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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-

RTECS #

HP3500000

CAS #

1746-01-6; 56795-67-6

Updated

April 2017

Molecular Weight

321.96

Molecular Formula

C12H4Cl4O2

Synonyms

2,3,7,8-Czterochlorodwubenzo-p-dwuoksyny (Polish)
2,3,7,8-TCDD
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo(b,e)(1,4)dioxan
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-1,4-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
Dibenzo(b,e)(1,4)dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-
Dioksyny (Polish)
Dioxin
Dioxin (herbicide contaminant)
Dioxine
NCI-C03714
TCDBD
TCDD
Tetradioxin

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 2 mg moderateEVHPAZ 5,87,1973

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat100 µg/kgMUREAV 47,141,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat10 mg/kgMUREAV 47,141,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse100 µg/kgTXAPA9 29,229,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse10 µg/kgPSSID2 5,419,1982
Cytogenetic Analysislung/rat104 µg/kg/13W- intermittentTOVEFN (5),2,1998
Cytogenetic Analysislung/mouse10 µg/kgTOVEFN (5),2,1998
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat40 µg/kg/4W- intermittentCMSHAF 25,975,1992
DNA adductoral/rat0.021 mg/kg/30W- intermittentCRTOEC 14,849,2001
DNA adductother cell types/human10 nmol/L/12HMUREAV 750,77,2013
DNA Damageliver/rat5 µmol/L/48HFCTOD7 50,2142,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.5 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human0.1 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.1 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human0.5 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damageoral/rat450 ng/kg/30W- intermittentJJTHEC 65,825,2002
DNA Damageunreported route/rat100 µg/kgCALEDQ 29,281,1988
DNA Damageoral/mouse100 µg/kgBPBLEO 29,2284,2006
DNA Damagemammary gland/human1 nmol/L/5HTOLED5 172,146,2007
DNA Damageovary/hamster0.5 nmol/LMUREAV 563,71,2004
DNA Damageother cell types/mouse10 nmol/L/24HTXCYAC 255,65,2009
DNA Damageoral/rat100 µg/kgCALEDQ 39,281,1988
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/rat10 µg/kgCBINA8 8,31,1974
DNA inhibitionoral/rat200 µg/kgCBINA8 8,31,1974
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse400 µg/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human10 nmol/LTXAPA9 77,434,1985
DNA inhibitionother cell types/human1 µmol/L/20H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 746,124,2012
gene conversion and mitotic recombinationovary/hamster0.5 nmol/L/24HTOXID9 72,369,2003
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae10 mg/LCMSHAF 12,549,1983
host-mediated assaySaccharomyes cerevisiae/mouse25 µg/kgCMSHAF 12,549,1983
micronucleus testliver/rat5 µmol/L/48HFCTOD7 50,2142,2012
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse10 nmol/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 37,231,2001
morphological transformmammary gland/human1 nmol/L/14DMUREAV 579,189,2005
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse200 nmol/LENMUDM 6,461,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse50 mg/LENMUDM 4,391,1982
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium2 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)AMBOCX 1,32,1972
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli2 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)AMBOCX 1,1,1972
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae10 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)CMSHAF 12,549,1983
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae2 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PSSID2 5,429,1982
other mutation test systemsother cell types/mouse1 nmol/LJBCHA3 259,12357,1984
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse50 µg/kgTXCYAC 56,239,1989
other mutation test systemsliver/rat1 nmol/L/48HMUREAV 615,87,2007
other mutation test systemsother cell types/human1 µmol/L/20H (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 746,124,2012
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli500 µg/LAMBOCX 1,1,1972
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisother cell types/human100 pmol/LCRNGDP 11,1335,1990
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintravenous/rat4 µg/kgBCPCA6 31,2459,1982
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat5 µg/kgTXCYAC 28,133,1983
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/mouse800 pmol/kgCRNGDP 8,1433,1987

