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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Cobalt

RTECS #

GF8750000

CAS #

7440-48-4

Updated

April 2017

Molecular Weight

58.93

Molecular Formula

Co

Synonyms

Aquacat
C.I. 77320
Cobalt (ACGIH:OSHA)
Cobalt metallic
Cobalt-59
Kobalt (German, Polish)
NCI-C60311
Super cobalt

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
DNA Damageleukocyte/human3 mg/LMUREAV 392,31,1997
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human25 µmol/L/1HTOXID9 12,430,2008
micronucleus testleukocyte/human600 µg/LMUREAV 392,31,1997
micronucleus testleukocyte/human0.6 mg/L/15MMOCAT* 18,177,2003
other mutation test systemsleukocyte/human6 mg/L/24HTXAPA9 227,299,2008

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kgTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
ZEKBAI 52,425,1942
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 1.25 mg/m3/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
TXCYAC 333,195,2015
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 mg/m3/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Adrenal cortex tumors
TXCYAC 333,195,2015
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.25 mg/m3/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
TXCYAC 333,195,2015
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
TXCYAC 333,195,2015
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.25 mg/m3/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
TXCYAC 333,195,2015
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
NATUAS 173,822,1954
intramuscular/rat toxic dose: 126 mg/kgTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
BJCAAI 10,668,1956

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 50 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 253,178,2011
In Vitro/jahInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 253,178,2011
In Vitro/maxInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 mg/L/1WIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 253,178,2011
In Vitro/mzxInhibitor Concentration Low: 50 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXAPA9 253,178,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgVascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
INMEAF 15,482,1946
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kgNTIS** AEC-TR-6710
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVN5* -,452,1989
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
VCVN5* -,452,1989
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
VCVN5* -,452,1989
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2500 µg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edemaHBTME* -,511,2007
intratracheal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitis
HBTME* -,511,2007
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
intravenous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kgEQSSDX 1,1,1975
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 0.28 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema
VCVN5* -,457,1989
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 750 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)AIPTAK 62,347,1939
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6171 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
ATDAEI 1,686,1992
Tank with water/Daphnia lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21 µg/L/48HTIVIEQ 31,125,1995

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 mg/m3/4W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)VCVN5* -,463,1989
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 mg/m3/105W- intermittentTXCYAC 333,195,2015
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 100 µg/m3/6H/13W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AIHAAP 36,17,1975
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/4H/1W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldVCVN5* -,457,1989
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2H/56D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
VCVN5* -,457,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/24H/13W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Other changes
VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.09 mg/m3/24H/4W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerveVCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.09 mg/m3/24H/8W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.09 mg/m3/24H/8W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
VCVN5* -,460,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.09 mg/m3/24H/17W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): TCS cycle
VCVN5* -,461,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 mg/m3/105W- intermittentTXCYAC 333,195,2015
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/17W- intermittentVascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
GTPZAB 3(3),36,1959
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 2 mg/m3/4D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosing alveolitisHBTME* -,511,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 390 mg/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionTOXID9 -,189,2008
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 360 mg/kg/36D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
VCVN5* -,458,1989

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 52,363,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 52,363,1991
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review: Group 2BIMEMDT 86,133,2006
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 52,363,1991
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTRBMAV 33,85,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEMBAP 40,239,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWADTEAS 5,51,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWKOTTAM 11,1300,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFOREAE 7,313,1942
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMIBUBI 9,321,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTXAV 9,105,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,63,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPEXTAR 12,102,1969
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWGSAMAQ 123,109,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMTODM 3,209,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,55,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,63,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 15,431,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,103,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,631,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJJATDK 26,191,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,511,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,515,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,595,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,3,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,31,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,73,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPTPAD4 113,229,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCOCPH* -,701,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,185,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 760,1,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,278,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,14,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3 (dust and fume)DTLVS* 3,59,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.5 mg/m3;KZW 2 mg/m3, inhal, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.1 mg/m3;KZW 0.4 mg/m3, inhal, sen, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3 (fume, dust), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Co)/m3 (fume, dust), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.4 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.02 mg(Co)/m3 (dust, fume), sen, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg/m3, 2B carc, a1 sen, s2 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3 (dust and fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 0.05 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 0.2 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 0.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.05 mg/m3, carc 2, inhal, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 0.02 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, sen, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3 (metal,fume,dust)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, fume and dustCFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.1 mg(Co)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO COBALT METAL, dust and fume-air10H time-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code X5978; Number of Industries 8; Total Number of Facilities 151; Number of Occupations 7; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1326; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 128
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 19770; Number of Industries 57; Total Number of Facilities 3263; Number of Occupations 86; Total Number of Employees Exposed 78694; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 2650
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 19770; Number of Industries 27; Total Number of Facilities 1331; Number of Occupations 27; Total Number of Employees Exposed 8513

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/93/110724/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Cobalt and compounds as Co, 7027
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements in blood or tissue, 8005
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID121
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