2-Furaldehyde

RTECS #
LT7000000
CAS #
98-01-1
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
December 2017
Molecular Weight
96.09
Molecular Formula
C5H4O2
Synonyms
2-Formylfuran
2-Formylofuran (Polish)
2-Furanaldehyde
2-Furancarbonal
2-Furancarboxaldehyde
2-Furankarbaldehyd (Czech)
2-Furfural
2-Furil-metanale (Italian)
2-Furylaldehyde
2-Furylcarboxaldehyde
2-Furyl-methanal
alpha-Furole
Artificial ant oil
Artificial oil of ants
Fural
Furale
Furfural
Furfural (ACGIH:OSHA)
Furfuraldehyde
Furfurale (Italian)
Furfurol
Furfurole
Furole
NCI-C56177
Pyromucic aldehyde
RCRA waste number U125

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,788,1986
skin /rabbit 20 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,788,1986
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mildFCTXAV 16,759,1978

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster1 gm/LMUREAV 227,117,1989
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster2500 µmol/LCALEDQ 13,89,1981
DNA Damagemammary gland/human150 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human3 mmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis1700 µg/discDFSCDX 13,353,1986
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse200 mg/LEMMUEG 11,91,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium8094 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 58,205,1978
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 343,157,1995
other mutation test systemslung/hamster1 gm/LMUREAV 227,117,1989
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human104 µmol/LTIVIEQ 29,1425,2015
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster100 ppmENMUDM 7,677,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster5000 ppmMUREAV 280,75,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/Drosophila melanogaster5000 ppmMUREAV 280,75,1992
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human70 µmol/LMUREAV 156,233,1985
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster11700 µg/LNTPTR* NTP-TR,382,1990
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster5000 ppmMUREAV 280,75,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/human2 nmol/L/24HFCTOD7 39,999,2001

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 150 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)WDZAEK 6,290,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse 360 mg/kg (6D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)WDZAEK 8,129,1994

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 90125 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR,382,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 90125 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB91-108662
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 90125 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB91-108662
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30900 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTIS** PB91-108662
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30900 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR,382,1990

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 370 ppm/6H34ZIAG -,279,1969
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 310 µg/m3GISAAA 26(6),3,1961
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 370 ppm/6H34ZIAG -,279,1969
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 175 ppm/6HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AIHAAP 50,A359,1989
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 640 mg/m3/6HFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 12.2 gm/m3/2HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Vascular: Other changes
TPKVAL 10,35,1968
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 184 mg/kg/3HFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
intramuscular/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 78 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 102 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 152 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 950 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
34ZIAG -,279,1969
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 541 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Hemorrhage
HYSAAV 32(5),158,1967
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgTumorigenic: Active as anti-cancer agentBIJOAK 34,1196,1940
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Eye: Mydriasis (pupilliary dilation)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JPETAB 21,65,1923
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kgBCTKAG 13,371,1980
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 192 mg/kgFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
parenteral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 23 gm/kgJPETAB 21,65,1923
skin/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 620 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
subcutaneous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 214 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 119 mg/kgFCTXAV 16,759,1978
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgHYSAAV 32(5),158,1967
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 148 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold34ZIAG -,279,1969

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/5H/12W- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Sympathomimetic

Endocrine: Other changes
BCTKAG 11,403,1978
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10140 µg/m3/24H/60D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
GISAAA 26(6),3,1961
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/4H/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruliAEHLAU 7,574,1963
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/6H/28D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 mg/m3/6H/28D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
FCTOD7 42,1389,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 80 mg/m3/6H/28D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 160 mg/m3/3H/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 320 mg/m3/3H/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weightFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 160 mg/m3/3H/28D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kg/16D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldNTPTR* NTP-TR-382,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4875 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightNTPTR* NTP-TR-382,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3672 mg/kg/28D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 768 mg/kg/4D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1632 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Sleep

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
FCTOD7 42,1389,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2688 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weightFCTOD7 42,1389,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4190 mL/kg/17W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
APJAAG 36,1027,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 91 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
BCTKAG 15,241,1982
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/6W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AEHLAU 7,574,1963
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 33 mg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Luekopenia
AEHLAU 7,574,1963

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 63,409,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 63,409,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 564,179,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,394,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,649,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 286,1,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESCancelledRBREV* -,184,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,120,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.9 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.9 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 20 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.9 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 2.5 ppm (9.8 mg/m3), skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7.9 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 2 ppm (7,9 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 40 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 2 ppm (8 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 8 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (8 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (20 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (20 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 34120; Number of Industries 79; Total Number of Facilities 6447; Number of Occupations 66; Total Number of Employees Exposed 135914; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 6706
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 34120; Number of Industries 11; Total Number of Facilities 333; Number of Occupations 30; Total Number of Employees Exposed 5904

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:rat
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Aldehydes, screening, 2539
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Furfural, 2529
NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);some evidence:rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-382,1990
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-72
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018