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 6 µg/kg (17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicBCPCA6 26,1383,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse 25 µg/kg (7-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TXCYAC 20,299,1981
intraperitoneal/mouse 20 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)ATSUDG 8,43,1985
intraperitoneal/rat 50 µg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTXAPA9 173,38,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),231,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse 10 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TOXID9 78,98,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTOSCF2 94,163,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTOSCF2 94,163,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOLED5 196,87,2010
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TXCYAC 290,156,2011
oral/mouse 6 µg/kg (0-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemTXAPA9 277,172,2014
oral/mouse 0.2 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TXAPA9 278,220,2015
oral/mouse 1 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TXAPA9 278,220,2015
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TXCYAC 314,125,2013
oral/mouse 8 mg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOLED5 189,40,2009
oral/mouse 3 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesNRTXDN 31,385,2010
oral/rat 3.2 µg/kg (1-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
FCTOD7 49,1276,2011
oral/mouse 7.7 µg/kg (4W male/4W prior to copulation/1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TIHEEC 24,595,2008
oral/mouse 64 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TIHEEC 25,473,2009
oral/rat 700 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNRTXDN 27,1032,2006
oral/rat 100 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNRTXDN 27,1032,2006
oral/mouse 1 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalTXCYAC 242,52,2007
oral/rat 6678 ng/kg (12W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXCYAC 240,170,2007
oral/rat 6678 ng/kg (12W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTXCYAC 240,170,2007
oral/rat 352.8 ng/kg (12W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTXCYAC 240,170,2007
oral/rat 1.1 µg/kg (9-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TOLED5 173,41,2007
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemREPTED 22,521,2006
oral/monkey 4 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERB* 71,37,2004
oral/monkey 4 µg/kg (20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERB* 71,37,2004
oral/mouse 180 µg/kg (8-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TSPLS* -,218,2003
oral/mouse 24 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TERAD* -,247,2004
oral/mouse 3 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 -,140,2008
oral/mouse 3 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 -,140,2008
oral/mouse 6 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 -,140,2008
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemREPTED 23,326,2007
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemREPTED 23,326,2007
oral/rat 1.6 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
TOXID9 -,228,2008
oral/rat 1.5 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TOXID9 -,161,2008
oral/mouse 0.1 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 -,164,2008
oral/mouse 40 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 12,437,2008
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOXID9 12,416,2008
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 12,437,2008
oral/rat 6 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TXAPA9 224,29,2007
oral/rat 1.5 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TXAPA9 224,29,2007
oral/rat 3 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TXAPA9 224,29,2007
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOSCF2 91,568,2006
oral/rat 0.03 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTOSCF2 91,568,2006
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 78,248,2004
oral/mouse 2.5 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemTXAPA9 232,51,2008
oral/mouse 14 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 24,303,2007
oral/mouse 0.01 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOPADD 36,1006,2008
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
JPETAB 329,1091,2009
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (0-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Breast developmentREPTED 28,11,2009
oral/mouse 30 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 44,418,2005
oral/rat 10 gm/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 44,439,2005
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 78,189,2004
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 78,189,2004
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 78,189,2004
oral/rat 20 ng/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTOXID9 66,168,2002
oral/rat 180 ng/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTOXID9 66,168,2002
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOXID9 66,170,2002
oral/rat 100 ng/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOXID9 78,381,2004
oral/rat 180 ng/kg (18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTOXID9 1,114,2001
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTOXID9 66,333,2002
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTOXID9 66,333,2002
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 60,273,2001
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 60,273,2001
oral/rat 12.5 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratioTOXID9 60,274,2001
oral/rat 200 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalTOXID9 60,274,2001
oral/rat 800 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 60,274,2001
oral/rat 0.7 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 60,274,2001
oral/rat 800 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemTOXID9 60,332,2001
oral/rat 60 ng/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTOXID9 60,444,2001
oral/rat 200 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TXAPA9 205,98,2005
oral/rat 800 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TXAPA9 205,98,2005
oral/mouse 400 ng/kg (1-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
REPTED 21,301,2006
oral/mouse 150 ng/kg (1-3D pregnant)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
REPTED 21,301,2006
oral/mouse 250 ng/kg (4-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)REPTED 21,301,2006
oral/rat 0.001 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 227,117,2006
oral/rat 0.001 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 227,117,2006
oral/rat 0.001 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 227,117,2006
oral/rat 1.6 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 212,224,2006
oral/rat 0.2 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)TXAPA9 212,224,2006
oral/rat 800 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Sex ratio

