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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Formic acid

RTECS #

LQ4900000

CAS #

64-18-6

Updated

October 2015

Molecular Weight

46.03

Molecular Formula

CH2O2

Synonyms

Acide formique (French)
Acido formico (Italian)
Ameisensaeure (German)
Aminic acid
Formic acid (ACGIH:OSHA)
Formylic acid
Hydrogen carboxylic acid
Kwas metaniowy (Polish)
Kyselina mravenci (Czech)
Methanoic acid
Mierenzuur (Dutch)
RCRA waste number U123

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 122 mg severeUCDS** 8/5/1968
eye /rabbit 122 mgHPV246 -,-,2001
skin /rabbit 610 mg open irritation test mildUCDS** 8/5/1968
skin /rabbit 610 mg mildHPV246 -,-,2001

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/non-mammalian species100 mmol/LCAANAT 56,712,1972
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 mmol/LMUREAV 240,195,1990
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli70 ppm/3H (-enzymatic activation step)AMNTA4 85,119,1951
other mutation test systemsother cell types/non-mammalian species100 mmol/LCAANAT 56,712,1972
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli100 mmol/LMDMIAZ 31,11,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctioninhalation/Drosophila melanogaster1000 ppm/24HTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster1000 ppmTHAGA6 39,330,1969
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 mmol/LMUREAV 279,75,1992

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 45 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.08 mL/well/3MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 28,616,2014
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 7300 µg/m3/8HKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionARTODN 66,522,1992
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6200 mg/m3/15MBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6200 mg/m3/15MHPV246 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7400 mg/m3/4HHPV246 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 15000 mg/m3/15MHPV246 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 15 gm/m3/15MBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 940 mg/kgHPV246 -,-,2001
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kgHBTXAC 1,146,1955
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 145 mg/kgHPV246 -,-,2001
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 239 mg/kgHPV246 -,-,2001
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kgAMIHAB 20,517,1959
oral/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)HPV246 -,-,2001
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 700 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 700 mg/kgHPV246 -,-,2001
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >4000 mg/kgHPV246 -,-,2001
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1830 mg/kgENTOX* -,378,2005
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 730 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainHPV246 -,-,2001
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1100 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 2200 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
JTCTDW 32,199,1994
oral/woman lowest published lethal dose: 2440 µg/kgVascular: Shock

Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
AJEMEN 7,286,1989
subcutaneous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >300 mg/kgHPV246 -,-,2001

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/12D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 64 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 64 ppm/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HPV246 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/12D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 64 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/16W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
GTPZAB 19(12),49,1975
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
HPV246 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 120 mg/m3/13W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight
HPV246 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 87500 mg/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
HPV246 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42840 mg/kg/7W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV246 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22680 mg/kg/9W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPETAB 16,463,1921

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 5 ppm;short term exposure limit 10 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMIHAB 20,517,1959
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 17,349,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,378,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 29,1,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,119,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 5 ppm (9 mg/m3);KZW 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9.5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 9 mg/m3 (5 ppm), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 3 ppm (5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVLE 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 5 ppm (9.5 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 9 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 9 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 10 ppm (18.8 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 15 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 3 ppm (5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 5 ppm (9.5 mg/m3), KZG-week 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 9 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9.6 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FORMIC ACID-air10H time-weighted average 5 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 33720; Number of Industries 95; Total Number of Facilities 6368; Number of Occupations 77; Total Number of Employees Exposed 158933; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 37338
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 33720; Number of Industries 59; Total Number of Facilities 3537; Number of Occupations 48; Total Number of Employees Exposed 34087

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Formic acid, 2011
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-19, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-112
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