Acetaldehyde

RTECS #
AB1925000
CAS #
75-07-0
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
June 2018
Molecular Weight
44.06
Molecular Formula
C2H4O
Synonyms
Acetaldehyd (German)
Acetaldehyde (ACGIH:OSHA)
Acetic aldehyde
Acetylaldehyde
Aldehyde acetique (French)
Aldeide acetica (Italian)
Ethanal
NCI-C56326
Octowy aldehyd (Polish)
RCRA waste number U001

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 50 ppm/15MJIHTAB 28,262,1946
eye /rabbit 40 mg severeENTOX* -,15,2005
skin /rabbit 500 mg open irritation test mildUCDS** 12/13/1963
skin /rabbit 500 mg mildENTOX* -,15,2005

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysis/Saccharomyes cerevisiae850 mmol/LMUREAV 326,165,1995
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1000 ppm/72H-continuousTSITAQ 20,421,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/rat100 µmol/LMUREAV 101,237,1982
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster40 ppmMUTAEX 3,207,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster0.3 mmol/L/2HMUTAEX 23,51,2008
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)1 mole/L/30MMUREAV 58,115,1978
DNA Damageliver/rat200 mmol/LTOLED5 42,183,1988
DNA Damageinhalation/rat1000 ppm/6H/5D-continuousFAATDF 6,541,1986
DNA Damageother cell types/rat500 mmol/LFAATDF 6,541,1986
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1560 µmol/LMUREAV 337,9,1995
DNA Damageother cell types/human3 mmol/LCRNGDP 15,985,1994
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human30 mmol/LCNREA8 45,2522,1985
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human10 mmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/rat1 mmol/LJTEHD6 6,811,1980
DNA repair/Escherichia coli7880 µg/plateEVHPAZ 21,79,1977
micronucleus testfibroblast/rat500 µmol/LMUREAV 101,237,1982
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat125 mg/kgMUTAEX 17,15,2002
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse95 mg/kgMUREAV 389,3,1997
micronucleus testliver/human0.9 mmol/L/24HTXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus testoral/mouse1400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentJTSCDR 33,31,2008
micronucleus testmultiple/mouse500 ppm/14D-continuousJTSCDR 33,31,2008
micronucleus testother cell types/human100 mg/LMUTAEX 17,509,2002
morphological transformembryo/mouse10 mg/LENMUDM 4,331,1982
morphological transformkidney/rat3 mmol/L/3HEJCODS 22,671,1986
morphological transformfibroblast/rat100 µmol/LJTEHD6 6,811,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsfibroblast/human5 mmol/LCRNGDP 15,985,1994
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse4 mmol/LMUTAEX 3,193,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsoral/mouse1400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentJTSCDR 33,31,2008
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae44060 µg/L (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 21,180,1993
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium7880 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)EVHPAZ 21,79,1977
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human30 mmol/LCNREA8 45,2522,1985
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/rat1 mmol/LJTEHD6 6,811,1980
other mutation test systemsother cell types/rat12500 µmol/LTXAPA9 83,86,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster22500 ppmENMUDM 7,677,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae13 mmol/LEMMUEG 21,180,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans250 ppmMUREAV 215,187,1989
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionembryo/hamster20 ppmMUTAEX 3,207,1988
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster0.3 mmol/L/2HMUTAEX 23,51,2008
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human1200 µmol/LANYAA9 543,369,1988
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human40 µmol/LEXPEAM 34,195,1978
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse15 ng/kgMUREAV 68,291,1979
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/hamster500 µg/kgMUREAV 88,389,1981
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster30 µmol/LMUREAV 171,169,1986
specific locus testother cell types/mouse50 mg/LMUTAEX 15,45,2000
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster180 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 222,359,1989
specific locus testfibroblast/human0.1 mmol/L/2HMUREAV 652,12,2008

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 5 mg/m3 (60D prior to copulation/1-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
VCVGK* -,361,1994
inhalation/rat 5 mg/m3 (60D prior to copulation/11-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
VCVGK* -,361,1994
intraperitoneal/rat 300 mg/kg (8-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTJADAB 36,31A,1987
intraperitoneal/rat 50 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
DADEDV 9,339,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 100 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: HomeostasisDADEDV 9,339,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 400 mg/kg (8-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 23,13,1983
intraperitoneal/rat 600 mg/kg (8-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)SEIJBO 23,13,1983
intraperitoneal/mouse 640 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTJADAB 27,231,1983
intravenous/mouse 120 mg/kg (7-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JOANAY 128,65,1979
intravenous/mouse 4 gm/kg (6D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
JOANAY 132,107,1981
oral/rat 4800 mg/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
AKYIDF 27,334,1992
oral/rat 5040 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
AKYIDF 27,334,1992
oral/rat 5040 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)AKYIDF 27,334,1992
unreported route/mouse 1000 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
VCVGK* -,360,1994

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 2040 ppm/7H/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
EJCODS 18,13,1982
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 1410 ppm/6H/65W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
TXCYAC 31,123,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 735 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
TXCYAC 41,213,1986

