25 µL/plate (+enzymatic activation step)NIOSH* 5AUG1977
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium57 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 48,271,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli300 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 45,283,1977
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse161 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 23,115,1985
mutation in microorganismsembryo/mouse50 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 5,639,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium12100 µg/plate/20M (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 20,217,2005
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium12100 µg/plate/48H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 20,217,2005
other mutation test systemsliver/rat16500 µmol/LXENOBH 13,19,1983
other mutation test systems/Saccharomyes cerevisiae500 ppmEESADV 8,162,1984
other mutation test systemsoral/rat46500 µg/kgCBINA8 47,363,1983
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans4800 mg/LMUREAV 147,288,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster3 ppmMUREAV 259,165,1991
sister chromatid exchangeother cell types/human150 mg/LMUREAV 241,355,1990
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster2 mmol/LPMRSDJ 5,433,1985
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster1520 µmol/LPMRSDJ 5,325,1985
specific locus testoral/mouse600 mg/kg/6W- intermittentTOXID9 72(Supp 1),228,2003
sperm morphologyinhalation/human0.8 mg/m3/146WMUREAV 537,93,2003
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat1 mmol/LPMRSDJ 5,371,1985
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat50 mg/kgCNREA8 46,3932,1986

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 40 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTXAV 16,547,1978
inhalation/rat 80 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFCTXAV 16,547,1978
inhalation/rat 25 ppm/6H (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)FAATDF 20,365,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse 32 mg/kg (5D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)ZHYGAM 26,564,1980
intraperitoneal/hamster 641 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TJADAB 23,317,1981
intraperitoneal/hamster 641 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 23,325,1981
intraperitoneal/hamster 641 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 23,325,1981
oral/rat 100 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTXAPA9 163,149,2000
oral/rat 9.5 gm/kg (14W male/14W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat 5.7 gm/kg (22W male/22W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat 5727 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat 13.8 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/mouse 600 mg/kg (60D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOLED5 42,55,1988
oral/rat 650 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
DOWCC* 03NOV1976
oral/rat 650 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
TJADAB 17,50A,1978
oral/rat 644 mg/kg (2W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 14,87,1994
oral/rat 650 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
NTIS** OTS0555785

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
MELAAD 68,401,1977
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 20 ppm/4H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
ANYAA9 381,216,1982
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 40 ppm/4H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
ANYAA9 381,216,1982
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1300 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
TOXID9 66,185,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5200 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
TOXID9 66,185,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10400 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** PB2002-102198
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 960 mg/kg/48W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/600D- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6420 mg/kg/600D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kg/600D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2693.6 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1820 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6115.2 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Spinal Cord: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 946.4 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 218.4 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7280 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteriaTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21.84 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7280 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Colon tumors
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18200 mg/kg/52W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
FCTOD7 24,129,1986
oral/rat toxic dose: 3640 mg/kg/52W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
DOWCC* MAR1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2490 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0540235

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/paxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 mmol/L/7DBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationNRTXDN 42,1,2014
In Vitro/paxInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/L/3DBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationNRTXDN 42,1,2014
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 152 µmol/L/26HReproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTIVIEQ 6,253,1992
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 304 µmol/L/26HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TIVIEQ 6,253,1992
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 600 ppm/4HBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation/Dog Lowest published lethal concentration: 110 ppm/4HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 575 ppm/4HEye: Lacrimation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 16 ppm/20MOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
INMEAF 17,199,1948
inhalation/man Lowest published lethal concentration: 1 gm/m3/1HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
ZAARAM 16,1,1966
inhalation/monkey Lethal concentration: >90 ppm/4HNTIS** PB280-478
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 260 ppm/4HBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 333 ppm/4HEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0571605
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/6HLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 65,209,1990
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 333 ppm/4HBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HALRE* 10/1/1968
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 946 ppm/4HWILRE* 6/1/2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 46 mg/kgEye: Corneal damage

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 59,589,1981
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kgAMPMAR 36,58,1975
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 95.1 mg/kg/24HBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FCTOD7 59,595,2013
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
TXAPA9 7,367,1965
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 69 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
NTIS** PB280-478
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kgZHYGAM 16,316,1970
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 27 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JHEMA2 3,106,1959
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgBlood: Other changesTOXID9 66,125,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BPARTODN 78,301,2004
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 78 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JHEMA2 3,106,1959
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 95.1 mg/kg/24HBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FCTOD7 59,595,2013
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 143.3 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 47,2314,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 208,108,2012
skin/child lowest published lethal dose: 2015 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
DMWOAX 75,1087,1950
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 202 mg/kgJIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 63 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
NTIS** OTS0534646
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 148 mg/kgGISAAA 41(10),103,1976
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 130 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
NTIS** PB280-478
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseEKFAE9 61,56,1998
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 36 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),14,2000
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TXAPA9 7,367,1965
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
TXAPA9 102,142,1990
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTOVEFN (4),14,2000
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (90 percent kill): 115 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 253,104,2008
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 112 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdARTODN 79,610,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 115 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cabonic anhydrase
CRTOEC 16,583,2003
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),14,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 37.5 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
EKFAE9 61,56,1998
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 95.1 mg/kg/24HBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
FCTOD7 59,595,2013
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 115 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,95,2003
unreported route/rat lethal dose (90 percent kill): 115 mg/kgTOXID9 60,35,2001
unreported route/rat lethal dose (90 percent kill): 115 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 -,206,2009
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changesTXAPA9 37,133,1976

