Propane, 1-chloro-2,3-epoxy-

RTECS #
TX4900000
CAS #
106-89-8
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
June 2018
Molecular Weight
92.53
Molecular Formula
C3H5ClO
Synonyms
(Chloromethyl)ethylene oxide
(DL)-alpha-Epichlorohydrin
1,2-Epoxy-3-chloropropane
1-Chloor-2,3-epoxy-propaan (Dutch)
1-Chlor-2,3-epoxy-propan (German)
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (OSHA)
1-Cloro-2,3-epossipropano (Italian)
2-(Chloromethyl)oxirane
2,3-Epoxypropyl chloride
3-Chloro-1,2-epoxypropane
3-Chloro-1,2-propane oxide
3-Chloro-1,2-propylene oxide
alpha-Epichlorohydrin
Chloromethyloxirane
Chloropropylene oxide
ECH
Epichloorhydrine (Dutch)
Epichlorhydrin
Epichlorhydrine (French)
Epichlorohydrin
epi-Chlorohydrin
Epichlorohydrin (ACGIH:OSHA)
Epichlorohydryna (Polish)
Epichlorophydrin
Epicloridrina (Italian)
gamma-Chloropropylene oxide
Glycerol epichlorhydrin
Oxirane, (chloromethyl)-
Oxirane, 2-(chloromethyl)
RCRA waste number U041
Skekhg

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 100 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,769,1986
skin /rabbit 10 mg/24H open irritation testJIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin /woman 1%CODEDG 61,47,2009

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human10 µmol/L/24HSTEVA8 11,223,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 34,279,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisliver/rat10 mg/LMUREAV 64,329,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgSTEVA8 11,223,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse20 mg/kgSTEVA8 11,223,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse5 mg/m3MUREAV 85,287,1981
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster15 mg/LMUTAEX 4,432,1989
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster47 mg/LGMCRDC 27,95,1981
DNA Damagemammary gland/human2.8 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damageliver/rat200 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 629,49,2007
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse1040 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse140 mg/kgMUREAV 467,83,2000
DNA Damageliver/rat300 µmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damage/Escherichia coli1 µmol/LARTODN 46,277,1980
DNA Damage/Bacillus subtilis20 µL/discPMRSDJ 1,175,1981
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human2700 µmol/LMUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human5 mmol/LTUMOAB 69,191,1983
DNA repair/Escherichia coli4 µg/wellMUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis997 mmol/L37ATAD -,155,1977
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae65 mmol/LIJEBA6 18,1337,1980
host-mediated assaySalmonella typhimurium/mouse50 mg/kgBIZNAT 95,451,1976
host-mediated assayEscherichia coli/mouse180 mg/kgMUREAV 272,161,1992
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse120 mg/kg/16D- intermittent54DEAI -,175,1984
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species10800 nmol/LMUTAEX 4,17,1989
morphological transformkidney/hamster25 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,638,1981
morphological transformembryo/mouse30 mg/L/10DMUREAV 702,100,2010
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster30 mg/LMUREAV 136,137,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse7500 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,580,1981
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/human500 µmol/LTUMOAB 69,191,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe21 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)ADWMAX -,193,1962
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe800 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 109,41,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa150 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)STEVA8 11,223,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae40 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,414,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Klebsiella pneumoniae200 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 89,269,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium33 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 172,105,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli1 µL/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,387,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µL/plate (-enzymatic activation step)FCTOD7 46,2498,2008
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli195 nmol/tubeMUREAV 147,79,1985
other mutation test systems/Salmonella typhimurium60 mg/LMUREAV 192,239,1987
other mutation test systems/Bacillus subtilis1 mole/L37ATAD -,155,1977
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster5100 µmol/LEVSRBT 24,175,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,468,1981
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 nmol/LCARYAB 34,261,1981
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse5500 µg/kgPMRSDJ 1,673,1981
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster33 µL/LPMRSDJ 1,551,1981
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster100 mg/LCNREA8 44,3270,1984
sperm morphologyinhalation/mouse5 mg/m3MUREAV 85,287,1981
sperm morphologyoral/rat50 mg/kgARTODN 53,71,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat50 mg/kgCRNGDP 10,1425,1989
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human32 µg/LPMRSDJ 1,528,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesislymphocyte/human500 µmol/LTUMOAB 69,191,1983

