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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Chloroform

RTECS #

FS9100000

CAS #

67-66-3; 8013-54-5

Updated

June 2017

Molecular Weight

119.37

Molecular Formula

CHCl3

Synonyms

Chloroform (ACGIH:OSHA)
Chloroforme (French)
Cloroformio (Italian)
Formyl trichloride
Methane trichloride
Methane, trichloro-
Methenyl trichloride
Methyl trichloride
NCI-C02686
R 20
R 20 (Refrigerant)
RCRA waste number U044
Trichloormethaan (Dutch)
Trichlormethan (Czech)
Trichloroform
Trichloromethane (OSHA)
Triclorometano (Italian)

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 148 mgAIHAAP 37,697,1976
eye /rabbit 20 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,89,1986
skin /rabbit 10 mg/24H open irritation test mildAIHAAP 23,95,1962
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,89,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat1200 µg/kgMUREAV 242,111,1990
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat597 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 242,111,1990
DNA adductlymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)1 mmol/LTOLED5 11,243,1982
DNA Damagemammary gland/mouse3.8 mmol/L/2HTOXID9 72,203,2003
DNA Damagemammary gland/rat3.8 mmol/L/2HTOXID9 72,203,2003
DNA Damagelung/human100 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 538,41,2003
DNA Damageliver/rat8 mmol/L/2HTXCYAC 187,101,2003
DNA Damageother cell types/human10 mmol/L/4HMUREAV 741,89,2012
DNA Damageoral/rat375 mg/kg/3DMUREAV 786-788,114,2015
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human19 mmol/LCRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA repair/Escherichia coli500 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,195,1981
DNA repair/Saccharomyes cerevisiae100 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,502,1981
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae2980 mg/LMUREAV 397,271,1998
micronucleus testoral/rat4 mmol/kgMUREAV 413,1,1998
morphological transformkidney/hamster4430 mg/LPMRSDJ 1,626,1981
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.1 pph/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster1 mg/LBLFSBY 39,359,1986
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.1 pph/24H (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,280,1981
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli0.5 pph/24H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse12 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 12(Suppl 13),103,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Schizosaccharomyces pombe5 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 1,424,1981
other mutation test systemsinhalation/grasshopper15 pph/16HMUREAV 113,467,1983
other mutation test systemsfibroblast/hamster1 pphANESAV 43,21,1975
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/hamster60 mmol/LMUREAV 182,135,1987
sister chromatid exchangeembryo/hamster100 µmol/LSHIGAZ 74,1385,1987
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/mouse300 ppm/6HIGAYAY 122,978,1982
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentENVRAL 32,72,1983
sister chromatid exchangeleukocyte/rat1 mmol/LMUREAV 300,241,1993
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 mmol/LENVRAL 32,72,1983
specific locus testother cell types/mouse0.4 µmol/LMUREAV 608,29,2006
sperm morphologyinhalation/mouse400 ppm/4H/5D- intermittentANESAV 54,53,1981
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgTOLED5 21,357,1984
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat1 gm/kgMUREAV 320,189,1994

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 30 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 28,442,1974
inhalation/rat 100 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
TXAPA9 28,442,1974
inhalation/rat 300 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TXAPA9 28,442,1974
inhalation/rat 20100 µg/m3/1H (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** PB277-077
inhalation/mouse 100 ppm/7H (1-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TXAPA9 50,515,1979
inhalation/mouse 100 ppm/7H (8-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TXAPA9 50,515,1979
oral/rabbit 260 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 29,348,1974
oral/rat 41 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemNTIS** #PB89148639
oral/mouse 2177 mg/kg (3W male/3W pre-7D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETOD7 1,199,1979
oral/mouse 2115 mg/kg (3W male/3W pre-5D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsEVHPAZ 46,127,1982
oral/rat 1260 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TXAPA9 29,348,1974
oral/rat 4 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JPFCD2 18,333,1983

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 127 gm/kg/92W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-0,1976
oral/mouse toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/17W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 5,251,1945
oral/mouse toxic dose: 130 gm/kg/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
VOONAW 33(8),81,1987
oral/mouse toxic dose: 24752 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
FAATDF 5,760,1985
oral/rat toxic dose: 58968 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Blood: Tumors
FAATDF 5,760,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13832 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
FAATDF 5,760,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 88.2 gm/kg/100W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
TOXID9 72,84,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 48 gm/kg/16W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 187,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 216 gm/kg/16W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 187,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 675 gm/kg/40W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXCYAC 187,1,2003
oral/rat toxic dose: 7020 mg/kg/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
EVHPAZ 31,171,1979
oral/rat toxic dose: 70 gm/kg/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-0,1976
oral/rat toxic dose: 98 gm/kg/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-0,1976

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 34566 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 7391 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 22125 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 2800 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 8.2 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.3 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/6HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TXCYAC 290,82,2011
In Vitro/Human, kidney Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/12HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 290,82,2011
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 25 mmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayAQUTO* 37,327,1997
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/5MCardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Cardiac: Change in force of contraction

Cardiac: Change in rate
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 1 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1.01 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
In Vitro/Rat, myocard Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2.4 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currents

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
TXCYAC 290,295,2011
inhalation/cat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47 gm/m3/4HENTOX* -,561,2005
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 35 gm/m3/4HBehavioral: General anesthetic