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TXAPA9 205,98,2005
oral/rat 200 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TXAPA9 205,98,2005
oral/mouse 0.2 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOSCF2 71,84,2003
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages
TOSCF2 68,465,2002
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOSCF2 68,479,2002
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOSCF2 76,171,2003
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOSCF2 71,84,2003
oral/rat 0.7 µg/kg (10-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 25,459,2003
oral/rat 700 ng/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOXID9 72,125,2003
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
EVHPAZ 110(Suppl 3),369,2002
oral/rat 20 ng/kg (8D pregnant)Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
EVHPAZ 110,247,2002
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system
BIREBV 66,1621,2002
oral/rat 20 ng/kg (18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralEVHPAZ 109,621,2001
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
TXAPA9 184,57,2002
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTOXID9 72(Suppl 1),365,2003
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),366,2003
oral/rat 800 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NRTXDN 24,207,2003
oral/mouse 6 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),231,2003
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 44,138,2005
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXAPA9 197,211,2004
oral/rat 3 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXCYAC 197,57,2004
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TOSCF2 52,45,1999
oral/mouse 3 µg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TOSCF2 52,45,1999
oral/rat 800 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
ETOPFR 11,1,2002
oral/mouse 24 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TOXID9 44,251,2005
oral/mouse 4.4 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOLED5 150,285,2004
oral/rat 0.03 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TXAPA9 174,216,2001
oral/rat 1.4 µg/kg (10-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 22,511,2001
oral/mouse 15 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
CMSHAF 25,103,1992
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
BIRSB5 62,184,2000
oral/mouse 5 µg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
ARTODN 67,591,1993
oral/rat 0.18 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 24,209,2002
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 19 µg/kg (132D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)VHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 2.4 µg/kg (132D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)VHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 699.6 ng/kg (132D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)VHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mouse 40 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)TCMUD8 20,73,2000
oral/rat 45 ng/kg (45D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
JJATDK 22,345,2002
oral/monkey 92 ng/kg (46W pre-17W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 11,13,1989
oral/monkey 107 mg/kg (4Y male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralCMSHAF 20,1103,1990
oral/monkey 123 ng/kg (30W pre-17W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOXID9 3,68,1983
oral/monkey 163 ng/kg (182W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 14,433,1992
oral/monkey 2 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionBESCE5 13,26,2000
oral/rabbit 2500 ng/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ENVRAL 27,74,1982
oral/rabbit 10 µg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion
ENVRAL 27,74,1982
oral/rabbit 1 µg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemENVRAL 27,74,1982
oral/hamster 18 µg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathCMSHAF 20,1117,1990
oral/hamster 2 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOSCF2 51,259,1999
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TXAPA9 134,241,1995
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TXAPA9 134,241,1995
oral/rat 0.35 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemCMSHAF 18,955,1989
oral/rat 0.125 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemCMSHAF 18,955,1989
oral/rat 13 µg/kg (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
BCPCA6 32,991,1983
oral/rat 12 µg/kg (4-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal systemBCPCA6 32,991,1983
oral/monkey 0.535 µg/kg (30W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion
ANYAA9 -,419,1979
oral/mouse 50 µg/kg (105D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
EVHPAZ 105,750,1997
oral/mouse 1 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemEVHPAZ 5,81,1973
oral/mouse 9 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TXAPA9 98,487,1989
oral/mouse 13500 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemTJADAB 44,385,1991
oral/mouse 235 µg/kg (28D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemDCTODJ 2,77,1979
oral/mouse 20 µg/kg (14D preg/3D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
IJIMDS 2,301,1980
oral/mouse 12 µg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TJADAB 33,29,1986
oral/rat 12 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TJADAB 55,326,1997
oral/rat 1500 ng/kg (1-3D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TJADAB 25(1),21A,1982
oral/rat 1250 ng/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
FCTXAV 9,405,1971
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TXAPA9 150,254,1998
oral/rat 1270 ng/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXAPA9 50,241,1979
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalTXAPA9 140,146,1996
oral/rat 20 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTXCYAC 21,77,1981
oral/hamster 1 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTXAPA9 131,108,1995
oral/hamster 2 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalTOSCF2 51,259,1999
oral/mouse 10 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemMOPMA3 35,18,1989
oral/mouse 12 µg/kg (10-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TOXID9 13,103,1993
oral/mouse 240 µg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)ARTODN 69,87,1994
oral/mouse 320 µg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)ARTODN 69,87,1994
oral/mouse 480 µg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemARTODN 69,87,1994
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 133,285,1995
oral/rat 0.05 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTXAPA9 146,11,1997
oral/rat 56 mg/kg (10-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system
TOLED5 78,253,1995
oral/rat 0.7 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOXID9 14,197,1994
oral/rat 0.064 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOXID9 10,313,1990
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXAPA9 127,241,1994
oral/rat 0.7 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 127,250,1994
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
BIREBV 55,62,1996
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TXAPA9 140,146,1996
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 15,292,1995
oral/rat 1 µg/kg (18D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 15,292,1995
parenteral/rat 1 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 14,197,1994
subcutaneous/rat 185 ng/kg (2W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring)TXAPA9 150,383,1998
subcutaneous/rat 2700 ng/kg (2W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemTXAPA9 150,383,1998
subcutaneous/rat 3 µg/kg (19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTJADAB 40,292,1989
subcutaneous/rat 5 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTXAPA9 20,396,1971
subcutaneous/rat 2200 ng/kg (19D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)CMSHAF 25,1227,1992
subcutaneous/mouse 250 µg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
BECTA6 16,674,1976
subcutaneous/mouse 250 µg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
BECTA6 16,674,1976
subcutaneous/mouse 100 µg/kg (2D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TCMUD8 4,427,1984
subcutaneous/mouse 30 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)MOPMA3 17,86,1980
subcutaneous/mouse 100 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TCMUD8 4,427,1984
subcutaneous/rat 0.5 µg/kg (7-20D preg/9-16D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BCPCA6 62,617,2001
subcutaneous/rat 0.5 µg/kg (7-20D preg/2D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemBCPCA6 59,1147,2000
subcutaneous/mouse 90 µg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TJADAB 21,62A,1980
subcutaneous/mouse 90 µg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TJADAB 21,62A,1980
subcutaneous/mouse 90 µg/kg (11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TJADAB 21,62A,1980
subcutaneous/monkey 405 ng/kg (20-165D preg/90D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
REPTED 20,21,2005
subcutaneous/monkey 34.5 ng/kg (20D preg-90D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOLED5 160,233,2006
subcutaneous/monkey 42 ng/kg (20-173D preg/1-90D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 29,317,2010
subcutaneous/monkey 40.5 ng/kg (20-165D preg/90D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TXCYAC 251,147,2008
unreported route/mouse 3 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TERST* -,290,2005
unreported route/rat 5 ng/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemREPTED 28,32,2009
unreported route/rat 0.14 ng/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 28,32,2009
unreported route/mouse 1 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesisTOXID9 -,349,2009
unreported route/mouse 40 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 -,350,2009
unreported route/mouse 30 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 -,385,2009
unreported route/rat 2 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 -,117,2009
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 -,131,2009
unreported route/rat 3 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 60,24,2001
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOXID9 66,300,2002
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 60,333,2001
unreported route/mouse 135 µg/kg (16D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 60,333,2001
unreported route/mouse 150 µg/kg (13D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 60,333,2001
unreported route/mouse 200 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TOXID9 60,440,2001
unreported route/mouse 24 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
TOXID9 60,181,2001
unreported route/mouse 15 µg/kg (1D prior to copulation/7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
TOXID9 78,218,2004
unreported route/mouse 30 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOXID9 66,169,2002
unreported route/mouse 1 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 66,168,2002
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTOXID9 66,132,2002
unreported route/rat 4 µg/kg (15D preg/3D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemTOXID9 66,132,2002
unreported route/mouse 3 µg/kg (17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) systemTOXID9 44,172,2005
unreported route/mouse 10 µg/kg (14-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TOXID9 44,181,2005
unreported route/mouse 24 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTOXID9 44,138,2005
unreported route/rat 1000 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TOXID9 44,139,2005
unreported route/rat 1000 ng/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsTOXID9 44,139,2005
unreported route/mouse 1 µg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOXID9 44,145,2005
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 44,112,2005
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 44,112,2005
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 44,112,2005
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 44,113,2005
unreported route/rat 0.8 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)HBPTO* 1,741,2001
unreported route/rat 0.2 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemHBPTO* 1,741,2001
unreported route/rat 0.05 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
HBPTO* 1,741,2001
unreported route/mouse 5 µg/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOXID9 72,113,2003
unreported route/mouse 1.5 µg/kg (0-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemTOXID9 72,121,2003
unreported route/mouse 5.5 µg/kg (0-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)TOXID9 72,121,2003
unreported route/mouse 12 µg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial systemCMSHAF 25,115,1992
unreported route/rat 1500 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
ATSUDG 11,344,1987
unreported route/rat 0.7 µg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemTOXID9 14,382,1994

