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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzene, ethyl-

RTECS #

DA0700000

CAS #

100-41-4

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

106.18

Molecular Formula

C8H10

Synonyms

Aethylbenzol (German)
Ethyl benzene
Ethyl benzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
Ethylbenzeen (Dutch)
Ethylbenzene
Ethylbenzol
Etilbenzene (Italian)
Etylobenzen (Polish)
NCI-C56393
Phenylethane

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 500 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
skin /rabbit 15 mg/24H open irritation test mildAIHAAP 23,95,1962

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
micronucleus testembryo/hamster25 mg/LMUREAV 392,61,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse80 mg/LEMMUEG 12,85,1988
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 mmol/LMUREAV 116,379,1983
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse754 µmol/LMUREAV 608,29,2006

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 97 ppm/7H (15D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)NTIS** PB83-208074
inhalation/rat 985 ppm/7H (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** PB83-208074
inhalation/rat 96 ppm/7H (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemNTIS** PB83-208074
inhalation/rat 600 mg/m3/24H (7-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rat 2400 mg/m3/24H (7-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rabbit 99 ppm/7H (1-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)NTIS** PB83-208074
inhalation/rabbit 500 mg/m3/24H (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rabbit 1 gm/m3/24H (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rat 1000 ppm/6H (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
FCTOD7 41,415,2003
inhalation/rat 1000 ppm (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)JAPTO* 27,32,2007

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 750 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-466,1999
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 46350 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** PB99-134694
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 46350 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB99-134694
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 750 ppm/1W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TOSCF2 71,53,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 750 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-466,1999
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 750 ppm/1W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TOSCF2 71,53,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 23400 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
NTIS** PB99-134694
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 19500 mg/kg/104W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB99-134694

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 0.36 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.99 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,122,2010
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 10000 ppmOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Tremor
PHRPA6 45,1241,1930
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 2500 ppm/8HBehavioral: ComaNETEEC 24,503,2002
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/8HEye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Sleep

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AIHAAP 31,206,1970
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 21700 mg/m3Behavioral: AntipsychoticVCVGH* -,153,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 8700 mg/m3/6MEye: LacrimationVCVGH* -,153,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 4350 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: Tolerance
VCVGH* -,153,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 4350 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritationVCVGH* -,153,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/4HCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
NRTXDN 24,179,2003
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 35500 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,152,1990
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 10000 ppmBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVGH* -,152,1990
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/30MVCVGH* -,152,1990
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 50 gm/m3/2HGTPZAB 5(5),3,1961
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/6MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4000 ppm/4HENTOX* -,282,2005
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 4000 ppm/4HAIHAAP 23,95,1962
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 55000 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,152,1990
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2624 µL/kgARTODN 58,106,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1062 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXAPA9 179,74,2002
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3500 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
AMIHAB 14,387,1956
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3500 mg/kgVCVGH* -,152,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 565 mg/kgBlood: Other changesTXAPA9 250,162,2011
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17800 µL/kgFCTXAV 13,803,1975
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >5000 mg/kgENTOX* -,282,2005
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.08 mL/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 255,100,2009

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/7Y- intermittentBehavioral: Headache

Behavioral: Irritability
VCVGH* -,154,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 975 ppm/6H/97D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NIH-92-3129
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 782 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightFAATDF 13,399,1989
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/4H/30W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
GTPZAB 8(2),9,1964
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 550 ppm/8H/5D- intermittentEar: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
NETEEC 24,503,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/6H/8D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)
FCTOD7 41,415,2003
inhalation/rat : 1000 ppm/15D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 44,1287,2006
inhalation/rat : 250 ppm/15D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightFCTOD7 44,1287,2006
inhalation/rat : 1000 ppm/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJAPTO* 27,32,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 ppm/13W- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or functionARTODN 81,127,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 740 ppm/6H/92D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
NTPTR* NIH-92-3129
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 782 ppm/6H/4W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Blood: Changes in platelet count
FAATDF 13,399,1989
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 1386 mg/kg/24W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGH* -,154,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8993 mg/kg/2W- intermittentEar: Change in cochlear structure or functionARTODN 79,346,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1750 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
MUREAV 746,144,2012

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 20 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 77,564,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 77,564,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 77,564,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 128,99,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,261,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,282,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 635,81,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,49,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,101,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,1287,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 49,1877,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 762,76,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,92,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,104,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 100 ppm (434 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 125 ppm (543 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 100 ppm (440 mg/m3);KZW 200 ppm (880 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 100 ppm (442 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 125 ppm (551 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 50 ppm (217 mg/m3), carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 442 mg/m3 (100 ppm);short term exposure limit 884 mg/m3 (200 ppm), skin, JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (220 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 200 ppm (880 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 100 ppm (442 mg/m3), VLE 200 ppm (884 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 20 ppm (88 mg/m3), skin, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 442 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 884 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 200 ppm (884 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 50 ppm (217 mg/m3), 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 125 ppm (545 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 125 ppm (545 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 100 ppm (434 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 125 ppm (543 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 50 ppm (220 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 100 ppm (434 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 125 ppm (543 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 100 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 350 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 50 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 150 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 100 ppm (450 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDceiling concentration 100 ppm (435 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 215 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 100 ppm (441 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 125 ppm (552 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 100 ppm (435 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ETHYL BENZENE-air10H time-weighted average 100 ppm;short term exposure limit 125 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 31830; Number of Industries 126; Total Number of Facilities 17633; Number of Occupations 92; Total Number of Employees Exposed 201833; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 34405
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 31830; Number of Industries 64; Total Number of Facilities 7190; Number of Occupations 55; Total Number of Employees Exposed 57442

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/99/166647)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);clear evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (inhal);equivocal evidence:mouse
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (inhalation):some evidence:mouse NTPTR* NTP-TR-475,1998
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-10, October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #1002
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