Ethylene oxide

RTECS #
KX2450000
CAS #
75-21-8; 19034-08-3; 99932-75-9
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
March 2018
Molecular Weight
44.06
Molecular Formula
C2H4O
Synonyms
1,2-Epoxyaethan (German)
1,2-Epoxyethane
Aethylenoxid (German)
alpha,beta-Oxidoethane
Amprolene
Anprolene
Anproline
Dihydrooxirene
Dimethylene oxide
E.O.
ENT-26263
EO
Epoxyethane
Ethene oxide
Ethox
Ethyleenoxide (Dutch)
Ethylene (oxyde d') (French)
Ethylene oxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Etilene (ossido di) (Italian)
ETO
Etylenu tlenek (Polish)
FEMA No. 2433
Merpol
NCI-C50088
Oxacyclopropane
Oxane
Oxidoethane
Oxiraan (Dutch)
Oxiran
Oxirane
Oxirene, dihydro-
Oxyfume
Oxyfume 12
RCRA waste number U115
Sterilizing gas ethylene oxide 100%
T-Gas

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 18 mg/6H moderateBUYRAI 31,25,1977
skin /human 1%/7SAMIHBC 2,549,1950

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster55 mmol/LZEVBA5 92,457,1961
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human5 ppm/1YMUREAV 170,55,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisbone marrow/rat30 µg/L/2DTNICS* 13,47,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat1 µg/L/17WTPKVAL 13,51,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat9 mg/kgTPKVAL 12,72,1971
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse400 ppm/6H-continuousARTODN 59,332,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse88120 µg/kgMUREAV 288,223,1993
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster250 ppmESKHA5 (102),77,1984
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/monkey100 ppm/7H/2Y- intermittentTXAPA9 76,85,1984
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/monkey100 ppm/104WMUREAV 492,59,2001
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat3.6 µg/L/66D - intermittentTPKVAL 14,11,1975
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat0.045 mg/L/8D- intermittentTPKVAL 11,148,1969
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse100 ppm/12W- intermittentMUTAEX 25,49,2010
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse50 ppm/24W- intermittentMUTAEX 25,49,2010
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse25 ppm/48W- intermittentMUTAEX 25,49,2010
DNA adductinhalation/mouse100 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentTOXID9 72(Supp 1),249,2003
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat0.1 mg/kgCRTOEC 20,290,2007
DNA adductkidney/human1000 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 678,129,2009
DNA adductinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster2 ppm/24HMUREAV 529,95,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human20 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA Damagemammary gland/human20 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human20 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA DamageHeLa cell/human50 µmol/L/1HMUREAV 585,120,2005
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 197,93,1988
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse1800 ppm/1H-continuousMUREAV 209,177,1988
DNA Damagefibroblast/human5 mmol/LEMMUEG 24,161,1994
Dominant Lethal Testinhalation/mouse204 ppm/6H/48D- intermittentEMMUEG 16,126,1990
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse150 mg/kgENMUDM 2,252,1980
Dominant Lethal Testinhalation/rat1000 ppm/4HTXAPA9 40,261,1977
Dominant Lethal Testsubcutaneous/rat40 mg/kgGISAAA 48(1),23,1983
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae25 mmol/LMUREAV 250,229,1991
heritable translocation testintraperitoneal/mouse30 mg/kg/25D- intermittentENMUDM 2,252,1980
heritable translocation testinhalation/mouse165 ppm/6H/48D- intermittentEMMUEG 16,126,1990
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat50 ppmMUREAV 492,59,2001
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse150 mg/kgMUREAV 75,191,1980
micronucleus testintravenous/mouse200 mg/kgAPTOA6 43,69,1978
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse380 ppm/3H-continuousESKHA5 (102),84,1984
micronucleus testintravenous/rat200 mg/kgAPTOA6 43,69,1978
micronucleus testinhalation/rat200 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentMUREAV 324,87,1994
morphological transformembryo/mouse2500 µmol/LMUTAEX 4,58,1989
morphological transformembryo/hamster625 ppm/2H-continuousENMUDM 8,67,1986
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster5 mg/L/1HJTEHD6 12,27,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster7500 ppm/2H-continuousENMUDM 8,67,1986
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsfibroblast/human5 mmol/LMUREAV 287,283,1993
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/mouse200 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 288,151,1993
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse5 µmol/LPAACA3 21,74,1980
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsinhalation/mouse200 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentMUREAV 392,211,1997
mutation in microorganisms/Neurospora crassa140 mmol/L/10M (-enzymatic activation step)MGGEAE 101,185,1968
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae25 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 250,229,1991
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium40 µmol/plate (+enzymatic activation step)FCTXAV 18,115,1980
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 11,65,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli3500 µmol/10H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 24,83,1974
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms540 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)47YKAF 8,273,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium4571 ppm/24M (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 55,662,2014
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster55 mmol/LZEVBA5 92,457,1961
sister chromatid exchange/Saccharomyes cerevisiae25 mmol/LMUREAV 250,229,1991
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human4 pphTCMUD8 6,15,1986
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/human36 ppm/24HZHPMAT 170,548,1980
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 mg/LPHMGBN 25,214,1982
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/human380 ppb/6H/4Y- intermittentSWEHDO 17,60,1991
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/human60 ppm/12W- intermittentMUREAV 281,31,1992
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/rat50 ppm/6H/3D-continuousMUREAV 120,37,1983
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/monkey50 ppm/7H/2Y- intermittentTXAPA9 76,85,1984
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/rabbit50 ppm/12W- intermittentENMUDM 4,121,1982
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse88120 µg/kgMUREAV 288,223,1993
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/rat50 ppm/4WMUREAV 492,59,2001
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/rabbit250 ppm/12WMUREAV 492,59,2001
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/rat50 ppmMUREAV 492,59,2001
specific locus testinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster3.9 ppm/24HMUREAV 529,95,2003
specific locus testinhalation/mouse25 ppm/6H/48WMUTAEX 19,215,2004
specific locus testinhalation/mouse200 ppm/6H/24WMUTAEX 19,215,2004
specific locus testparenteral/Drosophila melanogaster114 mmol/LCNREA8 30,195,1970
specific locus testinhalation/Drosophila melanogaster750 ppmMUREAV 405,259,1998
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisleukocyte/human4 mmol/LCBINA8 47,265,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisinhalation/mouse300 ppmENMUDM 1,166,1979

