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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Benzene

RTECS #

CY1400000

CAS #

71-43-2

Updated

October 2017

Molecular Weight

78.12

Molecular Formula

C6H6

Synonyms

(6)Annulene
Benzeen (Dutch)
Benzen (Polish)
Benzene (ACGIH:OSHA)
Benzin (Obs.)
Benzine (Obs.)
Benzol (OSHA)
Benzole
Benzolene
Benzolo (Italian)
Bicarburet of hydrogen
Carbon oil
Coal naphtha
Cyclohexatriene
Fenzen (Czech)
Mineral naphtha
NCI-C55276
Phene
Phenyl hydride
Pyrobenzol
Pyrobenzole
RCRA waste number U019

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 88 mg moderateAMIHAB 14,387,1956
eye /rabbit 2 mg/24H severe85JCAE -,25,1986
skin /rabbit 15 mg/24H open irritation test mildAIHAAP 23,95,1962
skin /rabbit 20 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,25,1986
skin /rat 60 µL/8H open irritation test mildTOLED5 159,261,2005

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human125 ppm/1YAEHLAU 22,373,1971
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 mmol/L/72HMUREAV 47,75,1978
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human1 mg/LBZARAZ 26(12),38,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisunreported route/human10 ppm/4WENVRAL 19,33,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat300 mg/m3/16W- intermittentGISAAA 42(1),32,1977
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/rat2400 mg/kg/12D- intermittentGISAAA 37(10),36,1972
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat234 mg/kgMUREAV 242,111,1990
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat39060 µg/kgMUREAV 298,81,1992
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse20 mg/kgBEXBAN 96,1741,1984
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse264 mg/kg/3D-continuousENMUDM 2,43,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/mouse3000 ppmEVSRBT 25,257,1982
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster550 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,427,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster600 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,443,1985
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/rabbit8400 mg/kgPSDTAP 15,275,1974
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/rat7.5 mL/kg/12W- intermittentTCMUD8 20,329,2000
Cytogenetic Analysisskin/mouse8.5 gm/kgEMMUEG 37,185,2001
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/human0.1 ppmMUTAEX 17,157,2002
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse24 mg/kgTPKVAL 15,30,1979
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster10 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 661,57,2009
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat0.5 mg/kg/1DMUREAV 566,99,2004
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse0.5 mg/kg/1DMUREAV 566,99,2004
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse5000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentMUREAV 566,99,2004
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse2640 mg/kg/3D-continuousCRNGDP 17,151,1996
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse2000 mg/kgMUREAV 493,39,2001
DNA Damageoral/mouse2000 mg/kgMUREAV 493,39,2001
DNA Damagesubcutaneous/rabbit2344 mg/kgARTODN 63,209,1989
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse3840 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA Damageovary/hamster17 mmol/LPMRSDJ 5,367,1985
DNA Damageinhalation/mouse100 ppm/2WTOXID9 66,72,2002
DNA Damageother cell types/Drosophila melanogaster100 mmol/L/24HTXAPA9 253,14,2011
DNA Damageoral/rat6000 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 786-788,137,2015
DNA Damageother cell types/human0.5 gm/L/24HMUREAV 779,86,2015
DNA Damageinhalation/human40 ng/L/14Y- intermittentTOLED5 192,22,2010
DNA Damageinhalation/human24.2 ng/L/10Y- intermittentTOLED5 192,22,2010
DNA Damageinhalation/human27.7 ng/L/25Y- intermittentTOLED5 192,22,2010
DNA Damageovary/hamster1 µmol/L/3HMUREAV 661,57,2009
DNA inhibitionsubcutaneous/rabbit2 gm/kgACHAAH 38,104,1967
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse20 gm/kgARGEAR 51,605,1981
DNA inhibitionintraperitoneal/mouse880 mg/kgRCOCB8 60,27,1988
DNA inhibitioninhalation/mouse3000 ppm/4H-continuousRCOCB8 60,27,1988
DNA inhibitionbone marrow/mouse3 mmol/LRCOCB8 60,27,1988
DNA inhibitioninhalation/rat400 ppmBLUTA9 21,250,1970
DNA inhibitionleukocyte/human2200 µmol/LINHEAO 12,23,1974
DNA inhibitionHeLa cell/human2200 µmol/LINHEAO 12,23,1974
DNA repairinhalation/human24.4 ppb/8HMUREAV 626,79,2007
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse1 mg/kgARTODN 39,173,1978
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse5 mg/kgTPKVAL 15,30,1979
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae275 mg/LPMRSDJ 5,271,1985
micronucleus testembryo/mouse12500 nmol/LEMMUEG 19(Suppl 20),21,1992
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/mouse440 mg/kgCBINA8 39,129,1982
micronucleus testoral/mouse40 mg/kgMUREAV 147,294,1985
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse264 mg/kg/24HMUTAEX 2,111,1987