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
AHBAAM 116,131,1936
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 30000 mg/m3/3HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 70000 mg/m3/40MBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 80000 mg/m3Behavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/Dog Lowest published lethal concentration: 100 gm/m3PCOC** -,230,1966
inhalation/frog Lowest published lethal concentration: 6 gm/m3AEXPBL 97,86,1923
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 20000 ppm/2HFLCRAP 1,197,1967
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 33000 mg/m3Behavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/1YBehavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
IRGGAJ 24,127,1967
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 25000 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 5000 mg/m3/7MBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptionsAHBAAM 116,131,1936
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 25000 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 20000 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,307,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17200 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (16 percent kill): 16000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (84 percent kill): 29000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6000 mg/m3/6HVCVGH* -,330,1990
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 23 gm/m3/56MPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
BIZEA2 115,235,1921
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 59 gm/m3PCOC** -,230,1966
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 47702 mg/m3/4HENVRAL 40,411,1986
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6000 mg/m3/6HVCVGH* -,330,1990
intraperitoneal/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kgLiver: Liver function tests impairedTXAPA9 10,119,1967
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 623 mg/kgAGGHAR 18,109,1960
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,259,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
JAPTO* 24,203,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 894 mg/kgENVRAL 40,411,1986
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,96,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCLPH* 22(Suppl 1),52,2008
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 75 mg/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 820 mg/kgENTOX* -,561,2005
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 2514 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Cardiac: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
AJEMEN 6,507,1988
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 36 mg/kgATSUDG 2,371,1979
oral/mouse lethal dose (16 percent kill): 620 mg/kgVCVGH* -,330,1990
oral/mouse lethal dose (84 percent kill): 1650 mg/kgVCVGH* -,330,1990
oral/mouse lethal dose (90 percent kill): 750 mg/kgTXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral/mouse lethal dose (90 percent kill): 750 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 216,108,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesTXAPA9 227,48,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOXID9 66,289,2002
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 750 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 44,15,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 272,230,2013
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgAEXPBL 97,86,1923
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 695 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
KHZDAN 29(5),39,1986
oral/rat lethal dose (16 percent kill): 800 mg/kgVCVGH* -,330,1990
oral/rat lethal dose (84 percent kill): 985 mg/kgVCVGH* -,330,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
VCVGH* -,331,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14.9 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impairedTOXID9 66,49,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 119.37 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 119.37 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kgENTOX* -,561,2005
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >20 gm/kgENTOX* -,561,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 704 mg/kgENTOX* -,561,2005
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
unreported route/human lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.9 mL/kgVCVGH* -,331,1990
unreported route/human lowest published toxic dose: 6.3 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
VCVGH* -,331,1990
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 546 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,472,2005

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/7H/26W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 85 ppm/7H/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/2D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)TOSCF2 66,201,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/7D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
TOSCF2 66,201,2002
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 12 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldJTSCDR 18,423,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 22,431,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 85 ppm/7H/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/104W- intermittentBehavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHF8 69,1827,2006
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/7H/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
AIHAAP 37,697,1976
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 90 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 32,109,1996
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/7D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TXAPA9 125,214,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 592 mg/m3/2.5H/2W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
WDZAEK 6,243,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymesTOXID9 66,116,2002
multiple/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 gm/kg/104W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,186,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4760 mg/kg/26D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,353,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOXID9 66,265,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14560 mg/kg/0.5Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 60,152,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10920 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changesTOXID9 60,286,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4500 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Tolerance

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 78,314,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Tolerance

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,314,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/3D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 213,267,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/5D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/5D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/5D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Other changes
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/5D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kg/10D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kg/10D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kg/10D- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/8D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
MUREAV 574,67,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1750 mg/kg/14D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
EVHPAZ 46,117,1982
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOSCF2 50,90,1999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9100 mg/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOSCF2 50,90,1999
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4500 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 78,104,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 9000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,104,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymesTOXID9 66,116,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 32760 mg/kg/104W- intermittentBehavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTEHF8 69,1827,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 37.1 gm/kg/100W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTOXID9 72,84,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 88.2 gm/kg/100W- continuousLiver: Other changesTOXID9 72,84,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/28D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 180,233,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/28D- continuousBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)JPFCD2 17,205,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7560 mg/kg/21D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
GISAAA 48(3),10,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXCYAC 14,23,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUREAV 786-788,114,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kg/3D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipationMUREAV 786-788,114,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Hemorrhage
MUREAV 786-788,114,2015
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTXCYAC 304,49,2013
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/3D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changesTOXID9 66,62,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 20,401,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 73,131,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 20,401,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 73,131,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 73,131,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARZNAD 24,173,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDCTODJ 1,259,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 198,239,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 12,36,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,546,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,561,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,389,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 25,413,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,242,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 5,283,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,493,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 180,100,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,157,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,161,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,503,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 32,142,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 722,147,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,39,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 254,86,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 254,100,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 204,148,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 783,66,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,14,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,182,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDair-ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3)DTLWS* 3,14,1973
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (2 ppm), skin, JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 4 ppm (20 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), VLE 50 ppm (250 mg/m3), Skin, C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0,5 ppm (2,5 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 3 ppm (14.7 mg/m3), skin, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 50 ppm (225 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 2 ppm (9.9 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (49 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 225 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 2 ppm (10 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (25 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.5 ppm (2.5 mg/m3), KZG-week 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), carc 2, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (240 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 50 ppm (240 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 50 ppm (240 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (9.9 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)ceiling concentration 50 ppm (240 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHLOROFORM-airCarcinogen short term exposure limit 2 ppm/60MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO WASTE ANESTHETIC GASES AND VAPORS-airceiling concentration 2 ppm/1HMMWR** 37(S-7),28,1988
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 18500; Number of Industries 65; Total Number of Facilities 4890; Number of Occupations 55; Total Number of Employees Exposed 95773; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 41397
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 18500; Number of Industries 78; Total Number of Facilities 5120; Number of Occupations 66; Total Number of Employees Exposed 96747

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101140/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis; S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,ratNCITR* NCI-TR,1976
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 9, 1976
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #05
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