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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Phenol

RTECS #

SJ3325000

CAS #

108-95-2

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

94.12

Molecular Formula

C6H6O

Synonyms

Acide carbolique (French)
Baker's P and S Liquid and Ointment
Benzenol
Carbolic acid
Carbolsaure (German)
Fenol (Dutch, Polish)
Fenolo (Italian)
Hydroxybenzene
Monohydroxybenzene
Monophenol
NCI-C50124
Oxybenzene
Phenic acid
Phenol (ACGIH:OSHA)
Phenol alcohol
Phenole (German)
Phenyl hydrate
Phenyl hydroxide
Phenylic acid
Phenylic alcohol
RCRA waste number U188

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 5 mg severeUCDS** 1/6/1966
eye /rabbit 5 mg/30S rinse mildTXCYAC 23,281,1982
skin /pig 400 µL/30S severeTIHEEC 17,95,2001
skin /rabbit 535 mg open irritation test severeUCDS** 1/6/1966
skin /rabbit 100 mg mildKSGZA3 33,518,1980

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysismultiple/other fish300 nL/LJFIBA9 26,13,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster2 gm/LSCIEAS 236,933,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster100 µmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/human300 µmol/L/30HMUREAV 650,39,2008
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)250 mmol/LPNASA6 48,686,1962
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse1500 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse20 gm/kgARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/mouse800 µmol/LMOPMA3 28,560,1985
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human1 mmol/LSAIGBL 16,453,1974
DNA inhibitionlung/hamster1900 µmol/LMUTAEX 3,51,1988
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Aspergillus nidulans15 µmol/LMUTAEX 2,235,1987
micronucleus testoral/mouse265 mg/kgMUREAV 208,61,1988
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse265 mg/kgMUREAV 209,23,1988
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster10 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 770,37,2014
micronucleus testembryo/hamster500 mg/L/4H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 561,153,2004
micronucleus testlung/hamster4 mmol/LEVHPAZ 82,81,1989
micronucleus testovary/hamster175 mg/LEMMUEG 26,240,1995
morphological transformembryo/hamster10 µmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsembryo/hamster3 mmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse1890 µmol/LMUTAEX 3,193,1988
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse300 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)SCIEAS 236,933,1987
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium40 µmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 90,91,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms200 mg/L/8H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 492,13,2001
other mutation test systemsbone marrow/rabbit250 µmol/LAJIMD8 7,485,1985
other mutation test systemsHeLa cell/human17 mg/LWATRAG 19,677,1985
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human5 µmol/LCNREA8 45,2471,1985
other mutation test systemsother cell types/mouse2500 µmol/LCBTOE2 2,231,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionovary/Drosophila melanogaster100 ppmNATUAS 157,162,1946
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human5 µmol/LCNREA8 45,2471,1985
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster300 mg/LSCIEAS 236,933,1987
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/hamster1 mmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisembryo/hamster3 µmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat4 gm/kgJJIND8 74,1283,1985

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 600 mg/kg (12-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXAPA9 19,373,1971
oral/mouse 2300 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** PB85-104461
oral/mouse 2600 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** PB85-104461
oral/mouse 4 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemNTIS** PB85-104461
oral/mouse 2800 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 33,92C,1986
oral/mouse 2800 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
NTIS** #PB83-247726
oral/rat 300 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
NTIS** #PB83-247726
oral/mouse 1980 mg/kg (6-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)TOLED5 196S,S186,2010
oral/rat 300 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NTIS** PB83-247726
oral/rat 1200 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** PB83-247726
oral/rat 3600 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
NTIS** OTS0573554
oral/rat 1200 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleNTIS** OTS0537777

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/40W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 19,413,1959
skin/mouse toxic dose: 4000 mg/kg/24W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 19,413,1959