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/m3/4H/8W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/m3/4H/8W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldJIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 4 gm/kg/325D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CRTXB2 31,697,2001
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/kg/4H/8W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/4H/21D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other esterases
WDZAEK 4,245,1990
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/m3/4H/8W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldJIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/2Y- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,168,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 µg/m3/5H/26W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
GTPZAB 27(4),50,1983
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/kg/4H/8W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/2Y- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TOXID9 -,168,2009
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/2Y- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,168,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 99 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOLED5 6,399,1980
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/26W- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
NTIS** OTS0555089
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5200 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Tumorigenic: Cells (cultured) transformed
TOXID9 66,185,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/2W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,287,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/12W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Excitement

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JJATDK 18,25,1998
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6420 mg/kg/600D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in pituitary weightTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 59.4 mg/kg/660D- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changesTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3528 mg/kg/420D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 945 mg/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** OTS0555089
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1440 mg/kg/12W- intermittentBehavioral: Excitement

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
WDZAEK 5,24,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10920 mg/kg/1Y- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
DOWCC* MAR1977
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/21D- continuousEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
TXAPA9 37,133,1976
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/60D- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Other changes
JJATDK 4,131,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/600D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4200 mg/kg/420D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/300D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3640 mg/kg/364D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2912 mg/kg/364D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in pituitary weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6600 mg/kg/660D- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1440 mg/kg/180D- continuousBlood: Normocytic anemiaTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5280 mg/kg/660D- continuousBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54.6 mg/kg/546D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kg/600D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in adrenal weightTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5460 mg/kg/546D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightTOLED5 132,197,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 77 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeTOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 169.26 mg/kg/6W- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 26,179,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 225.68 mg/kg/8W- continuousBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 26,179,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 376.88 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HETOEA 26,179,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 62.6 mg/kg/2D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glandsMUREAV 786-788,104,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/56D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 991.9 mg/kg/13W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3924 mg/kg/360D- continuousBlood: Normocytic anemiaTOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5886 mg/kg/540D- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2693.6 mg/kg/2Y- continuousCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 93.9 mg/kg/3D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachMUREAV 786-788,104,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg/2D- intermittentEye: Ptosis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
MUREAV 786-788,104,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 187.5 mg/kg/3D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
MUREAV 786-788,104,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 946.4 mg/kg/2Y- continuousEye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Vascular: Thromobosis distant from injection site

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 291.2 mg/kg/2Y- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 218.4 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6115.2 mg/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1820 mg/kg/2Y- continuousVascular: Thromobosis distant from injection siteTOLED5 132,221,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15.3 gm/kg/510D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1995 mg/kg/570D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 609 mg/kg/174D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/91D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/3D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 525 mg/kg/150D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/6D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/3D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2548 mg/kg/2Y- continuousVascular: Structural changes in vessels

Liver: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7280 mg/kg/2Y- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changesTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21.84 gm/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2548 mg/kg/2Y- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7280 mg/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21.84 gm/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 518 mg/kg/2W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 132,249,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 259 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TOLED5 132,249,2002
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3751 mg/kg/19W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
GISAAA 41(10),103,1976
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or functionTXAPA9 204,46,2005

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMSUDL 7,79,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 19,73,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,43,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,43,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 71,43,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,43,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,46,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,2921,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,3287,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 254,86,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,14,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,182,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,6,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 2 ppm, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3);KZW 8 ppm (18 mg/m3), skin, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.4 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.4 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 4 ppm (8.8 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), VLE 15 ppm (32.5 mg/m3), C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 4.3 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), skin, 2A carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), carcinogen, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 2 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 6 ppm (13 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), carc 2, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (4.4 mg/m3), carc, skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 39,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-cancer hazardCFRGBR 29,1910.1045,1987

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACRYLONITRILE-air8H Carcinogen time-weighted average 1 ppm;ceiling concentration 10 ppm/15M (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 03800; Number of Industries 24; Total Number of Facilities 2522; Number of Occupations 39; Total Number of Employees Exposed 81691; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 27358
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 03800; Number of Industries 45; Total Number of Facilities 3610; Number of Occupations 55; Total Number of Employees Exposed 55698

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; SHE-focus assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: TRP reversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acrylonitrile, 1604
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 18, 1977
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (two year studies), October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #37
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