Cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, gamma-isomer

RTECS #
GV4900000
CAS #
58-89-9; 8007-42-9; 55963-79-6
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
March 2018
Molecular Weight
290.82
Molecular Formula
C6H6Cl6
Synonyms
1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane, alpha isomer
1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer
1-alpha,2-alpha,3-beta,4-alpha,5-alpha,6-beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Aalindan
Aficide
Agrocide
Agrocide 2
Agrocide 6G
Agrocide 7
Agrocide III
Agrocide WP
Agronexit
Ameisenmittel merck
Ameisentod
Aparasin
Aphtiria
Aplidal
Arbitex
BBH
Ben-Hex
Benhexol
Bentox 10
Benzene hexachloride
Bexol
BHC
Celanex
Chloresene
Codechine
Detmol-extrakt
Detox 25
Devoran
Dol Granule
Drilltox-Spezial Aglukon
ENT 7,796
Entomoxan
Fenoform forte
Forst-Nexen
Gallogama
Gamacarbatox
Gamacid
Gamaphex
Gamene
Gamiso
gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane
gamma-Benzene hexachloride
gamma-Benzohexachloride
gamma-BHC
gamma-HCH
gamma-Hexachloran
gamma-Hexachlorane
gamma-Hexachlorobenzene
gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane
Gammalin
Gammalin 20
gamma-Lindane
Gamma-mean 400
Gammaterr
Geobilan
Geolin G 3
Gexane
HCC
HCCH
HCH
Heclotox
HEXA
Hexachloran
Hexachlorane
Hexachlorocyclohexane
Hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer
Hexaverm
Hexicide
Hexyclan
HGI
Hilbeech
Hortex
Hungaria L7
Inexit
Isotox
Jacutin
Kokotine
Kwell
Lacco HI lin
Lasochron
Lendine
Lentox
Lidenal
Lindafor
Lindagam
Lindagrain
Lindagranox
Lindane
Lindane (ACGIH:OSHA)
Lindapoudre
Lindatox
Lindex
Lindosep
Lintox
Linvur
Lorexane
Mglawik L
Milbol 49
Mszycol
NCI-C00204
Neo-Scabicidol
Nexen FB
Nexit
Nexit-stark
Nexol-E
Nicochloran
Novigam
Omnitox
Ovadziak
Owadziak
Pedraczak
Pflanzol
PLK
Quellada
RCRA waste number U129
Sang gamma
Silvanol
Spritzlindane
Spritz-Rapidin
Spruehpflanzol
Streunex
TAP 85
Tri-6
Verindal Ultra
Viton

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human5 mg/LBIHAA2 38(Pt1),344,1971
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgSOGEBZ 2,80,1966
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse12600 µg/kg/7D-continuousFCTOD7 33,309,1995
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster63 mg/L/48HMUREAV 48,337,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/chicken50 mg/kgMUREAV 272,175,1992
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/chicken100 mg/kgMUREAV 272,175,1992
DNA Damageoral/mouse200 mg/kg/8D- intermittentREPTED 17,25,2003
DNA Damagefibroblast/human6 mmol/L/1HTOLED5 147,35,2004
DNA Damageother cell types/rat500 nmol/tubeFCTOD7 31,271,1993
DNA Damageliver/rat30 µmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damageoral/rat60 mg/kgFCTOD7 31,271,1993
DNA Damageother cell types/human500 µmol/LEMMUEG 24,23,1994
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human500 mg/LARTODN 45,101,1980
DNA inhibitionother cell types/rat1 gm/LARTODN 45,101,1980
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse6720 mg/kgMUREAV 101,315,1982
Dominant Lethal Testoral/Drosophila melanogaster22 µg/LFCTOD7 33,309,1995
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat300 mg/kgFCTOD7 47,279,2009
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/chicken50 mg/kgMUREAV 272,175,1992
micronucleus testoral/chicken50 mg/kgMUREAV 272,175,1992
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgGISAAA 49(5),82,1984
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster200 mg/LGISAAA 49(5),82,1984
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/human100 mg/kgGTPZAB 17(3),32,1973
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human5 mg/LBIHAA2 38(Pt1),344,1971
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli1070 µmol/LMUREAV 182,193,1987
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster6 µg/LFCTOD7 33,309,1995
sperm morphologyparenteral/rat10 mg/kg/10D-continuousAPTOA6 31,1,1972
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat100 pmol/LCRNGDP 5,1547,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/other fish45 µmol/LHKXUDL 4,368,1984