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/3DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 310,1,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 mmol/L/3DBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTXCYAC 310,1,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.45 mg/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTXAPA9 292,85,2016
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1000 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1072,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 80.4 µmol/L/5DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TXAPA9 262,330,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1000 µmol/L/11DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTXAPA9 262,330,2012
In Vitro/nacInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.25 pph/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 28,822,2014
In Vitro/naxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.5 pph/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 28,822,2014
In Vitro/naxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.25 pph/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 28,822,2014
In Vitro/naxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.25 pph/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 28,822,2014
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 mg/m3/7HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 20000 mg/m3/1HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation/hamster lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17000 ppm/4HPEXTAR 24,162,1979
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 134 ppm/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesJAMAAP 165,1908,1957
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20100 mg/m3Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Excitement

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 19(7),54,1975
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 10000 mg/m3VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 13000 mg/m3/60MCardiac: Other changesVCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 100000 mg/m3/30MCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Cardiac: Other changes
VCVGK* -,360,1984
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: DyspneaTOXID9 90,162,2006
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20300 mg/m3/2HVCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 23 gm/m3/4HCUTOEX 1,47,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/5MBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/20MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionJTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/4HNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseJTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/3HJTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/20MBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 13300 ppm/4HENTOX* -,15,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 13300 ppm/4HBehavioral: Excitement

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0534485
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionVCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 25000 mg/m3FATOAO 51,83,1988
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 567 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
TOXID9 78,199,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 170 mg/kgBehavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
PSCHDL 177,84,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 560 mg/kgPSCHDL 177,84,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgIMEMDT 36,101,1985
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 556 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: DyspneaJTSCDR 30,315,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 515 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JTSCDR 30,315,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOLED5 169,253,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JBCHA3 152,41,1944
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 520,51,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgTaste: Change in function

Behavioral: Ataxia
PSCHDL 167,130,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 560 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)PSCHDL 167,130,2003
intratracheal/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 96 mg/kgPEXTAR 24,162,1979
intravenous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPETAB 30,429,1927
intravenous/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 6.25 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Histamines (including liberation not immunochemical in origin)
BJPCBM 144,422,2005
intravenous/human lowest published toxic dose: 10.6 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,360,1984
intravenous/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGK* -,359,1984
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPETAB 30,429,1927
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSNEROEW 29,530,2004
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kgGTPZAB 25(11),57,1981
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 661 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
AGACBH 4,125,1974
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1930 mg/kgENTOX* -,15,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
VCVGK* -,359,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
VCVGK* -,359,1984
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3540 mg/kgUCDS** 12/13/1963
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 560 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticAPTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 560 mg/kgVCVGK* -,359,1984
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 1200 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPETAB 30,429,1927
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 640 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticAPTOA6 6,299,1950
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVGK* -,359,1984

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 4560 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AEHLAU 30,449,1975
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 mg/m3/2H/2W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,360,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2217 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentOlfaction: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 23,293,1982
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 750 mg/m3/6H/52W- intermittentOlfaction: Deviated nasal septum

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
VCVGK* -,360,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 mg/m3/8H/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FATOAO 51,83,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12600 mg/kg/9W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
NTIS** PB234-882
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 1540 mg/kg/22W- continuousBlood: EosinophiliaNTIS** PB234-882
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1540 mg/kg/22W- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NTIS** PB234-882
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18900 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Other changes
FCTOD7 26,447,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1659 mL/kg/15W- continuousLiver: Other changesPSEBAA 121,681,1966
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
VCVGK* -,360,1994
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
VCVGK* -,360,1994

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-ceiling concentration 25 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 36,101,1985
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,319,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 36,101,1985
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,319,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 71,319,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,83,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,15,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,178,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,68,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 657,3,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,649,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,36,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 11,107,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,43,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 711,13,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,118,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,2921,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 752,99,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 27,275,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,485,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,49,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,77,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 203,20,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,294,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 765,19,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 767,23,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,53,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIVIEQ 32,92,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 61,120,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIVIEQ 36,105,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3)DTLWS* 3,10,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 20 ppm (36 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (91 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 50 ppm (90 mg/m3);KZW 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 25 ppm (46 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDshort term exposure limit 25 ppm (46 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 50 ppm (91 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 25 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 25 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), carc, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (270 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANceiling concentration 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (270 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOpeak 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm, short term exposure limit 50 ppm, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUshort term exposure limit 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 25 ppm (45 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), carc 3, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 180 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 20 ppm (37 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACETALDEHYDE-airCarcinogen (18 ppm LOQ)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 01038; Number of Industries 85; Total Number of Facilities 7801; Number of Occupations 95; Total Number of Employees Exposed 216533; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 97770
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 01038; Number of Industries 4; Total Number of Facilities 85; Number of Occupations 10; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1745

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro SCE-nonhuman
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acetaldehyde by GC, 2538; by HPLC, 3507
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Aldehydes, screening, 2539
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN #55, September 1991
NTP 14th Report on Carcinogens,2016:Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-68
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018