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.61 µg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXAPA9 179,21,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.052 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB82-163445
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.208 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTIS** PB82-163445
oral/mouse toxic dose: 1 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-209,1982
oral/mouse toxic dose: 36 µg/kg/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
NATUAS 278,548,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 52 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-209,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.052 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTIS** PB82-163445
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.052 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB82-163445
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 164 µg/kg/78W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CMSHAF 6,625,1977
oral/rat toxic dose: 190 µg/kg/95W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CMSHAF 6,537,1977
oral/rat toxic dose: 27 µg/kg/65W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
FEPRA7 36,396,1977
oral/rat toxic dose: 328 µg/kg/78W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PESTC* 5,12,1977
oral/rat toxic dose: 137 µg/kg/65W- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
FEPRA7 36,396,1977
oral/rat toxic dose: 73 µg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ANYAA9 320,397,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 1 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-209,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-209,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 73000 ng/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Angiosarcoma
TOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 73000 ng/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 33580 ng/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Angiosarcoma
TOPADD 33,165,2005
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 62 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-201,1982
skin/mouse toxic dose: 80 µg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BECTA6 18,552,1977
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.0594 mg/kg/99W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** PB82-163684
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.01188 mg/kg/99W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** PB82-163684
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kg/20W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
FCTOD7 46,2629,2008

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/blaInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.00478 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 248,185,2010
In Vitro/blaInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.0072 nmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TXAPA9 266,38,2013
In Vitro/blaInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.027 nmol/L/7MBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TXAPA9 266,38,2013
In Vitro/btdInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.01 nmol/L/6HEndocrine: AndrogenicTOLED5 225,264,2014
In Vitro/btdInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/6HEndocrine: EstrogenicTOLED5 225,264,2014
In Vitro/Chicken, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.04 µg/kg/7DEndocrine: Androgenic

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TOLED5 205,190,2011
In Vitro/Chicken, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.16 µg/kg/7DEndocrine: Estrogenic

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TOLED5 205,190,2011
In Vitro/cmbInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 ng/L/8HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 290,258,2011
In Vitro/cmbInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.01 ng/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTXCYAC 290,258,2011
In Vitro/cmbInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.01 ng/L/4HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 290,258,2011
In Vitro/Human, bone marrow Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 nmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTXCYAC 275,72,2010
In Vitro/Human, bone marrow Inhibitor Concentration Low: 20 nmol/L/20MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 275,72,2010
In Vitro/Human, bone marrow Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 20 nmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 283,18,2011
In Vitro/Human, bone marrow Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/12HNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: CaTXCYAC 283,18,2011
In Vitro/Human, colon tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,2283,2013
In Vitro/Human, embryonic cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 232,384,2015
In Vitro/Human, endothelium Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXAPA9 245,91,2010
In Vitro/Human, endothelium Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.01 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 245,91,2010
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.001 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 258,176,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,2331,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.21 nmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TXCYAC 324,68,2014
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,225,2010
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 199,225,2010
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1719,2013
In Vitro/Human, lung Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 209,58,2012
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1719,2013
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/2DImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTXAPA9 255,251,2011
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 3 nmol/L/3DImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTXAPA9 255,251,2011
In Vitro/Human, melanoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesFCTOD7 50,1933,2012
In Vitro/Human, melanoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 50,2142,2012
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 196S,S239,2010
In Vitro/jdaInhibitor Concentration Low: 40 nmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 196,87,2010
In Vitro/jdaInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TOLED5 196,87,2010
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/LBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesFCTOD7 50,3320,2012
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 pmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1467,2013
In Vitro/jrdInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.01 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TOLED5 211,257,2012
In Vitro/jtfInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.0496 nmol/L/24HEndocrine: EstrogenicTOLED5 206,152,2011
In Vitro/jtfInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/15MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 304,32,2013
In Vitro/jtfInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.0496 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 206,152,2011
In Vitro/jtfInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.6 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 206,152,2011
In Vitro/jtiInhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 206,178,2011
In Vitro/jtiInhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 206,178,2011
In Vitro/jzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 202,15,2011
In Vitro/mgaInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 nmol/L/12DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 202,226,2011
In Vitro/mlbInhibitor Concentration Low: 30 nmol/L/6HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial functionTXAPA9 254,299,2011
In Vitro/mlbInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/0.5HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 257,38,2011
In Vitro/mlbInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 247,60,2010
In Vitro/mlbInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 254,299,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, bone marrow Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.001 nmol/L/7DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTXAPA9 246,18,2010
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 254,299,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/6HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial functionTXAPA9 254,299,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 252,150,2011
In Vitro/Mouse, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 nmol/L/96HEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 261,88,2012
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTOLED5 223,73,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, neuroblastom Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1634,2013
In Vitro/mpdInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/3DImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTXAPA9 255,251,2011
In Vitro/mqaInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/3DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiation

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TXAPA9 280,502,2014
In Vitro/mqaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 nmol/L/6DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 263,210,2012
In Vitro/mtgInhibitor Concentration Low: 25 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 207,251,2011
In Vitro/mtgInhibitor Concentration Low: 25 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 207,251,2011
In Vitro/mtgInhibitor Concentration Low: 25 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTOLED5 207,251,2011
In Vitro/mzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.3 nmol/L/72HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTXAPA9 268,17,2013
In Vitro/mzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 nmol/L/8DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiationTIVIEQ 27,1634,2013
In Vitro/mzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 100 nmol/L/3DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell differentiation

