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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Hexane

RTECS #

MN9275000

CAS #

110-54-3

Updated

December 2016

Molecular Weight

86.20

Molecular Formula

C6H14

Synonyms

Esani (Italian)
Gettysolve-B
Heksan (Polish)
Hexanen (Dutch)
Hexyl hydride
NCI-C60571
n-Hexane
n-Hexane (ACGIH:OSHA)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 10 mg mildTXAPA9 55,501,1980

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster500 mg/LFCTOD7 22,623,1984
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/rat7.5 mL/kg/12W- intermittentTCMUD8 20,329,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Saccharomyes cerevisiae132 mmol/LMUREAV 341,83,1994

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 10000 ppm/7H (15D prior to copulation/1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOXID9 1,152,1981
inhalation/rat 1000 ppm/6H (8-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TJADAB 19,22A,1979
inhalation/rat 5000 ppm/20H (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** DE88-006812
inhalation/mouse 5000 ppm (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** #PNL6590
inhalation/mouse 200 ppm (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NTIS** #PNL6590
inhalation/rat 1000 ppm (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** #PNL6453
inhalation/rat 5000 ppm (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
NTIS** #PNL6453
inhalation/rat 1000 ppm (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat 5000 ppm (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse 200 ppm (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV250 -,-,2008
oral/mouse 238 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)DCTODJ 3,393,1980

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 9018 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0537874
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/4H/59W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
JOCHFV 41,261,1999

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (5 percent kill): 14300 mg/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 27,857,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µL/well/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TIVIEQ 27,1089,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 2.5 µL/well/1HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTIVIEQ 27,1089,2013
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 3.9 mg/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,314,2013
In Vitro/opfInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µL/well/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TIVIEQ 27,1089,2013
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 30 µL/well/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 27,1089,2013
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 5400 mg/m3/10MBehavioral: Headache

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVGH* -,31,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 190 ppm/8WPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheathAJIMD8 10,111,1986
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 126 gm/m3Behavioral: Excitement

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVPS* -,71,1998
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 120 gm/m3Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Cardiac: Other changes
AEPPAE 143,223,1929
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 150000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,31,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/24HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/24HReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
EXMPA6 46,199,1987
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 627000 mg/m3/3MVCVGH* -,30,1990
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 48000 ppm/4HARPTDI 22,145,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 9100 mg/kgTXAPA9 1,156,1959
intravenous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 831 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)APTOA6 37,56,1975
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 132 mg/kgHAEMAX 58,491,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20000 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 6,491,1992
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 15840 mg/kgHPV250 -,-,2008
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 29700 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
HPV250 -,-,2008

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 150000 mg/m3/1H/30D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEGVCVGH* -,32,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 190 mg/m3/6Y- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: ParesthesiaVCVGH* -,32,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10000 ppm/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10000 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
NTPTR* NIH-91-3121
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppm/12H/24W- intermittentSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
HETOEA 11,323,1992
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/24H/11W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTOTDY 5,69,1983
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/6H/13W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 4,191,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 476 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOLED5 12,13,1982
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3000 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 14,317,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/24H/9W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JNSCAG 57,209,1982
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1200 ppm/12H/16W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 63,381,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1700 mg/m3/6H/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
VCVGH* -,31,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/14D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PNL6453
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6500 ppm/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightHPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10000 ppm/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1200 ppm/16W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV250 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 ppm/6W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV250 -,-,2008
intraperitoneal/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/90D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Ataxia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 62,369,1982
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18900 mg/kg/35D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 13,835,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4788 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 14,169,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 6,491,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/4W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTIHEEC 1(3),67,1985
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Microcytosis with or without anemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TCMUD8 20,329,2000

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 50 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 135,167,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,522,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,503,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,239,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,689,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,727,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,737,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,747,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 762,76,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 58,252,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 266,345,2013

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,126,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 20 ppm (72 mg/m3);KZW 80 ppm (288 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 72 mg/m3 (20 ppm), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 50 ppm (170 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 180 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 720 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 40 ppm (140 mg/m3), skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 50 ppm (176 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (90 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 50 ppm (176 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 100 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 400 mg/me, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 300 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 900 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 25 ppm (90 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 50 ppm (180 mg/m3), KZG-week 400 ppm (1440 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 90 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 20 ppm (72 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 500 ppm (1800 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HEXANE-air10H time-weighted average 50 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 36955; Number of Industries 221; Total Number of Facilities 40256; Number of Occupations 161; Total Number of Employees Exposed 643101; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 138726
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 36955; Number of Industries 281; Total Number of Facilities 72257; Number of Occupations 168; Total Number of Employees Exposed 763261

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166688)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-1292-8628;8EHQ-0893-8628
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 degree C, 1500
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Volatile organic compound, 2549
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-02, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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