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intratesticular/rat 10 mg/kg (10D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductAPTOA6 31,1,1972
oral/mouse 2730 mg/kg (13W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductFCTXAV 19,131,1981
oral/mouse 43300 µg/kg (1-4D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)TXCYAC 59,171,1989
oral/mouse 44 mg/kg (6-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXCYAC 59,171,1989
oral/mouse 22500 µg/kg (14-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TXCYAC 59,171,1989
oral/Dog 473 mg/kg (1-63D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth32OAAP -,253,1973
oral/rabbit 260 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXCYAC 9,239,1978
oral/rabbit 40 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BVIPA7 21,85,1977
oral/rabbit 60 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalBVIPA7 21,85,1977
oral/hamster 20 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BVIPA7 21,85,1977
oral/man 124 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JRPFA4 113,95,1998
oral/rat 5 mg/kg (1-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathVCVGH* -,541,1990
oral/mouse 120 mg/kg (9-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Germ cell effects (in offspring)
REPTED 17,25,2003
oral/mouse 120 mg/kg (9-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
REPTED 17,25,2003
oral/mouse 200 mg/kg (9-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)REPTED 17,25,2003
oral/mouse 120 mg/kg (9-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
REPTED 17,475,2003
oral/rat 2.125 mg/kg (5-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TXAPA9 225,278,2007
oral/rat 2.125 mg/kg (5-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicFCTOD7 77,74,2015
oral/woman 5 mL/kg (18W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathJRPMAP 37,992,1993
oral/rat 30 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsBECTA6 59,360,1997
oral/rat 200 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemTXCYAC 9,239,1978
oral/rat 100 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BVIPA7 21,85,1977
oral/rat 6100 µg/kg (18W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersGISAAA 36(5),19,1971
oral/rat 12500 µg/kg (16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchangeBECTA6 47,508,1991
oral/rat 6 mg/kg (9-14D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effectsHETOEA 16,146,1997
unreported route/rat 25 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersTOLED5 48,21,1989
unreported route/rat 33 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleTOLED5 48,21,1989

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 36960 mg/kg/110W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5376 mg/kg/80W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10752 mg/kg/80W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Tumors
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13204 mg/kg/26W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
CRNGDP 8,1889,1987
oral/mouse toxic dose: 25 gm/kg/73W- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
FCTXAV 11,433,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3780 mg/kg/80W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
ENVRAL 19,460,1979

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1067 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 218 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 289 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 117 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/ctdInhibitor Concentration Low: 1 µg/L/48HEndocrine: Other changesTXAPA9 247,243,2010
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 245 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXAPA9 272,325,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.0068 nmol/L/48HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial functionTXAPA9 272,325,2013
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 73 µmol/L/4MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 15.1 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 43.0 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 10.2 µmol/L/44HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1416,2013
In Vitro/Rat, endocrine tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 µmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXAPA9 248,12,2010
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 27.3 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
FCTOD7 49,3128,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 25 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
FCTOD7 49,3128,2011
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 75 µmol/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assay

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
FCTOD7 49,3128,2011
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 µmol/L/30MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)NRTXDN 33,1048,2012
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 40 µmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysNRTXDN 44,204,2014
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1.9 µmol/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysNRTXDN 40,75,2014
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 120 mg/m3/6HBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
GTPZAB 8(10),55,1964
intracerebral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 60 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTOLED5 60,289,1992
intraperitoneal/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changesHBPTO* 1,879,2001
intraperitoneal/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 640 mg/kgARTODN 58,152,1986
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdNRTXDN 29,1114,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (20 percent kill): 60 mg/kgNRTXDN 29,1114,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kgNRTXDN 29,1114,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 148,21,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
JPHPH* 58,641,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdFCTOD7 49,947,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdFCTOD7 49,947,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,1739,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,279,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 47,279,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 58.16 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
GEPHDP 18,165,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 35 mg/kgAEPPAE 212,463,1951
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 7500 µg/kgTIEUA7 5,61,1950
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 4500 µg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JPETAB 92,140,1948
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
BCPCA6 67,2141,2004
oral/cat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
CMEP** -,1,1956
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 111 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdAEHLAU 25,374,1972
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 40 mg/kgSPEADM 78-1,11,1978
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
oral/domestic bird lowest published lethal dose: 400 mg/kgCNVJA9 23,267,1982
oral/duck lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kgCNVJA9 23,267,1982
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 127 mg/kgFEPRA7 6,386,1947
oral/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 360 mg/kgEJTXAZ 7,159,1974
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 840 mg/kgYAKUD5 34,1232,1992
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 85.8 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolasesTXCYAC 61,41,1990
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 44 mg/kgJEENAI 65,632,1972
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 60 mg/kgJHEMA2 22,115,1978
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 76 mg/kgSPEADM 78-1,11,1978
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TJADAB 51,22A,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdTXAPA9 231,10,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLiver: Other changesJTSCDR 32,261,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TXCYAC 244,190,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 243,116,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 255,131,2009
skin/man lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg/6W- intermittentEye: Visual field changes

Cardiac: Other changes
AJDCAI 141,125,1987
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
AFDOAQ 16,3,1952
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgFEREAC 64,46191,1999
skin/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
skin/rat lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgVCVGH* -,537,1990
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 414 mg/kgGISAAA 55(7),87,1990
skin/woman lowest published toxic dose: 19 mg/kg/1H- intermittentBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Excitement