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TOLED5 220,109,2013
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 312,132,2013
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 312,132,2013
In Vitro/pahInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/3HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 308,158,2013
In Vitro/pahInhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TOLED5 224,362,2014
In Vitro/pahInhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/6HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTOLED5 224,362,2014
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 300 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroTOLED5 226,294,2014
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.
NRTXDN 44,149,2014
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
NRTXDN 37,63,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/6HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 279,146,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 pmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 279,146,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell counting

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.
TXCYAC 279,146,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXAPA9 249,55,2010
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 300 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitroNRTXDN 37,63,2013
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 nmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NRTXDN 44,149,2014
In Vitro/Rat, testis Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 nmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 252,273,2011
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JPETAB 329,1091,2009
intraperitoneal/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgTOXID9 60,441,2001
intraperitoneal/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBehavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
TOXID9 60,441,2001
intraperitoneal/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 25 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
JTEHD6 35,187,1992
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 29.9 ng/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
BCPCA6 36,1535,1988
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainBCPCA6 36,1535,1988
intraperitoneal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)BCPCA6 35,2737,1986
intraperitoneal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BCPCA6 35,2737,1986
intraperitoneal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightBCPCA6 35,2737,1986
intraperitoneal/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 500 µg/kgLiver: Other changesBCPCA6 35,2737,1986
intraperitoneal/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3 mg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 55,67,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTXCYAC 92,155,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBlood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
CMSHAF 43,819,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 120 µg/kgSCAMAC 254,29,1986
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9.66 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)MOPMA3 13,924,1977
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 µg/kgBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TXCYAC 80,217,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.29 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXCYAC 80,217,1993
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides
AECTCV 41,232,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOXID9 72,66,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TOXID9 72,66,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CMSHAF 25,103,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 11.19 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 63,97,1990
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
TOSCF2 69,117,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kgBlood: Methemoglobinemia- CarboxhemoglobinemiaTXAPA9 181,32,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 157,89,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightTOXID9 66,334,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTOXID9 60,249,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaTOXID9 60,249,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOXID9 66,21,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
ARTODN 78,290,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseARTODN 76,570,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOXID9 1,68,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 782 ng/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TXAPA9 94,141,1988
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 115 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 172,125,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on cyclic nucleotides

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOSCF2 66,62,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesTOSCF2 69,109,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOSCF2 69,109,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOSCF2 69,109,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TOLED5 129,1,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgBlood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 178,241,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degenerationTOXID9 72(Suppl 1),336,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
TXAPA9 197,185,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 ng/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,18,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveCRNGDP 30,11,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 50,2325,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TXCYAC 266,30,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTOVEFN (2),20,1998
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 18,41,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Uncharacterized (multiple organ involvement)TOLED5 180,189,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TOXID9 -,195,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changesTOXID9 -,29,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 257,38,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 256,122,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 256,122,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 259,143,2012
intraperitoneal/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 70 µg/kgCardiac: Pericarditis

Cardiac: Other changes
TOXID9 -,437,2009
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 252 µg/kgSCAMAC 254,29,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 24600 ng/kgTXAPA9 45,513,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXAPA9 150,427,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 150,427,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 89,49,1994
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 246,100,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (25 percent kill): 1000 µg/kgTOXID9 66,334,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 37,51,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXCYAC 53,19,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 125 µg/kgTXCYAC 53,19,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXAPA9 94,496,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTXCYAC 76,103,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 76,103,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightTXCYAC 76,103,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19.31 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
CJPPA3 63,1537,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BCPCA6 39,485,1990
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80 µg/kgRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightBCPCA6 39,485,1990
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 53,177,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 60 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
BBRCA9 125,996,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightBBRCA9 160,1003,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainBBRCA9 160,1003,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.3 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Estrogenic
TXAPA9 95,435,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 53,177,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ARTODN 53,177,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 125 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ARTODN 62,146,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
LPDSAP 23,904,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
LPDSAP 23,904,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JPETAB 248,62,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.66 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)MOPMA3 13,924,1977
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 44,297,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 25 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changesTXCYAC 44,297,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 125 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia
TXCYAC 44,297,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 82.4 µg/kgEndocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Other changes
CMSHAF 19,785,1989
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 100 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHD6 16,481,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgEndocrine: EstrogenicTXAPA9 92,368,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 29,61,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
ATXKA8 53,177,1983
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 37,63,2013
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 226,294,2014
intraperitoneal/wild bird lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hyperfunction