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 50 ppm/6H (91D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)NEZAAQ 45,592,1990
inhalation/rat 100 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXAPA9 48,A84,1979
inhalation/rat 100 ppm/6H (12W male/9W pre-3W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)TXAPA9 48,A84,1979
inhalation/rat 3600 µg/m3/24H (60D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
TPKVAL 14,11,1975
inhalation/rat 100 ppm/6H (12W pre-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
TXAPA9 63,382,1982
inhalation/rat 150 ppm/7H (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** PB83-258038
inhalation/mouse 255 ppm/6H (10D male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathMUREAV 119,377,1983
inhalation/mouse 1200 ppm/90M (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
MUREAV 176,269,1987
inhalation/mouse 1200 ppm/90M (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
TJADAB 39,563,1989
inhalation/mouse 2700 ppm/6H (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTJADAB 57,231,1998
inhalation/monkey 50 ppm/7H (96W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)ATAREK 8-84,7,1984
inhalation/monkey 50 ppm/7H (2Y male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TOXID9 3,60,1983
inhalation/mouse 1800 ppm/1.5H (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOSCF2 50,259,1999
inhalation/rat 3.6 mg/m3 (66D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)TPKVAL 14,11,1975
intraperitoneal/mouse 750 mg/kg (25D male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
MUREAV 73,133,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 150 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathMUREAV 73,133,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 125 mg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 53,1,1996
intraperitoneal/mouse 125 mg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TJADAB 53,1,1996
intravenous/mouse 225 mg/kg (10-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 19,34A,1979
intravenous/mouse 450 mg/kg (8-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTJADAB 19,34A,1979
intravenous/mouse 450 mg/kg (10-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 56,16,1980
intravenous/rabbit 81 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous/rabbit 81 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratioNTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous/rabbit 324 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NTIS** PB83-242016

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 ppm/6H/2YTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-326,1987
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 3060 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** PB88-169859
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 3060 mg/kg/102W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
NTIS** PB88-169859
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 33 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
TXAPA9 75,105,1984
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 50 ppm/7H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
TXAPA9 76,69,1984
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 33 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
NRTXDN 6,117,1985
inhalation/rat toxic concentration: 33 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
FCTOD7 24,145,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1186 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
BJCAAI 46,924,1982
oral/rat toxic dose: 5112 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
BJCAAI 46,924,1982
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 292 mg/kg/95W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 174,383,1981
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 1090 mg/kg/91W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 39,588,1979
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 908 mg/kg/95W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 174,383,1981
subcutaneous/mouse toxic dose: 2576 mg/kg/95W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
ZHPMAT 174,383,1981

