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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

p-Cresol

RTECS #

GO6475000

CAS #

106-44-5

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

108.15

Molecular Formula

C7H8O

Synonyms

1-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzene
1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzene
4-Cresol
4-Hydroxytoluene
4-Methylphenol
para-Cresol
Paramethyl phenol
p-Cresol (ACGIH:OSHA)
p-Cresylic acid
Phenol, 4-methyl- (9CI)
p-Hydroxytoluene
p-Kresol
p-Methylhydroxybenzene
p-Methylphenol
p-Oxytoluene
p-Toluol
p-Tolyl alcohol
RCRA waste number U052

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster30000 µg/L/20H (-enzymatic activation step)HPV299 -,-,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster30100 µg/L/20H (+enzymatic activation step)HPV299 -,-,2002
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human25 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)HPV299 -,-,2002
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human25 µmol/LRCOCB8 54,133,1986
DNA inhibitionlung/hamster150 µmol/LCRTOEC 4,151,1991
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.01 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 37,231,2001

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat 19775 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleHPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat 50850 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat 4500 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rabbit 650 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleHPV299 -,-,2002

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2280 mg/kg/20W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CNREA8 19,413,1959

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/mzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 20 µmol/L/5DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysJOETD7 132,274,2010
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.46 mmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 302,11,2012
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.23 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.TXCYAC 306,176,2013
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.46 mmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.TXCYAC 306,176,2013
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 29 mg/m3Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria
VCVGK* -,207,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kgVCVGK* -,207,1994
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 180 mg/kgVCVGK* -,207,1994
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 344 mg/kgGTPZAB 18(2),58,1974
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 160 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,207,1994
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 620 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,207,1994
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 620 mg/kgJPETAB 80,233,1944
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 270 mg/kgCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,207,1994
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 301 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVGK* -,207,1994
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 750 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tetany
VCVGK* -,207,1994
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 750 mg/kgGTPZAB 18(2),58,1974
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kgVCVGK* -,207,1994
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgVCVGK* -,207,1994
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1361,1935
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kgHBTXAC 5,58,1959
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgVCVGK* -,207,1994
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1361,1935
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgVCVGK* -,207,1994
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 160 mg/kgBJCAAI 6,160,1952
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1440 mg/kgGTPPAF 8,145,1972

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/4H/40D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,208,1994
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/28D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsHPV299 -,-,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13132 mg/kg/28D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15792 mg/kg/28D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 39480 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4550 mg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruliHPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15925 mg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54600 mg/kg/13W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes primarily in glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.213 mg/kg/213D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,208,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6776 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV299 -,-,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/28D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTIS** PB92-174242
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 33600 mg/kg/28D- continuousCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTIS** PB92-174242

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 20 mg/m3 (inhal, vapor, skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,678,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,392,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,36,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 36,82,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,61,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), skin, EC-limit, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (45 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), skin, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 ppm (4.5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (9 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 5 ppm (22 5 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO p-CRESOL-air10H time-weighted average 2.3 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84266; Number of Industries 8; Total Number of Facilities 1057; Number of Occupations 14; Total Number of Employees Exposed 21313; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 16798
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84266; Number of Industries 48; Total Number of Facilities 4394; Number of Occupations 34; Total Number of Employees Exposed 33253

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cresol (all isomers) and phenol, 2546
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: p-Cresol in urine, 8305
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-09, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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