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
AEMED3 24,972,1994
Tank with water/Daphnia lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 460 µg/L/48HTIVIEQ 31,125,1995
Tank with water/Other invertebrate lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 22.5 mg/L/24HTIVIEQ 32,271,1995
unreported route/cat lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
PHTXA6 22,273,1959
unreported route/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgGTPZAB 17(3),32,1973
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
HBPTO* 1,879,2001
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 125 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
GISAAA 28(8),29,1963

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/4H/9W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
GISAAA 28(8),29,1963
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/80D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveGTPZAB 8(10),55,1964
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1700 µg/m3/17W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
GISAAA 43(3),41,1978
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/10D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
BECTA6 38,154,1987
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXAPA9 19,234,1971
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsTXCYAC 217,147,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 193,66,2003
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 383.1 mg/kg/613D- continuousBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 465 mg/kg/93D- continuousBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 875 mg/kg/50W- continuousBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Liver: Other changes
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 1120 mg/kg/32W- continuousCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 170 mg/kg/17D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/48D- continuousBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Tremor

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/duck lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
IJEBA6 29,94,1991
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 142 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
BCTKAG 7,37,1974
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 302 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
IJEBA6 34,1109,1996
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1954 mg/kg/2W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1298 mg/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10483 mg/kg/78W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
JTEHD6 20,411,1987
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7280 mg/kg/8W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 42.98 mg/kg/2W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 28.56 mg/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 42.84 mg/kg/6W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 160.16 mg/kg/8W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TXCYAC 66,75,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13104 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Changes in liver weight
CMSHAF 1,279,1972
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6048 mg/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
CMSHAF 1,153,1972
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2856 mg/kg/17W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5376 mg/kg/80W- continuousBehavioral: Aggression

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5376 mg/kg/80W- continuousBehavioral: Excitement

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13104 mg/kg/26W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/80W- continuousBlood: LeukemiaENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 23.24 mg/kg/4W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 61,41,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40.88 mg/kg/2W- intermittentReproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 61,41,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 52.5 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherTXCYAC 61,41,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/2D- continuousReproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vaginaREPTED 17,475,2003
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 364 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
GISAAA 45(1),72,1980
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 118 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BECTA6 54,258,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 101 mg/kg/8W- continuousImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
IJEBA6 35,1132,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 49,389,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 364 mg/kg/13W- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
GISAAA 41(10),14,1976
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 185 mg/kg/22W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
BECTA6 51,795,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 672 mg/kg/2W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
BECTA6 41,531,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36 mg/kg/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOLED5 56,137,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kg/6W- intermittentCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
JJATDK 15,245,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10080 mg/kg/24W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 11116 mg/kg/40W- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4494 mg/kg/107W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weightENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7929.6 mg/kg/80W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3780 mg/kg/80W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
ENVRAL 19,460,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)FCTOD7 41,1077,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightFCTOD7 41,1077,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 375 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
FCTOD7 41,1077,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/45D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 22,90,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/6W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 239,116,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
JPHSC* 101,250,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTSCDR 32,261,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight
JTSCDR 32,261,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
FCTOD7 49,991,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 60,318,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35.5 mg/kg/15D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 60,318,2013
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/5D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)TJADAB 51,22A,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/30D- intermittentEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycleTXAPA9 99,384,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 520 mg/kg/104D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weightTXAPA9 99,384,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1040 mg/kg/104D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in pituitary weight

Endocrine: Estrogenic
TXAPA9 99,384,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/20D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTXAPA9 99,384,1989
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/104D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Endocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
TXAPA9 99,384,1989
skin/pig lowest published toxic dose: 7500 mg/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXCYAC 10,55,1978
unreported route/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/5W- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune responseHBPTO* 1,771,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/7D- continuousEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
HBPTO* 1,734,2001
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
HBPTO* 1,879,2001

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMSUDL 7,220,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCNDQA8 10(3),43,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 56,107,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPMDCAY 10,85,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDTTIAF 80,485,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARDEAC 113,353,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWGISAAA 42(9),66,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCNDQA8 14,49,1979
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 488,151,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 19,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 43,143,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 586,138,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,93,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 20,389,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLBIAS 39,762,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,253,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,515,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,4,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOXIA6 49,413,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 72,32570,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 72,53449,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 26,1,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,316,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,355,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,251,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,813,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 26,321,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 254,86,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 760,1,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 201,152,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,1473,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,42,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,66,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,74,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,89,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,123,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 230,146,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 268,157,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIVIEQ 30,569,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,124,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)DTLVS* 3,146,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.008 ppm (0.1 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.5 mg/m3;KZW 5 mg/m3, inhal, skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.1 mg/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPAN2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3 (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0,5 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.1 mg/m3, carc 3, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 4 µg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO LINDANE-air8H time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3 (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 09318; Number of Industries 6; Total Number of Facilities 2617; Number of Occupations 11; Total Number of Employees Exposed 15036; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 5153
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 09318; Number of Industries 5; Total Number of Facilities 424; Number of Occupations 6; Total Number of Employees Exposed 689

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166662)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Host-mediated assay; D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR-14,1977
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Lindane, 5502
NTP 14th Report on Carcinogens,2016:Reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018