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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Hydrogen sulfide

RTECS #

MX1225000

CAS #

7783-06-4

Updated

April 2015

Molecular Weight

34.08

Molecular Formula

H2S

Synonyms

Acide sulfhydrique (French)
Hydrogen sulfide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Hydrogen sulfuric acid
Hydrogen sulphide
Hydrogene sulfure (French)
Idrogeno solforato (Italian)
RCRA waste number U135
Schwefelwasserstoff (German)
Siarkowodor (Polish)
Stink DAMP
Sulfur hydride
Sulfureted hydrogen
Zwavelwaterstof (Dutch)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /human 0.000125 ppm/5HTOXID9 66,103,2002

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 20 ppm (6-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalTIHEEC 6,389,1990
inhalation/rat 10 ppm (multigeneration))Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 22,71,2000
inhalation/rat 30 ppm (multigeneration))Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendagesNETEEC 22,71,2000
inhalation/rat 10 mg/m3 (48D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
VCVN5* -,198,1989

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine cell (tissues) Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 302,40,2012
inhalation/Dog Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.049 pphVCVPS* -,20,1998
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 600 ppm/30M29ZWAE -,207,1968
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 800 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.014 mg/m3Olfaction: Change in sensation of smellVCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.012 mg/m3Eye: Other eye effectsVCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1400 mg/m3/1MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 140 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritationVCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 225 mg/m3Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerveVCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 2800 mg/m3Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction
VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 1500 mg/m3Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerve

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVN5* -,195,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 2 ppm/30MBehavioral: HeadacheTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 125 µg/m3/5HOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
TOXID9 66,103,2002
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritationVCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 1350 mg/m3/1HVCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 2250 mg/m3/15MVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic sectionVCVN5* -,194,1993
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 800 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/man Lowest published lethal concentration: 5700 µg/kgBehavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion
AMPMAR 44,483,1983
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 634 ppm/1HAMRL** TR-72-62,1972
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1200 mg/m3/2HVCVN5* -,193,1993
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3VCVPS* -,20,1998
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3Immunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)VCVPS* -,20,1998
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/90MOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,192,2005
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 0.07 pph/3MVCVPS* -,19,1998
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 444 ppmLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased
LacHB# 09JUN1978
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 820 mg/m3/3HENTOX* -,545,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 700 mg/m3/4HENTOX* -,545,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 470 mg/m3/6HENTOX* -,545,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 504 ppm/1HTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 444 ppm/4HHPV297 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 15.336 mg/kgTXCYAC 242,16,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (65 percent kill): 18.4 mg/kgTXCYAC 242,16,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (85 percent kill): 21.5 mg/kgTXCYAC 242,16,2007

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/26W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretionVCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 3,63,1983
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/2H/16D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)VCVN5* -,197,1989
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/90D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHPV297 -,-,2001
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/26W- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hypoplasia

Blood: Luekopenia

Liver: Other changes
VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 105 mg/m3/90M/5D- intermittentCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of aboveVCVN5* -,197,1989
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3/5H/30W- intermittentEye: Conjunctiva irritationVEOFA6 78(1),36,1965
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 16 pph/39W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/39W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 16 pph/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/6H/10W- intermittentOlfaction: Change in olfactory nerve

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
TOPADD 27,697,1999
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1200 mg/m3/2H/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GTPZAB 14(1),54,1970
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/8H/5W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 13,270,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 3,63,1983
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 125 ppm/4H/11W- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NRTXDN 22,177,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80 ppm/3H/5D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NRTXDN 22,375,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 ppm/3H/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseNRTXDN 22,375,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 ppm/3H/5D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NRTXDN 22,375,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)NETEEC 22,71,2000
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/17W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseVCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/26W- intermittentEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hypoplasia

Blood: Luekopenia

Liver: Other changes
VCVPS* -,21,1998
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/12H/8W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVN5* -,197,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 198,29,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/1W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TXAPA9 198,29,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 198,29,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/90D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHPV297 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2672 µg/kg/4W- continuousVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ACPSI* 27,299,2006
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.0811 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBlood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FCTOD7 46,3343,2008

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 1 ppm;short term exposure limit 5 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJOCMA7 4,431,1962
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 137,103,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,609,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,545,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 29,84,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 29,361,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAIRMJ* 21,46,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,132,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 10 ppm (15 mg/m3);KZW 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), VLE 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 5 ppm (7.1 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 14 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 14 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (20 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 15 ppm (21 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 20 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 10 ppm (14 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 15 ppm (20 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 5 ppm (7.1 mg/m3), KZG-week 10 ppm (14.2 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDshort term exposure limit 20 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 15 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (14 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)ceiling concentration 20 ppm;Pk 50/10MCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HYDROGEN SULFIDE-airceiling concentration 10 ppm/10MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 38620; Number of Industries 31; Total Number of Facilities 1524; Number of Occupations 77; Total Number of Employees Exposed 94923; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 6515
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 38620; Number of Industries 17; Total Number of Facilities 745; Number of Occupations 30; Total Number of Employees Exposed 15422

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166696)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrogen sulfide, 6013
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-141
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