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 7470 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1862 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3642 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 614 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 230 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 100 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,225,1991
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 290,82,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TXCYAC 290,82,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1.6 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TOLED5 203,190,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.8 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 203,190,2011
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 800 µmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTXCYAC 312,108,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 3.02 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 9.67 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 10 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 3.47 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 14.66 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1151,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 40 mg/well/3MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 28,616,2014
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >2000 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 245,281,2010
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 2.47 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 9.91 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/mtbInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.59 mmol/L/5DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTOLED5 213,235,2012
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 10.4 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1.12 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.3 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.36 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.03 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 1.7 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.2 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 2.8 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 177 mg/m3/4HVCVGK* -,197,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 15 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 177 mg/m3GISAAA 41(6),103,1976
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 110 mg/m3/4HVCVGK* -,197,1994
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 316 mg/m3GISAAA 41(6),103,1976
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 232 mg/m3/4HVCVGK* -,197,1994
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 316 mg/m3/4HVCVGK* -,197,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 110 mg/m3/4HBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Proteases
VCVGK* -,197,1994
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgHBTXAC 1,228,1955
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 180 mg/kgPHMCAA 10,172,1968
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseTOXID9 72,207,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)TOXID9 66,72,2002
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 620 mg/kgJPETAB 80,233,1944
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 127 mg/kgFCTOD7 22,665,1984
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112 mg/kgBehavioral: TremorQJPPAL 12,212,1939
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 180 mg/kgJPETAB 80,233,1944
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1319,1935
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1319,1935
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 14 gm/kgBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
34ZIAG -,463,1969
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 140 mg/kgBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Skin and Appendages: Other: Sweating
29ZWAE -,329,1968
oral/infant lowest published lethal dose: 10 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
34ZIAG -,463,1969
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 265 mg/kg/12HBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveMUREAV 208,61,1988
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 mg/kgGISAAA 38(8),6,1973
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/10DKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 196S,S106,2010
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 420 mg/kgJPETAB 80,233,1944
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 317 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdPSEBAA 32,592,1935
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 512 mg/kgVCVGK* -,197,1994
parenteral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 290 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Other changes
AEPPAE 166,437,1932
parenteral/man lowest published toxic dose: 105.3 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
JTCTDW 46,250,2008
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 329 mg/kg/30MSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 60,42,2001
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 66.7 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJOETD7 136,504,2011
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 72.73 µL/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationJOETD7 154,330,2014
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 630 mg/kgUCDS** 1/6/1966
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 669 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)
BJIMAG 27,155,1970
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kgVCVGK* -,197,1994
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kgJPETAB 80,233,1944
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 290 mg/kgHBTXAC 1,228,1955
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 75 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1319,1935
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 450 mg/kgHBTXAC 1,228,1955
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 344 mg/kgINHEAO 5,143,1967
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 620 mg/kgJPETAB 80,233,1944
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgTOXID9 66,266,2002
unreported route/cat lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgRMSRA6 15,561,1895
unreported route/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgRMSRA6 15,561,1895
unreported route/man lowest published toxic dose: 5714 µg/kgOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsVHTODE 41,151,1999
unreported route/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgRMSRA6 15,561,1895

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 150 µg/m3/8H/26W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
KHZDAN 16,33,1973
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
GISAAA 37(10),105,1972
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/24H/61D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 38(7),7,1973
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/4H/122D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,197,1994
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/17D- intermittentBlood: Other changesTXCYAC 220,126,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1800 mg/kg/10D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 180S,S141,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 174 mg/kg/28D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
EPEPEG 228,107,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** #PB83-247726
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Ataxia
NTIS** #PB83-247726
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22750 mg/kg/13W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 48,359,1999

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 5 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,263,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,749,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 47,263,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,749,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 71,749,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJIHTAB 31,146,1949
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWZKKOBW 78,99,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,99,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,53,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJEADV* 13,14,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 589,208,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 10,20,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,78,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,80,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,225,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,485,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,36,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,14,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,331,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,203,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 2 ppm (7.8 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.8 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4 mg/m3), skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 7.8 mg/m3 (2 ppm), skin, JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 4 ppm (16 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 ppm (7.8 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 7.8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 78 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (38 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 20 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 8 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (10 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.8 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO PHENOL-air10H time-weighted average 5 ppm (Sk);ceiling concentration 15.6 ppm/15M (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 55460; Number of Industries 229; Total Number of Facilities 31983; Number of Occupations 155; Total Number of Employees Exposed 584372; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 120977
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 55460; Number of Industries 185; Total Number of Facilities 23275; Number of Occupations 127; Total Number of Employees Exposed 296662

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/122012)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-reversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (oral);no evidence:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-203,1980
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cresol (all isomers) and phenol, 2546
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Phenol, 3502; in urine, 8305
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #32
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