p-Phenylenediamine

RTECS #
SS8050000
CAS #
106-50-3
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
June 2018
Molecular Weight
108.16
Molecular Formula
C6H8N2
Synonyms
1,4-Benzenediamine (9CI)
1,4-Diaminobenzene
1,4-Phenylenediamine
4-Aminoaniline
6PPD
BASF ursol D
Benzofur D
C.I. 76060
C.I. Developer 13
C.I. Oxidation Base 10
Developer 13
Developer PF
Durafur Black R
Fenylenodwuamina (Polish)
Fouramine D
Fourrine 1
Fourrine D
Fur Black 41867
FUR Brown 41866
Fur Yellow
Furro D
Futramine D
Nako H
Orsin
Oxidation Base 10
p-Aminoaniline
Paraphenylen-diamine
p-Benzenediamine
p-Diaminobenzene
Pelagol D
Pelagol DR
Pelagol Grey D
Peltol D
p-Fenylendiamin (Czech)
p-Phenylenediamine (ACGIH:OSHA)
Renal PF
Rodol D
Santoflex IC
Tertral D
Ursol D
USAF EK-394
Zoba Black D

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin /Dog 250 mg/24H mildJSCCA5 23,371,1972
skin /guinea pig 250 mg/24H mildJSCCA5 23,371,1972
skin /human 250 mg/24H mildJSCCA5 23,371,1972
skin /man 1%CODEDG 61,236,2009
skin /man 1% moderateCODEDG 56,366,2007
skin /mouse 250 mg/24H mildJSCCA5 23,371,1972
skin /pig 250 mg/24H mildJSCCA5 23,371,1972
skin /rabbit 12500 µg/24H mildFCTXAV 15,607,1977
skin /rabbit 250 mg/24H moderateJSCCA5 23,371,1972
skin /woman 1%CODEDG 60,118,2009

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster15 mg/LEMMUEG 27,67,1996
DNA adductother cell types/human100 mg/LTOLED5 239,194,2015
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster100 mg/L/3HMUTAEX 29,37,2014
DNA Damageother cell types/human900 mg/LMUTAEX 29,37,2014
DNA Damagefibroblast/hamster600 mg/LMUTAEX 29,37,2014
DNA Damageother cell types/human100 mg/L/4HTOLED5 239,194,2015
DNA Damageother cell types/human2 mg/L/24HTOLED5 170,116,2007
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse200 mg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
micronucleus testlung/hamster156 µmol/L/6H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlung/hamster313 µmol/L/6H (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlung/hamster20 µmol/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
micronucleus testlung/hamster78 µmol/L/48H (-enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 26,709,2011
morphological transformembryo/rat1850 ng/plateJJATDK 1,190,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium33 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 29,37,2014
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2 µmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)45OHAA -,170,1980
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 188,185,1987
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli125 µg/wellMUREAV 260,349,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster15500 µmol/L/3DMUREAV 48,181,1977

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2625 mg/kg/30W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
KJMSAH 9,94,1958

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 25,2124,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (5 percent kill): 6770 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 36.7 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.09 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 26,1150,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 27 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 30,318,2015
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 27 mg/L/48HImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune responseTIVIEQ 30,318,2015
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 27 mg/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTIVIEQ 30,318,2015
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration (30 percent kill): 21 mg/L/45HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,901,2015
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3 mg/L/45HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 29,901,2015
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXAPA9 256,35,2011
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5000 mg/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1233,2013
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 218 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, monocyte Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 218 µmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,51,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 27.5 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Phototoxicity in vitroTIVIEQ 27,103,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 162.2 mg/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,314,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 162.2 mg/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,314,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 55 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 28,13,2014
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5.0 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 245,281,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 27.2 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1127,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 46 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1135,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 6.88 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1135,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 283,147,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.4 µmol/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXAPA9 283,147,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 30 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TOLED5 239,194,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 25 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TOLED5 239,194,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mg/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 239,194,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 40 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TOLED5 239,194,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 35 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TOLED5 239,194,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 351 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 349 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (30 percent kill): 316.9 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (30 percent kill): 279.8 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell metabolic activity: Alamar Blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 29,688,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 pph/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 29,787,2015
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.01 pph/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,2213,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5.00 pph/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 27,2213,2013
In Vitro/jmaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.018 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TIVIEQ 25,1630,2011
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 13.4 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 28,626,2014
In Vitro/mraInhibitor Concentration (25 percent kill): 148 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 216,65,2013
In Vitro/mraInhibitor Concentration Low: 1.48 mg/L/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOLED5 216,65,2013
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 920 mg/m3/4HBehavioral: General anesthetic

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
NTIS** OTS0530403
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kgNTIS** AD277-689
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesJIDIAQ 42,473,1928
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 37 mg/kgJTEHD6 2,657,1977
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 17 mg/kgJIDHAN 4,386,1923
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
AIMDAP 36,724,1925
intravenous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBSRSA6 41,302,1972
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JIDHAN 4,386,1923
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 145 mg/kgGISAAA 53(7),62,1988
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 71 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HUTODJ 8,345,1989
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgGISAAA 23(5),14,1958
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgAECTCV 12,355,1983
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JIDHAN 4,386,1923
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kgJTEHD6 2,657,1977
oral/wild bird lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgAECTCV 12,355,1983
skin/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kgJTEHD6 2,657,1977
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Coma

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
XPHBAO 271,40,1941
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 140 mg/kgJSCCA5 12,500,1961
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JIDHAN 4,386,1923
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 170 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JIDHAN 4,386,1923
unreported route/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 145 mg/kgGTPZAB 31(8),46,1987
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 331 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesGISAAA 50(6),78,1985
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 133 mg/kgGTPZAB 31(8),46,1987

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/5D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
FCTOD7 43,133,2005
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 105 mg/kg/30W- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
GISAAA 23(5),14,1958
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/30W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
GISAAA 23(5),14,1958
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/80W- continuousEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 16,259,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16800 mg/kg/12W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOLED5 16,259,1983
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 543.5 mg/kg/9D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Xanthine oxidases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
BPBLEO 31,681,2008

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 16,125,1978
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 16,125,1978
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMSUDL 7,56,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJACTDZ 4(3),203,1985
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,419,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,239,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 250,87,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,17,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 31,453,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)DTLVS* 3,205,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.1 mg/m3;KZW 0.4 mg/m3, inhal, skin, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.3 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.1 mg/m3, inhal, skin, sen, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg/m3, s1 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0,1 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.1 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0.3 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.05 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 mg/m3, KZG-week 0.2 mg/m3, inhal, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-PHENYLENE DIAMINE-air10H time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 56950; Number of Industries 6; Total Number of Facilities 5390; Number of Occupations 7; Total Number of Employees Exposed 49939; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 37209
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 56950; Number of Industries 9; Total Number of Facilities 2017; Number of Occupations 11; Total Number of Employees Exposed 14983

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #87
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018