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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester

RTECS #

WS8225000

CAS #

77-78-1

Updated

October 2015

Molecular Weight

126.14

Molecular Formula

C2H6O4S

Synonyms

Dimethyl monosulfate
Dimethyl sulfate
Dimethyl sulfate (ACGIH:OSHA)
Dimethyl sulphate
Dimethylester kyseliny sirove (Czech)
Dimethylsulfaat (Dutch)
Dimethylsulfat (Czech)
Dimetilsolfato (Italian)
DMS (methyl sulfate)
Dwumetylowy siarczan (Polish)
Methyl sulfate
Methyle (sulfate de) (French)
RCRA waste number U103
Sulfate de methyle (French)
Sulfate dimethylique (French)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg/4S rinse severeFCTOD7 20,573,1982
eye /rabbit 50 µg/24H severe85JCAE -,1079,1986
skin /rabbit 10 mg/24H open irritation test severeAMIHBC 4,119,1951

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
body fluid assayovary/rat300 mg/kgMUREAV 143,263,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat350 mg/kgNASLDX 3,187,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat290 µg/m3/16WGTPZAB 30(9),38,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/human2 mg/m3MUREAV 147,301,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse240 µg/m3/10WGTPZAB 30(9),38,1986
Cytogenetic AnalysisAscites tumor/mouse10 mmol/LBIZNAT 88,49,1970
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster50 µmol/LCRNGDP 3,385,1982
DNA adductAscites tumor/mouse5 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse30 mg/kgCALEDQ 146,155,1999
DNA adductinhalation/rat0.1 ppm/6HINHTE5 16,581,2004
DNA adductHeLa cell/human5 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli5 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms100 mmol/LCBINA8 14,101,1976
DNA Damage/Other microorganisms200 mg/LCBINA8 13,151,1976
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis130 mmol/LMUREAV 9,141,1970
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1 mmol/LJACTDZ 1(3),125,1982
DNA Damagefibroblast/human100 µmol/LCRNGDP 4,559,1983
DNA Damageliver/rat100 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 629,49,2007
DNA Damage/Saccharomyes cerevisiae13.3 mg/L/17HMUREAV 633,80,2007
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 467,83,2000
DNA Damageintravenous/rat80 mg/kgMUREAV 75,63,1980
DNA Damageliver/rat30 µmol/LMUREAV 189,69,1987
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse20 µg/kgPCBPBS 6,101,1976
DNA Damagelung/hamster800 µmol/L/1H-continuousCRNGDP 1,795,1980
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse20 gm/kgARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human2 mmol/LMUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibitionfibroblast/human75 µmol/LCRNGDP 4,559,1983
DNA repair/Escherichia coli331 µmol/LMUREAV 272,145,1992
DNA repair/Other microorganisms640 µg/plateBIZNAT 95,463,1976
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae1900 µmol/LSOGEBZ 17,915,1981
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse2500 µmol/kgCBINA8 19,241,1977
micronucleus testovary/hamster58.5 mg/L/24HMUREAV 633,80,2007
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse12500 µg/kg/48H- intermittentMUREAV 389,3,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster20 µmol/LMUREAV 57,217,1978
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster1 mg/L/1HCRNGDP 1,175,1980
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe590 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)CBINA8 14,195,1976
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa1000 ppm/13M (-enzymatic activation step)GENTAE 67,189,1971
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae500 ppm/12M (-enzymatic activation step)GENTAE 78,1101,1974
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1000 ppm/13M (-enzymatic activation step)GENTAE 67,189,1971
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms250 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)SOGEBZ 8,412,1972
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms2 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)HEREAY 46,279,1960
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 µmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)CBINA8 19,241,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium4300 nmol/L/1H (-enzymatic activation step)PNASA6 75,4465,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli20 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)ARTODN 46,277,1980
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli2 nmol/tubePNASA6 79,5971,1982
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium38 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systems/Other microorganisms100 mmol/LCBINA8 14,101,1976
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli65 mmol/LPRLBA4 150,497,1959
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster3800 µmol/LNATUAS 203,1404,1964
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster10 µmol/LCRNGDP 3,385,1982
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 75,63,1980
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/LMUREAV 182,243,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislymphocyte/human10 µmol/LCRNGDP 13,1285,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human50 µmol/LCRNGDP 4,559,1983
Unscheduled DNA SynthesisHeLa cell/human400 µmol/LMUREAV 139,155,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislung/hamster40 mg/LCBINA8 15,117,1976
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat100 µmol/LENMUDM 3,11,1981

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intravenous/rat 100 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathIARCCD 4,45,1973

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 17 mg/m3/19W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
ZEKBAI 74,241,1970
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
IARCCD 4,45,1973
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZEKBAI 74,241,1970

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 78 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 78 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,51,2010
inhalation/guinea pig lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 32 ppm/1H85JCAE -,1079,1986
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 97 ppm/10M34ZIAG -,226,1969
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 280 mg/m3Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
GTPZAB 23(3),28,1979
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 45 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Blood: Hemorrhage
GTPZAB 24(11),55,1980
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticityAEXPBL 47,113,1902
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 140 mg/kgGTPZAB 23(3),28,1979
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 45 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)AEXPBL 47,113,1902
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 205 mg/kgGTPZAB 23(3),28,1979
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 53 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
AEXPBL 47,113,1902
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgZEKBAI 74,241,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.5 ppm/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainINHTE5 16,581,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.7 ppm/2W- intermittentOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
INHTE5 16,581,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 4,271,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,575,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 4,271,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,575,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2AIMEMDT 71,575,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,3,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,294,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,92,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.02 ppm (0.1 mg/m3);KZW 0.08 ppm (0.4 mg/m3), skin, production, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.04 ppm (0.2 mg/m3);KZW 0.16 ppm (0.8 mg/m3), skin, use and handl, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.53 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.01 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDshort term exposure limit 0.01 ppm (0.052 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.01 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), skin, 2A carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.26 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.01 ppm (0.05 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.52 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENGroup B Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.02 ppm (0.1 mg/m3), carc 2, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.05 ppm (0.26 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DIMETHYL SULFATE-air8H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 26880; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 185; Number of Occupations 23; Total Number of Employees Exposed 10481; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 2455
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 26880; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 83; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1249

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-partial sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Aspergillus-forward mutation; Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Host-mediated assay; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-reversion; S pombe-reversion
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Dimethyl sulfate, 2524
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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