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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzene, nitro-

RTECS #

DA6475000

CAS #

98-95-3

Updated

July 2015

Molecular Weight

123.12

Molecular Formula

C6H5NO2

Synonyms

Essence of mirbane
Essence of myrbane
Mirbane oil
NCI-C60082
Nitrobenzeen (Dutch)
Nitrobenzen (Polish)
Nitrobenzene
Nitrobenzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
Nitrobenzol
Oil of mirbane
Oil of myrbane
RCRA waste number U169

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,411,1986
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,411,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster61.3 µmol/LMUREAV 608,28,2006
Cytogenetic Analysisintratracheal/hamster61.3 µmol/LMUREAV 608,28,2006
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse0.1 µg/kgTOLED5 139,25,2003
DNA Damagekidney/rat0.125 mmol/L/20HTXCYAC 204,187,2004
DNA Damageoral/rat300 mg/kgTXCYAC 204,187,2004
DNA Damagekidney/human0.062 mmol/L/20HTXCYAC 204,187,2004
micronucleus testkidney/human0.25 mmol/L/48HTXCYAC 204,187,2004
micronucleus testovary/hamster0.01 µmol/L/18HARTODN 78,49,2004
micronucleus testkidney/rat0.125 mmol/L/48HTXCYAC 204,187,2004
micronucleus testoral/rat300 mg/kgTXCYAC 204,187,2004
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster0.1 µmol/LNSAPCC 369(Suppl 1),R127,2004
mutation in microorganismslung/hamster200 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step)BLFSBY 39,359,1986

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 5 ppm/6H (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 4,181,1984
inhalation/rat 1260 µg/m3/4H (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
GTPZAB 31(4),48,1987
inhalation/rat 40 ppm/6H (12W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
FAATDF 8,493,1987
inhalation/rabbit 41 ppm/6H (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleTOXID9 6,93,1986
inhalation/rat 40 ppm (70D male/70D prior to copulation/22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)REPTED 28,196,2009
inhalation/rat 40 ppm (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemREPTED 28,196,2009
oral/rat 300 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TXCYAC 53,219,1988
oral/rat 1260 mg/kg (21D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JTSCDR 20,15,1995
oral/rat 3180 mg/kg (2W male/2W pre-3D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
JTSCDR 19,141,1994
oral/rat 5300 mg/kg (2W male/2W pre-3D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effectsJTSCDR 19,141,1994

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
FAATDF 22,328,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6H/2Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
FAATDF 22,328,1994

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2 gm/m3GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 556 ppm/4HEye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
NTIS** 0TS0570970
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Behavioral: Coma
RMSRA6 16,449,1896
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 640 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
AGGHAR 17,217,1959
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kgXPHBAO 271,79,1941
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgXPHBAO 271,78,1941
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 750 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1375,1935
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductTOLED5 139,1,2003
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 590 mg/kgGTPZAB 25(8),50,1981
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 700 mg/kgPCOC** -,805,1966
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 6,491,1992
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 349 mg/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0559505
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 682 mg/kgCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Cardiac: Other changes
TOVEFN (1),24,2002
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 682 mg/kgBlood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOVEFN (1),24,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 341 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
TOLED5 135,S132,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JTSCDR 25,41,2000
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
ATXKA8 28,208,1971
skin/cat lowest published lethal dose: 25 gm/kgHBAMAK 4,1375,1935
skin/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 480 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
XPHBAO 271,79,1941
skin/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1375,1935
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2100 mg/kgGISAAA 24(9),15,1959
subcutaneous/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1375,1935
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 286 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
PSEBAA 42,844,1939
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1375,1935
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 35 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 460 mg/kgUSXXAM #6127591

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
NTIS** 0TS0570697
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 800 µg/m3/24H/73D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 29(8),5,1964
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/90D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia

Blood: Changes in spleen
NTIS** 0TS0570697
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/70D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightREPTED 28,196,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1400 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
DCTODJ 17,271,1994
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleenTOXID9 3,125,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1960 mg/kg/49D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JTSCDR 27,11,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1080 mg/kg/18D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTSCDR 29,217,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 180 mg/kg/3D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JTSCDR 29,217,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/10D- intermittentBlood: Other changesFATOAO 35,108,1972

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 1 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 65,381,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 65,381,1996
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 65,381,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,321,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 20,389,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,236,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,199,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,36,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 763,181,2015

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,183,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 0.2 ppm (1 mg/m3);KZW 0.8 ppm (4 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.2 ppm (1 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.2 ppm (1 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm), skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.2 ppm (1 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 1 ppm (5.1 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.2 ppm (1 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), skin, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (10 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 3 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 3 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 6 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), KZG-week 2 ppm (10 mg/m3), carc 3, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 5 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.2 ppm (1 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NITROBENZENE-air10H time-weighted average 1 ppm (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 50760; Number of Industries 10; Total Number of Facilities 654; Number of Occupations 12; Total Number of Employees Exposed 5080; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 474
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 50760; Number of Industries 21; Total Number of Facilities 1022; Number of Occupations 24; Total Number of Employees Exposed 10578

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180398/AS)
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0293-8703;8EHQ-0293-8723
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0293-8724;8EHQ-0892-9102
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9103
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Nitrobenzenes, 2005
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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