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
ETOCDK 16,985,1997
oral/cattle lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.06 mg/kgTOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 0.02 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 0.1 mg/kgTOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 25 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTXAV 11,585,1973
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 µg/kgENTOX* -,70,2005
oral/domestic animal lowest published lethal dose: 0.41 mg/kgTOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/domestic animal lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.22 mg/kgTOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/domestic animal lowest published lethal dose: 0.13 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/frog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mg/kgSCAMAC 254,29,1986
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 ng/kgEVSRBT 2,708,1973
oral/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1157 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 55,67,1980
oral/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1157 µg/kgENTOX* -,70,2005
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4200 ng/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
AECTCV 17,33,1988
oral/monkey lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 µg/kgEXPEAM 38,879,1982
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 0.004 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders
REPTED 15,377,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)TOSCF2 56,114,2000
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 114 µg/kgEye: Mydriasis (pupilliary dilation)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Other changes
TXAPA9 29,229,1974
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 100 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BPBLEO 29,2284,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOXID9 60,25,2001
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 114 µg/kgENTOX* -,70,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
BPBLEO 27,1397,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
TXCYAC 224,191,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 205,89,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
BPBLEO 32,876,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsREPTED 23,326,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXCYAC 256,25,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 -,19,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 -,416,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JAPTO* 28,724,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
JTSCDR 34,SP349,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CRTOEC 20,1573,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 64 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CRTOEC 20,1573,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgLiver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 243,359,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 280,10,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TXAPA9 256,154,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 256,154,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 µg/kgLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 256,154,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.001 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXAPA9 246,58,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOXID9 72(Suppl 1),403,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightTOXID9 72(Suppl 1),403,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 172,49,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 172,49,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 156 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),363,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),364,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),364,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 175,73,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,222,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,279,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 188,15,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXCYAC 197,15,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXCYAC 197,15,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTXCYAC 197,15,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXCYAC 197,15,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgBlood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOXID9 66,178,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,389,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOXID9 44,389,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 205,89,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
NRTXDN 23,783,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 190,120,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4000 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 190,120,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 192,262,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 192,275,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 215,100,2012
oral/pig lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 115 µg/kgTXAPA9 35,553,1976
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hypoplasia

Endocrine: Other changes
NETEEC 15,365,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in spleen weightTXCYAC 106,221,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 106,221,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 106,221,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
TXCYAC 145,227,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
LIFSAK 69,1291,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: FeLIFSAK 69,1291,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metalsLIFSAK 69,1291,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightTXAPA9 128,97,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.03 µg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
TXAPA9 142,264,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOVEFN (6),14,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTOVEFN (6),14,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
JTSCDR 34,209,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightJTSCDR 34,209,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 -,416,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 µg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTXCYAC 283,140,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 250,132,2008
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 300 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 250,132,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsTXAPA9 233,314,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 233,314,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 -,18,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 207,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 207,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TXAPA9 212,224,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.001 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)TOXID9 227,117,2006
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 µg/kgENTOX* -,70,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TXCYAC 235,39,2007
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 10000 µg/kgTXCYAC 235,39,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 81,261,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
ARTODN 81,261,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 µg/kgSkin and Appendages: Other: Breast

Skin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
EVHPAZ 109,739,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.077 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionTXAPA9 181,38,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.3 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXAPA9 181,38,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6.3 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 181,38,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.14 µg/kgLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 187,128,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.83 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXAPA9 187,128,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 187,128,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 78,219,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
CRTOEC 13,1051,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
BCPCA6 36,727,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BCPCA6 31,3663,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
BCPCA6 35,4359,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
TXAPA9 133,321,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
TXAPA9 106,112,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changesBCPCA6 33,2531,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
JPETAB 215,601,1980
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
BIREBV 45,143,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 100 µg/kgEndocrine: AndrogenicTXAPA9 105,78,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6.25 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Endocrine: Other changes
TXAPA9 84,45,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXAPA9 84,45,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 66,376,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 207,1,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTOXID9 60,444,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 60,252,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,138,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,19,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,418,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 ng/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOXID9 66,169,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgEndocrine: Androgenic

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 66,170,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TOXID9 66,170,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOXID9 66,170,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),361,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 µg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOSCF2 71,112,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTOLED5 147,133,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOLED5 147,133,2004
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 60 µg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOLED5 147,133,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TXAPA9 197,354,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TXAPA9 197,214,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 171,73,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CBINA8 145,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 µg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesCBINA8 145,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
CBINA8 145,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 308,158,2013
parenteral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 60,440,2001
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,201,2001
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,269,2001
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOXID9 66,334,2002
skin/human lowest published toxic dose: 107 µg/kgSkin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergicSCAMAC 254,29,1986
skin/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 10 ng/kgBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TAEHC* VI:205,1,1998
skin/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 80 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesRCOCB8 20,101,1978
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 275 µg/kgEVHPAZ 5,87,1973
subcutaneous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 1 ng/kgCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 76,360,2002
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 27.5 µg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 194,239,2004
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NSAPCC 369(Suppl 1),R118,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2500 ng/kgEndocrine: Other changesJDPHDH 15,337,1991
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2500 ng/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)JDPHDH 15,337,1991
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightTXAPA9 133,313,1995
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 133,313,1995
Tank with water/Crayfish lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 µg/kgTIVIEQ 35,157,1996
Tank with water/Crayfish lowest published toxic concentration: 3 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TIVIEQ 35,157,1996
Tank with water/Trout lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.171 µg/kgCardiac: Pericarditis

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TIVIEQ 31,315,1995
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 1 µg/L/20HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TOLED5 198,119,2010
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppb/24HVascular: Measurement of regional blood flowTXAPA9 253,244,2011
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 ppb/4HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTXAPA9 253,244,2011
unreported route/human lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
EVHPAZ 109,865,2001
unreported route/human lowest published toxic dose: 6 µg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EVHPAZ 109,865,2001
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.32 µg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOXID9 72,109,2003
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,109,2003
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOXID9 78,19,2004
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,247,2004
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24 µg/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightTOXID9 60,181,2001
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kgBehavioral: AnticonvulsantTOXID9 60,442,2001
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 450 ng/kgCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 -,436,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgBlood: Other changesTOXID9 -,385,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 -,208,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 µg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 -,16,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kgBlood: Changes in spleenTOXID9 -,132,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 200 µg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ANYAA9 320,204,1979
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 ng/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTOLED5 180S,S36,2008
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 -,206,2009
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTOXID9 60,444,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTOXID9 60,444,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOXID9 60,273,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersTOXID9 60,273,2001
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10 µg/kgTOXID9 60,331,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,418,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 50 µg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,418,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published lethal dose: 19 µg/kgTXAPA9 187,128,2003