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse10 ppm/6HENMUDM 8,29,1986
micronucleus testinhalation/rat1 ppm/6HENMUDM 8,29,1986
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse15000 ppm/5WMUTAEX 16,163,2001
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse100 ppm/6H/10DMUREAV 549,195,2004
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse50 ppm/6H/15D- intermittentCBINA8 173,166,2008
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse400 mg/kgMUREAV 676,74,2009
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse3600 mg/kg/9D- intermittentMUREAV 676,74,2009
micronucleus testovary/hamster10 µmol/L/4HMUREAV 661,57,2009
micronucleus testoral/rat1500 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 786-788,137,2015
micronucleus testfibroblast/hamster30 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 770,37,2014
micronucleus testunreported route/mouse10 mg/kgJAPTO* 25,514,2005
micronucleus testinhalation/human21 ng/L/9Y- intermittentMUREAV 583,1,2005
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse10 ppm/5D/2W- intermittentTOXID9 66,72,2002
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse10 ppm/2WTOXID9 66,72,2002
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse100 ppm/6H/2W- intermittentTOXID9 72(Supp 1),228,2003
micronucleus testinhalation/mouse100 ppm/2W- intermittentTOSCF2 72,201,2003
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat0.03 mL/kgTCMUD8 21,181,2001
micronucleus testintratracheal/rat0.03 mL/kgTCMUD8 21,181,2001
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species10 mg/L/36HMUREAV 534,93,2003
micronucleus testmultiple/non-mammalian species10 mg/L/90MMUREAV 534,93,2003
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.01 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
morphological transformembryo/hamster100 µg/LCRNGDP 4,291,1983
morphological transformembryo/mouse1 gm/LPMRSDJ 5,659,1985
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse150 gm/LCRNGDP 3,1235,1982
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/human1 gm/LPMRSDJ 5,497,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsembryo/hamster10 µmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse12500 µg/LPMRSDJ 5,525,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsinhalation/mouse40 ppb/6W-continuousMUREAV 268,49,1992
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsoral/mouse2 gm/kg/5D-continuousEMMUEG 28,342,1996
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae549 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 5,271,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium10 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)EVHPAZ 82,81,1989
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse62500 µg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 5,587,1985
mutation in microorganismsembryo/mouse2500 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)PMRSDJ 5,639,1985
other mutation test systemsliver/rat1 mmol/LCBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systemsbone marrow/rat1 mmol/LCBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/rat1 gm/LNJMSAG 28,204,1966
other mutation test systemssubcutaneous/rat2200 mg/kgCBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systemsinhalation/grasshopper14 pph/16HMUREAV 113,467,1983
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/non-mammalian species75 gm/kgACHAAH 26,281,1961
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/human5 µmol/LCNREA8 45,2471,1985
other mutation test systemslymphocyte/mouse10 mmol/LTOLED5 29,161,1985
other mutation test systemsoral/mouse2 gm/kgMUREAV 343,157,1995
other mutation test systemsother cell types/mouse5 mmol/LCBTOE2 2,231,1986
other mutation test systemsbone marrow/rabbit1 mmol/LCBINA8 42,353,1982
other mutation test systemsbone marrow/cat1 mmol/LCBINA8 42,353,1982
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionliver/hamster62500 µg/LPMRSDJ 5,397,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionembryo/hamster30 µmol/LMUREAV 373,113,1997
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans35000 ppmMUREAV 147,288,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster7500 ppmCONAEL 1,35,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster27000 ppmEMMUEG 25,211,1995
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human200 µmol/LCNREA8 43,1330,1983
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/rat3 ppm/6HENMUDM 8,29,1986
sister chromatid exchangeleukocyte/rat1 mmol/LMUREAV 300,241,1993
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster750 mg/LSCIEAS 236,933,1987
sister chromatid exchangeinhalation/mouse10 ppm/6HENMUDM 8,29,1986
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse5 gm/kgENMUDM 5,450,1983
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster11250 µmol/LPMRSDJ 5,325,1985
specific locus testembryo/Drosophila melanogaster0.175 mg/L/1HMUREAV 763,18,2014
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisliver/rat1 mmol/LPMRSDJ 5,371,1985