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 50 ppm/6H (50D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)TXAPA9 68,415,1983
inhalation/rat 100 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
NTIS** OTS0545225
inhalation/rabbit 100 ppm/7H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
NTIS** OTS0545225
oral/mouse 1200 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JTEHD6 9,87,1982
oral/rat 180 mg/kg (12D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)NATUAS 226,87,1970
oral/rat 25 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)ARTODN 53,71,1983
oral/rat 1050 mg/kg (21D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
FAATDF 13,16,1989
oral/rat 288 mg/kg (23D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)JOAND3 12,54,1991
subcutaneous/rat 75 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXAPA9 70,67,1983

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/30D- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
JJIND8 65,751,1980
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PAACA3 21,106,1980
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 100 ppmTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
CHWKA9 123(24),25,1978
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 30 ppm/6H/57W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion
JJIND8 65,751,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 82,19,1986
oral/rat toxic dose: 36 gm/kg/81W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
GANNA2 71,922,1980
oral/rat toxic dose: 85050 mg/kg/81W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NAIZAM 32,270,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 42525 mg/kg/81W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NAIZAM 32,270,1981
oral/rat toxic dose: 5150 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
TXCYAC 36,325,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/81W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
GANNA2 71,922,1980
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 2760 mg/kg/69W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 53,695,1974
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 720 mg/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 48,1431,1972
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 19 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
RARSAM 3,193,1963

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 0.08 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 30,274,2015
In Vitro/Human, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 205 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 28,209,2014
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes34ZIAG -,240,1969
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects
29ZWAE -,108,1968
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTPKVAL 7,76,1965
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3/2HGastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 5.25 gm/m3/2HSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, otherTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 3.25 gm/m3/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 72 gm/m3/9MJBMRBG 8,11,1974
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 250 ppm/8HENTOX* -,228,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3 gm/m3/2HBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Behavioral: Ataxia

Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 3.25 gm/m3/2HEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Corneal damage
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 3 gm/m3Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
TPKVAL 7,76,1965
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 3 gm/m3Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
TPKVAL 7,76,1965
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.007 gm/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TPKVAL 12,33,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.35 gm/m3/4HCardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
TPKVAL 12,33,1971
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 118 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 160 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 113 mg/kgJPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 154 mg/kgNPIRI* 1,41,1974
ocular/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 100 pphEye: Conjunctiva irritationTPKVAL 7,76,1965
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 100 pphEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Corneal damage
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 280 mg/kgGISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kgTPKVAL 7,76,1965
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 236 mg/kgENTOX* -,228,2005
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 195 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 345 mg/kgGISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kgENTOX* -,228,2005
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg85GMAT -,64,1982
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 515 mg/kgWolMA# 18JAN1977
skin/rat lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
UCPHAQ 2,69,1941
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (70 percent kill): 250 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increasedAMPMAR 28,505,1967

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Other changes
NTIS** OTS0555021
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.21 gm/m3/45D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.21 gm/m3/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/182D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/61D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/91D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.04 gm/m3/197D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 170 mg/m3/3H/17W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 gm/m3/2W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTPKVAL 2,28,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/24H/14W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Blood: Other changes
GISAAA 31(9),7,1966
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/2H/5W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
HOCHE8 12,144,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/16D- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Microcytosis with or without anemia
NTIS** OTS0542017
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 341 µg/kg/30D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2045 µg/kg/12W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
JPMSAE 61,1712,1972
intraperitoneal/wild bird lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldIJEBA6 37,774,1999
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 4872 mg/kg/9W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 190 mg/kg/10D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
DCTODJ 19,41,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1218 mg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 33(1),46,1968
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningGISAAA 33(1),46,1968
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/9D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes
WDZAEK 6,270,1992

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 11,131,1976
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,603,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMSUDL 7,202,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,603,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2AIMEMDT 71,603,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,228,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,76,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,49,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,170,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,98,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.6 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 3 ppm (12 mg/m3);KZW 12 ppm (48 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (2 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 1.9 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), carc, skin, sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2A carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 1.5 ppm (5.8 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 8 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 1 ppm (4 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), carc 2, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1.9 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.9 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 1.5 ppm (5.8 mg/m3), carc, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO EPICHLOROHYDRIN-airCarcinogen lowest feasible concentrationNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 29010; Number of Industries 75; Total Number of Facilities 4249; Number of Occupations 87; Total Number of Employees Exposed 80170; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 14921
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 29010; Number of Industries 40; Total Number of Facilities 2004; Number of Occupations 58; Total Number of Employees Exposed 41380

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-human; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; S pombe-forward mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: N crassa-forward mutation; N crassa-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S pombe-reversion
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Epichlorohydrin, 1010
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 30, 1978
NTP 14th Report on Carcinogens,2016:Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018