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 45 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 66,334,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9260 ng/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOLED5 60,247,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 180 µg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
CMSHAF 14,949,1985
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 µg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
CMSHAF 19,927,1989
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 µg/kg/8W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTXAPA9 226,107,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 226,107,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kg/8W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightTXAPA9 226,107,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 80 µg/kg/16W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTXAPA9 226,107,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JCINAO 113,137,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kg/7D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightARTODN 78,309,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kg/7D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesARTODN 78,309,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 32 µg/kg/7D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
ARTODN 78,309,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kg/4W- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FCTOD7 45,2237,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 246,100,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 ng/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 171,117,2002
oral/cattle lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg/10D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 0.22 mg/kg/10D- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/domestic animal lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 441 ng/kg/90D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 6,454,1986
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 1600 ng/kg/8W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EVHPAZ 5,101,1973
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 5 µg/kg/5W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 5,125,1973
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 600 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
BECTA6 31,649,1983
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 3.92 µg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)VHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 4.76 µg/kg/34D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 18.48 µg/kg/132D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 211.2 ng/kg/132D- continuousBlood: Other changes

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
VHTODE 43,134,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 1.68 µg/kg/14D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainVHTODE 43,22,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 3.36 µg/kg/28D- continuousMusculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VHTODE 43,22,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 5.35 µg/kg/30W- continuousEndocrine: Estrogenic

Endocrine: Other changes
ANYAA9 -,419,1979
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 0.535 µg/kg/30W- continuousReproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition
ANYAA9 -,419,1979
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 2.143 µg/kg/120D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune responseTOSCF2 56,374,2000
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 170.4 µg/kg/240D- intermittentReproductive: Other effects on femaleTOSCF2 56,374,2000
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kg/12D- continuousGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
BECTA6 18,108,1977
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 µg/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXAPA9 29,229,1974
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 45 µg/kg/3D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTIHEEC 17,192,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 588 µg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TXAPA9 112,128,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 97.5 ng/kg/13W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
TXAPA9 124,82,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 81900 mg/kg/26W- continuousSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TOXID9 78,367,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
EVHPAZ 5,149,1973
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 520 µg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-209,1982
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 336 µg/kg/8W- continuousBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
JEPTDQ 4(2-3),401,1980
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 ng/kg/3D- intermittentEndocrine: EstrogenicREPTED 21,301,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 ng/kg/5D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightREPTED 21,301,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12 µg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightTJADAB 33,29,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µg/kg/2D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsREPTED 23,326,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µg/kg/15W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
EVHPAZ 105,750,1997
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/4W- continuousEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
ETPAEK 61,406,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1350 ng/kg/60D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 12,454,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 µg/kg/4D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOLED5 178,202,2008
oral/mouse : 2520 ng/kg/28D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTXCYAC 321,1,2014
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 µg/kg/5D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseTXCYAC 282,82,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 µg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXCYAC 282,82,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 475 µg/kg/178D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOXID9 66,168,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4050 ng/kg/9W- intermittentVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic sectionTOXID9 44,173,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/18D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 229,10,2008
oral/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 600 ng/kg/15D- continuousEndocrine: Estrogenic

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Oogenesis
REPTED 25,47,2008
oral/pig lowest published toxic dose: 0.35 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOVEFN (1),30,2004
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 80 µg/kg/8W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** OTS0544117
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 110 ng/kg/22W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,331,2001
oral/rat : 1560 ng/kg/104W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchiNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 15500 ng/kg/31W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreasNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 700 ng/kg/14W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Multiple effects

Liver: Changes in liver weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 700 ng/kg/14W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weightNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 11440 ng/kg/104W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 465 ng/kg/31W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weightNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 52000 ng/kg/104W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 52000 ng/kg/104W- intermittentVascular: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 µg/kg/13W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
CMSHAF 29,2381,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2190 ng/kg/2Y- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes
TOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 37100 ng/kg/53W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Other changes
TOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21700 ng/kg/31W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 41.9 µg/kg/13W- intermittentBlood: Changes in platelet count

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 146,217,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 µg/kg/80D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
EJPHAZ 293,429,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesTOPADD 32,41,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 651 ng/kg/31W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2156 ng/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOPADD 33,165,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.9 µg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
EJPHAZ 293,429,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 µg/kg/30D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in platelet count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
EVHPAZ 5,111,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6500 ng/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells
TXAPA9 35,553,1976
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7300 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TXAPA9 46(2),279,1978
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 µg/kg/14D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOVEFN (6),34,2003
oral/rat : 23920 ng/kg/104W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 23920 ng/kg/104W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 1100 ng/kg/10W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 6500 ng/kg/13W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 1540 ng/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 µg/kg/16W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
BCPCA6 31,1607,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
BECTA6 45,436,1990
oral/rat : 3220 ng/kg/14W- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hyperfunction

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hyperfunction

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 2650 ng/kg/53W- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hyperfunctionNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 1550 ng/kg/31W- intermittentLiver: Other changesNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 ng/kg/45W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTXAPA9 57,156,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 µg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Change in clotting factors

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in platelet count
EVHPAZ 5,119,1973
oral/rat : 11440 ng/kg/104W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Reproductive: Other effects on female
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 15000 ng/kg/30W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Angiosarcoma
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 15000 ng/kg/30W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Tumors

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hypoplasia

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 15000 ng/kg/30W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritisNTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 5200 ng/kg/104W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Multiple effects

