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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Chromium(VI) oxide (1:3)

RTECS #

GB6650000

CAS #

1333-82-0; 12324-05-9; 12324-08-2

Updated

March 2016

Molecular Weight

100.00

Molecular Formula

CrO3

Synonyms

Anhydride chromique (French)
Anidride cromica (Italian)
Chrome (trioxyde de) (French)
Chromia (CrO3)
Chromic anhydride
Chromium oxide (Cr4O12)
Chromium trioxide
Chromium(6+) trioxide
Chromium(VI) oxide
Chromsaeureanhydrid (German)
Chromtrioxid (German)
Chroomtrioxyde (Dutch)
Chroomzuuranhydride (Dutch)
Cromo(triossido di) (Italian)
Monochromium trioxide
Puratronic chromium trioxide

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human2 mg/LSAIGBL 18,136,1976
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse20 mg/kgMUREAV 301,33,1993
Cytogenetic Analysismammary gland/mouse1 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 67,221,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster68 µg/LMUREAV 46,87,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster250 µg/LTXCYAC 17,219,1980
DNA Damageother cell types/cattle5 mg/L/45MMUREAV 750,105,2013
DNA repair/Salmonella typhimurium50 mmol/LTOLED5 7,439,1981
DNA repair/Escherichia coli18700 ng/wellMUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis50 mmol/LTOLED5 7,439,1981
micronucleus testovary/hamster1 µmol/LEMMUEG 17(Suppl 19),32,1991
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse20 mg/kgEMS37* -,460,2006
morphological transformfibroblast/human100 nmol/LCNREA8 47,3815,1987
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsovary/hamster6 µmol/LCRNGDP 13,2053,1992
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli8 µmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 66,357,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium1 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)TOLED5 8,195,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)AEMIDF 33,805,1977
other mutation test systems/Escherichia coli1500 nmol/tubeENMUDM 8,571,1986
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster250 µg/LTXCYAC 17,219,1980
sister chromatid exchangefibroblast/hamster320 µg/LMUREAV 104,141,1982
specific locus testintraperitoneal/Drosophila melanogaster300 ppmCYTOAN 51,421,1986
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 mmol/LMUREAV 266,197,1992
specific locus testunreported route/Drosophila melanogaster2.5 mmol/L/24HMUREAV 536,139,2003

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intravenous/hamster 5 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
ENVRAL 16,101,1978
intravenous/hamster 7500 µg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ENVRAL 16,101,1978
intravenous/hamster 7500 µg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
TJADAB 9,A17,1974
intravenous/hamster 8 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wallANREAK 199,89A,1981
intravenous/hamster 8 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesVCVN5* -,301,1989
subcutaneous/mouse 20 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
SEIJBO 19,171,1979

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
implant/rat lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kgTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
AIHAAP 20,274,1959
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 110 µg/m3/3Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
AGGHAR 13,528,1955
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 3480 µg/m3/2H/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
SAIGBL 29,17,1987

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 110 µg/m3YAKUD5 22,291,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)ETOPFR 15,53,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 17,117,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgREPTED 22,91,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 14 mg/kgNEZAAQ 34,193,1979
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 58400 µg/kgINJPD2 23,153,1991
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17100 µg/kgINJPD2 23,153,1991
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 9260 µg/kgINJPD2 23,153,1991
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 127 mg/kgCHYCDW 14,86,1980
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 80 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
TRENAF 27,119,1976
skin/rat lowest published lethal dose: 55 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
NTIS** OTS0537097
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10.2 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
ETOPFR 27,259,2009
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 20 mg/kgSEIJBO 19,171,1979

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 29 µg/m3/20H/90D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cabonic anhydrase
GISAAA 28(11),9,1963
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.03 mg/m3/24H/90D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
VCVN5* -,302,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/4H/28W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema
VCVN5* -,302,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 mg/m3/1W- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)ARTODN 78,363,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/13W- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
ARTODN 78,363,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1.25 mg/m3/13W- intermittentBlood: Hemorrhage

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ARTODN 78,363,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 23,205,1980
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100C,164,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100C,164,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 49,49,1990
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100C,164,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85DHAX Cr,22,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 33,215,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTOEC 18,3,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,602,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,60,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHBTME* ,213,2007

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.5 mg(Cr)/m3DTLVS* 3,35,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.01 mg(Cr)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cr)/m3, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(CrO4)/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, VLE 0.1 mg(Cr)/m3, C1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.05 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, a2 sen, s1 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.02 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg(Cr)/m3, short term exposure limit 0.3 mg(Cr)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.01 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.03 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.005 mg(Cr)/m3;short term exposure limit 0.015 mg(Cr)/m3, Carcinogen, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, carc 1, inhal, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.05 mg(Cr)/m3, carc, sen, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)ceiling concentration 0.1 mg(CrO3)/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHROMIUM(VI)-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.001 mg(Cr)/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 19430; Number of Industries 55; Total Number of Facilities 2873; Number of Occupations 65; Total Number of Employees Exposed 68271; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 11533
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 19430; Number of Industries 28; Total Number of Facilities 1253; Number of Occupations 44; Total Number of Employees Exposed 20618

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: B subtilis rec assay; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
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