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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Sodium hydroxide

RTECS #

WB4900000

CAS #

1310-73-2; 8012-01-9

Updated

July 2015

Molecular Weight

40.00

Molecular Formula

HNaO

Synonyms

Caustic soda
Hydroxyde de sodium (French)
Lewis-red devil lye
Natriumhydroxid (German)
Natriumhydroxyde (Dutch)
Soda lye
Sodio(idrossido di) (Italian)
Sodium hydrate
Sodium hydroxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Sodium(hydroxyde de) (French)
White caustic

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /monkey 1%/24H severeTXAPA9 6,701,1964
eye /rabbit 400 µg mildOYYAA2 26,627,1983
eye /rabbit 1% severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 50 µg/24H severe28ZPAK -,7,1972
eye /rabbit 1 mg/24H severeTXAPA9 6,701,1964
eye /rabbit 1 mg/30S rinse severeTXCYAC 23,281,1982
skin /human 2%/24H mildJIDEAE 68,192,1988
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H severe28ZPAK -,7,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/grasshopper20 mgNULSAK 9,119,1966
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster10 mmol/LCYTBAI 55,167,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster16 mmol/LMUREAV 225,55,1989

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.03 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.6 mg/well/60MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1476,2013
In Vitro/jdaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.2 pph/1MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 25,1237,2011
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.05 pph/5MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 25,1425,2011
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.002 gm/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTIVIEQ 3,329,1989
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40 mg/kgCOREAF 257,791,1963
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 1.57 mg/kgBehavioral: Anorexia (human)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
VCVN1* -,37,1998
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgAEPPAE 184,587,1937
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 44 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachPYTOEY 9,515,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-ceiling concentration 2 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,671,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESRED CompletedRBREV* -,326,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDair-ceiling concentration 2 mg/m3DTLVS* 3,233,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 2 mg/m3;KZW 4 mg/m3, inhal, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOpeak 2 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUshort term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, ceiling concentration 2 mg/m3 (inhalable dust), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, inhal, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 2 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMshort term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 2 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 2 mg/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 2 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 2 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE-airceiling concentration 2 mg/m3/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X3782; Number of Industries 167; Total Number of Facilities 21989; Number of Occupations 120; Total Number of Employees Exposed 370582; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 137156
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 69070; Number of Industries 426; Total Number of Facilities 133757; Number of Occupations 246; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2819743; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 995960
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 69070; Number of Industries 359; Total Number of Facilities 112525; Number of Occupations 192; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1122583

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Alkaline dusts, 7401
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