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat : 5200 ng/kg/104W- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Blood: Eosinophilia
NTPTR* NTP-TR-521
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 37.5 ng/kg/8D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOXID9 66,169,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 273 ng/kg/13W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TOXID9 66,170,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 273 ng/kg/13W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOXID9 60,235,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 ng/kg/12D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOXID9 78,245,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,246,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4140 ng/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 78,247,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 µg/kg/16D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionFCTOD7 49,1276,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 ng/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes
TOXID9 72,77,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 µg/kg/6D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 248,178,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 µg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 251,119,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 µg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 251,119,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 ng/kg/45D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JAPTO* 22,345,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 ng/kg/45D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
JAPTO* 22,345,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 µg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 251,119,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3600 ng/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 301,85,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 ng/kg/30W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesJJTHEC 65,825,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3300 ng/kg/30W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)JJTHEC 65,825,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 ng/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXAPA9 191,12,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 µg/kg/5W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainVHTODE 43,22,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 ng/kg/45D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JJATDK 22,345,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 72,30,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 ng/kg/45D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TXCYAC 171,127,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 ng/kg/60D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
TOXID9 72,362,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.07 µg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 178,45,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 275 ng/kg/64D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,361,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2190 ng/kg/2Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOPADD 35,880,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1113 ng/kg/53W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)TOPADD 35,880,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13 µg/kg/13D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
BCPCA6 32,991,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 µg/kg/4W- continuousEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionCMSHAF 25,1239,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 µg/kg/4W- continuousBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherCMSHAF 25,1239,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.275 µg/kg/13W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
CMSHAF 25,1239,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.9 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 -,167,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 ng/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CMSHAF 43,807,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4140 ng/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JTEHF8 69,381,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28000 ng/kg/28D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Microcytosis with or without anemia
CMSHAF 43,807,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22.75 µg/kg/91D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CMSHAF 25,2023,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.275 µg/kg/91D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)CMSHAF 25,2023,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 µg/kg/7D- intermittentSkin and Appendages: Other: Breast

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
EVHPAZ 103,708,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.9 µg/kg/30D- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
EPEPEG 293,429,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 µg/kg/180D- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseEPEPEG 293,429,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 ng/kg/45D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 76,113,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2156 ng/kg/14W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changesTOXID9 44,416,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4900 ng/kg/14W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 44,416,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 98 ng/kg/14W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 44,416,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 µg/kg/4D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 77,280,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15.5 µg/kg/31W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 78,19,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52 µg/kg/2Y- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 78,19,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 µg/kg/5W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 66,9,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9800 ng/kg/14W- continuousGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,372,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1980 ng/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TOXID9 44,416,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 ng/kg/30D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,168,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 µg/kg/15W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 66,157,2002
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/20W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXAPA9 102,362,1990
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 µg/kg/20W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
FCTOD7 42,1217,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 ng/kg/1W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationFCTOD7 42,1217,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 ng/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)FCTOD7 42,1217,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transportFCTOD7 42,1217,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- continuousSkin and Appendages: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TOXID9 78,367,2004
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 97 µg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in spleen

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NCITR* NCI-TR-201-82
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 ng/kg/20W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 197,212,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.7 µg/kg/20W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changesTXCYAC 273,1,2010
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6300 ng/kg/9W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphatasesCRNGDP 15,1143,1994
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 ng/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Tumorigenic: Cells (cultured) transformed
CRNGDP 15,1143,1994
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17 µg/kg/19W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structuresTOSCF2 69,482,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 170 µg/kg/19W- intermittentVascular: Structural changes in vessels

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures
TOSCF2 69,482,2002
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 µg/kg/4D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 -,16,2009
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 µg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)
TOXID9 72,230,2003
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 µg/kg/14D- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)TOXID9 72,121,2003
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 45 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,269,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9100 ng/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 72,264,2003
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.0075 µg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes
TOXID9 66,62,2002
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 102.4 µg/kg/32D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 44,416,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 µg/kg/16D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 44,416,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 51.2 µg/kg/16D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,416,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.8 µg/kg/14W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,19,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 69,33,1997
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,371,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 15,41,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMSUDL 7,350,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 69,33,1997
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,371,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 69,33,1997
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100F,371,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 59,1,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPAAQ 94,125,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHRYAQ 47(2),15,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 3,187,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRPZHAW 26,623,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBIOGAL 40(2),44,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSTEVA8 2,305,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 15,121,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTXAV 17,95,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPHTHDT 7,513,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 47,141,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 40,161,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVSRBT 2,708,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** PB82-922905
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMEPAAX 29,59,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWVHTODE 22,31,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMGLFDB -,123,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 25,257,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 22,517,1982
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 44,211,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDMTRAR 13,387,1982
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 43,309,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 138,9,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,3,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 561,147,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,49,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 198,111,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,508,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 20,441,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 32,311,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEJIME* 12,406,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,164,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,531,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,70,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,334,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,136,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIHEEC 16,305,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 25,413,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 6,115,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 9,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,337,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,202,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 17,69,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 17,137,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,133,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,551,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,813,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,137,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,36,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,80,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFESTAS 89(Suppl 3),1287,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFESTAS 90,911,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,165,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,172,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,319,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,327,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,16,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,363,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,1439,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,47,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 31,589,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 714,105,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 38,1,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 34,298,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,480,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,455,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 254,86,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 760,1,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764-765,36,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 45,94,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 30,89,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 210,338,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,74,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 230,146,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 230,225,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 261,227,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764,64,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 31,117,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 266,67,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 313,3,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 325,74,2014

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.01 ng/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN1 carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 10 pg/m3, inhal, skin, JAN2011

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO TCDD-airCarcinogen lowest feasible concentrationNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X7301; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 3; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 14; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 5

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/89/214522/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (dermal);clear evidence:mouseNCITR* NCI-TR-201,1982
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,rat
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 40, 1984
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (prechronic studies), October 2000
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (two year studies), October 2000
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000
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