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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Hydrochloric acid

RTECS #

MW4025000

CAS #

7647-01-0; 51005-19-7; 61674-62-2; 113962-65-5

Updated

October 2015

Molecular Weight

36.46

Molecular Formula

ClH

Synonyms

Acide chlorhydrique (French)
Acido cloridrico (Italian)
Anhydrous hydrochloric acid
Chloorwaterstof (Dutch)
Chlorohydric acid
Chlorowodor (Polish)
Chlorwasserstoff (German)
Hydrochloride
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen chloride (ACGIH:OSHA)
Muriatic acid
Spirits of salt

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 5 mg/30S rinse mildTXCYAC 23,281,1982
skin /human 4%/24H mildBJDEAZ 68,192,1988

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/grasshopper20 mgNULSAK 9,119,1966
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster30 mmol/LCYTBAI 55,167,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster8 mmol/LMUREAV 225,55,1989
DNA repair/Escherichia coli25 µg/wellENMUDM 3,429,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster100 ppm/24HTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster100 ppmTHAGA6 39,330,1969

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 450 mg/m3/1H (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
AKGIAO 53(6),69,1977

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.04 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 mmol/LNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: CaTIVIEQ 27,402,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 14.4 pph/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 28,616,2014
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >10000 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 17,717,2003
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 4413 ppm/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
JIHTAB 24,222,1942
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 5066 mg/m3/90MVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 6400 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 1300 ppm/30M29ZWAE -,207,1968
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 3000 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 75 mg/m3VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 450 mg/m3/6HEye: Corneal damage

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 0.1 gm/m3VCVN1* -,440,1988
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1108 ppm/1HEye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
JCTODH 3,61,1976
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20487 mg/m3/5MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8300 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3940 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2644 ppm/30MENTOX* -,538,2005
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 4413 ppm/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
JIHTAB 24,222,1942
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 5066 mg/m3/90MVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 6400 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 60938 mg/m3/5MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 45000 mg/m3/5MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8300 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3124 ppm/1HOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Iritis
AMRL** TR-74-78,1974
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7004 mg/m3/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaVCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3700 ppm/30MENTOX* -,639,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40142 µg/kgCOREAF 256,1043,1963
intratracheal/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 7.3 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVN5* -,383,1989
intratracheal/hamster lowest published lethal dose: 146 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EJPHAZ 488,173,2004
intrauterine/man lowest published lethal dose: 4.28 mL/kgCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
AJEMEN 26,634e5,2008
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 4.29 mL/kgCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
AJEMEN 26,634.e5,2008
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 2857 µg/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagus
MJAUAJ 158,28,1993
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.243 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachBMCPH* 2,21,2002
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kgBIZEA2 134,437,1923
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 420 µL/kgBehavioral: Excitement

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
JJTOEX 9,351,1996
subcutaneous/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.043 mL/kgVascular: Acute arterial occulsion

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
AJEMEN 23,394,2005
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 81 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/6H/50D- intermittentBehavioral: Irritability

Blood: Other changes
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 149 mg/m3/6H/5D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 150 mg/m3/6H/50D- intermittentBehavioral: Irritability

Blood: Other changes
VCVN5* -,383,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 685 µg/m3/24H/84D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 38(3),6,1973

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-ceiling concentration 2 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 54,189,1992
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 54,189,1992
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 3IMEMDT 54,189,1992
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAOHYA3 17,159,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,639,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,538,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,671,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,1287,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPRESR* 7,123,2006

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESRED CompletedRBREV* -,324,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDair-ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,129,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 ppm (8 mg/m3);KZW 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (8 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 8 mg/m3 (5 ppm);short term exposure limit 15 mg/m3 (10 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDshort term exposure limit 5 ppm (7.6 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 5 ppm (7.6 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 16 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 5 ppm (8 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOpeak 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDceiling concentration 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUshort term exposure limit 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, CEILING 7 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENceiling concentration 5 ppm (8 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (3 mg/m3), KZG-week 4 ppm (6 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 8 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (7 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (8 mg/m3) (gas, mist), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)ceiling concentration 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HYDROGEN CHLORIDE-airceiling concentration 5 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 38580; Number of Industries 321; Total Number of Facilities 60309; Number of Occupations 183; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1238572; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 388130
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 38580; Number of Industries 360; Total Number of Facilities 87434; Number of Occupations 156; Total Number of Employees Exposed 824985

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9246
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acids, inorganic, 7903
On EPA IRIS database
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