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 960 ppm/4HEye: Lacrimation

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation/Dog lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 960 ppm/4HENTOX* -,294,2005
inhalation/guinea pig lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/m3/4H85GMAT -,67,1982
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 12500 ppm/10SOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsJOHYAY 32,409,1932
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 835 ppm/4HENTOX* -,294,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1460 ppm/4HENTOX* -,294,2005
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 800 ppm/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
34ZIAG -,258,1969
inhalation/woman lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/2MBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
DICPBB 15,384,1981
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 175 mg/kgGISAAA 48(1),23,1983
intravenous/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 330 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JTCSAQ 61,309,1971
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 290 mg/kgAPTOA6 43,69,1978
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 175 mg/kgEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Rigidity (includes catalepsy)
JOHYAY 32,409,1932
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 mg/kgJIHTAB 23,259,1941
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 72 mg/kgSPEADM 78-1,17,1978
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgHDWU** -,-,1933
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 187 mg/kgGISAAA 48(1),23,1983
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
34ZIAG -,258,1969

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 290 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 102 ppm/26W- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7H/2Y- intermittentEye: Other eye effectsTOXID9 12,354,1992
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldNTPTR* NTP-TR-326,1987
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JOUOD4 14,33,1992
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/6H/14W- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Endocrine: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-326,1987
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 450 mg/m3/6H/10W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
NTIS** OTS0534608
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3.6 mg/m3/66D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TPKVAL 14,11,1975
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.002 gm/m3/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)TPKVAL 11,148,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.045 gm/m3/4D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTPKVAL 11,148,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.045 gm/m3/2D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)TPKVAL 11,148,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 406 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHAB 13,237,1956
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 µg/m3/24H/83D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Cl
GISAAA 31(10),3,1966
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes
NEZAAQ 43,1053,1988
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 81 mg/kg/9D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldNTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 72 mg/kg/4D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB83-242016
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 144 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationNTIS** #PB83-242016

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 1 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Suspected human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 36,189,1985
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMSUDL 7,205,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 60,73,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 60,73,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,395,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 97,287,2008
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Group 1IMEMDT 97,287,2008
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,395,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 97,287,2008
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 60,73,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 97,287,2008
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100F,395,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJOMDZ 15,808,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEHLAU 8,700,1964
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 30,595,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 138,1,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 580,91,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,347,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,294,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 19,169,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,561,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 73,80317,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMEMDT 97,238,
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 74,46689,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,107,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,76,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,223,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,152,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,2921,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,3,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 53,166,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,375,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 761,40,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 25,17,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,3,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 793,176,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764,51,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,84,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,170,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 773,188,2017

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,182,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,112,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 10 ppm (20 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 1 ppm (2 mg/m3);KZW 4 ppm (8 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 ppm, VLE 5 ppm, C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 1.8 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDshort term exposure limit 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), 1 carc, s2 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 ppm, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 1 ppm (1.8 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 ppm (2 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 1 ppm (2 mg/m3), carc 2, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.84 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (9.2 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1147CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-cancer hazardCFRGBR 29,1910.1047,1987

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ETHYLENE OXIDE-air8H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.1 ppm;ceiling concentration 5 ppm/10MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 32550; Number of Industries 89; Total Number of Facilities 10657; Number of Occupations 104; Total Number of Employees Exposed 270683; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 120086
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 32550; Number of Industries 67; Total Number of Facilities 7411; Number of Occupations 74; Total Number of Employees Exposed 107450

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180554/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Mouse specific locus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: CHO gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal; UDS in mouse germ cells
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-reciprocal translocation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; N crassa-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Rodent dominant lethal; Rodent heritable translocation
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9104
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);clear evidence:mouse
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ethylene oxide, 1614 or by portable GC, 3702
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 35, MAY 1981
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 52, JULY 1989
NTP 14th Report on Carcinogens,2016:Known to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #30, SUPERSEDED BY #50
PASSIVE MONITOR, OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #49
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018