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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acetic acid

RTECS #

AF1225000

CAS #

64-19-7

Updated

October 2015

Molecular Weight

60.06

Molecular Formula

C2H4O2

Synonyms

Acetic acid (ACGIH:OSHA)
Acetic acid, glacial
Acide acetique (French)
Acido acetico (Italian)
Azijnzuur (Dutch)
Essigsaeure (German)
Ethanoic acid
Ethylic acid
Glacial acetic acid
Kyselina octova (Czech)
Methanecarboxylic acid
Octowy kwas (Polish)
Vinegar acid

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 5 mg/30S rinse mildTXCYAC 23,281,1982
skin /human 50 mg/24H mildTXAPA9 31,481,1975
skin /rabbit 525 mg open irritation test severeUCDS** 8/7/1963
skin /rabbit 50 mg/24H mildTXAPA9 31,481,1975

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/grasshopper40 mmol/LNULSAK 9,119,1966
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mmol/LMUREAV 240,195,1990
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli300 ppm/3H (-enzymatic activation step)AMNTA4 85,119,1951
other mutation test systemsskin/mouse1201 mg/kgJNCIAM 55,983,1975
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster1000 ppm/24HTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster1000 ppmTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human5 mmol/LMUREAV 279,75,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisskin/mouse79279 µg/kgJNCIAM 55,983,1975

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intratesticular/rat 400 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)FESTAS 24,884,1973
oral/rat 700 mg/kg (18D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNTOTDY 4,105,1982

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5760 mg/kg/32W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
HPV093 -,-,2001

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EJPHAZ 442,125,2002
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 57 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.08 mL/well/3MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 28,616,2014
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 pph/5MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 25,1425,2011
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 816 ppm/3MOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AMIHAB 21,28,1960
inhalation/human lowest published toxic dose: 10 ppm/2HOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsTOLED5 165,22,2006
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11.4 gm/m3/4HFEREAC 68,34955,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 330 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsTOXID9 66,98,2002
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5620 ppm/1HHPV093 -,-,2001
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5620 mg/m3/1HHPV287 -,-,2002
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5620 ppm/1HEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Other eye effects

Blood: Other changes
MELAAD 48,559,1957
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 12 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 16000 ppm/4HAIHQA5 17,129,1956
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11000 mg/m3/4HHPV287 -,-,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: AnalgesiaFRMCE8 55,439,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 93.75 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdFATOAO 44,46,1982
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 525 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdAPTOA6 18,141,1961
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 525 mg/kgHPV093 -,-,2001
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 1470 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagus

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from small intestine

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine
AIHAAP 33,624,1972
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4960 mg/kgFEREAC 68,34955,2003
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4960 mg/kgHPV093 -,-,2001
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgCRSBAW 83,136,1920
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3310 mg/kgDMDJAP 31,276,1959
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.33 mL/kg/1MGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachCYLPDN 22,488,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.48 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachTXAPA9 183,41,2002
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.263 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BPBLEO 29,2206,2006
rectal/child lowest published toxic dose: 281 µL/kgGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JTCTDW 82,333,1994
rectal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 333.3 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FTRPAE 82,1052,2011
rectal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgCRSBAW 83,136,1920
rectal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JTEHD6 66,169,2003
rectal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 205,43,2005
rectal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.24 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestineTOLED5 143,133,2003
rectal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 145,79,2003
rectal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 213 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 253,197,2011
rectal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.34 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 327,846,2008
skin/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1060 mg/kgFEREAC 68,34955,2003
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1060 mg/kgHPV287 -,-,2002
skin/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.04 gm/kg/24HSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationAEHLAU 30,168,1975
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1060 µL/kgUCDS** 8/7/1963
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from duodeumLIFSAK 70,17,2001
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgCRSBAW 83,136,1920
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 308 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5070 µg/m3/24H/95D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 34(4),103,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/22D- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)HPV093 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 23 ppm/17D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV093 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22680 mg/kg/9W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPETAB 16,463,1921

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 ppm;short term exposure limit 15 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMIHAB 21,28,1960
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,239,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,83,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,2,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 10 ppm (25 mg/m3);KZW 20 ppm (50 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (38 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (13 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 25 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 25 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (24.5 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 35 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 5 ppm (13 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), KZG-week 20 ppm (50 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 25 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACETIC ACID-air10H time-weighted average 10 ppm;short term exposure limit 15 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 01568; Number of Industries 266; Total Number of Facilities 49403; Number of Occupations 169; Total Number of Employees Exposed 907205; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 322123
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 01568; Number of Industries 264; Total Number of Facilities 51469; Number of Occupations 150; Total Number of Employees Exposed 486503

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9237;8EHQ-0892-9238
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acetic acid, 1603
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-118
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