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 670 mg/m3/24H (15D prior to copulation/1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)HYSAAV 33(1-3),327,1968
inhalation/rat 56600 µg/m3/24H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicHYSAAV 33(7-9),112,1968
inhalation/rat 50 ppm/24H (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JHEMA2 24,363,1980
inhalation/rat 150 ppm/24H (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
JHEMA2 24,363,1980
inhalation/mouse 500 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
AIHAAP 40,993,1979
inhalation/mouse 500 mg/m3/12H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/mouse 5 ppm (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
TXCYAC 42,171,1986
inhalation/mouse 20 ppm/6H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)FAATDF 10,224,1988
inhalation/rabbit 1 gm/m3/24H (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rabbit 1 gm/m3/24H (7-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
ATSUDG 8,425,1985
inhalation/rabbit 500 ppm/7H (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleNTIS** OTS0545179
intraperitoneal/mouse 1600 mg/kg (10-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TERM1* -,327,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 800 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)
TOXID9 -,312,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse 800 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 -,312,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse 1600 mg/kg (10-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemTXAPA9 228,326,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse 800 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOXID9 -,351,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse 1800 mg/kg (7-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemMUREAV 676,74,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse 3600 mg/kg (7-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)MUREAV 676,74,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse 800 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary systemTXAPA9 244,273,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse 5 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TPKVAL 15,30,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse 219 mg/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
EMMUEG 18,1,1991
intravenous/mouse 13200 µg/kg (13-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)ICHUDW 4(6),24,1982
oral/mouse 9 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral/mouse 12 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TJADAB 19,41A,1979
oral/mouse 6500 mg/kg (8-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TCMUD8 6,361,1986
oral/mouse 16880 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
NTIS** OTS0554056
parenteral/mouse 4 gm/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)NEZAAQ 25,438,1970
subcutaneous/rat 0.1 mg/kg (15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
TXCYAC 223,227,2006
subcutaneous/mouse 1100 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusTOXID9 1,125,1981
subcutaneous/mouse 7030 mg/kg (12-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 15,47,1975

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/8H/10Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
TRBMAV 37,153,1978
inhalation/human toxic concentration: 150 ppm/15M/8Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
BLOOAW 52,285,1978
inhalation/human toxic concentration: 8 ppb/4W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NEJMAG 316,1044,1987
inhalation/human toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/11Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
BJIMAG 44,124,1987
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 200 mg/m3/78W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Thrombocytopenia
EJCAAH 7,83,1971
inhalation/man toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3/4Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NEJMAG 271,872,1964
inhalation/man toxic concentration: 150 ppm/11Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
BLUTA9 28,293,1974
inhalation/mouse toxic concentration: 1200 ppm/6H/10W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
PAACA3 25,75,1984
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/16W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
TXAPA9 75,358,1984
inhalation/mouse toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/16W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
IHRMEQ (3),156,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1200 ppm/6H/10W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
PAACA3 25,75,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 82,19,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18250 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
NTPTR* NTP-TR-289,1986
oral/mouse toxic dose: 2400 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
TXAPA9 82,19,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12875 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 51500 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 51500 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 103000 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12875 mg/kg/103W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Endocrine: Tumors
NTIS** PB86-216967/AS
oral/rat toxic dose: 52 gm/kg/1Y- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
AJIMD8 4,589,1983
oral/rat toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
MELAAD 70,352,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52 gm/kg/52W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors

Blood: Leukemia
MELAAD 70,352,1979
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 670 mg/kg/19W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
KLWOAZ 12,109,1933
skin/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1200 gm/kg/49W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
BJCAAI 16,275,1962
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/17W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
KRANAW 9,403,1932

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, bone marrow Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
TOLED5 214,145,2012
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 3.44 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 8.75 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 4.70 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, leukemia cells Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 12.73 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 gm/L/2HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 µg/m3/24HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/Human, lung tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 gm/L/1HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: PhosphokinaseTXCYAC 289,28,2011
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration (20 percent kill): 3.40 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
In Vitro/jvxInhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 9.43 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TXCYAC 271,122,2010
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 170000 mg/m3HBTXAC 1,324,1955
inhalation/Dog Lowest published lethal concentration: 146000 mg/m3HBTXAC 1,324,1955
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
VCVGH* -,120,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 75 mg/m3/2HBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
VCVGH* -,120,1990
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 2 pph/2MVCVGH* -,121,1990
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 5 mg/m3/5HVCVGH* -,121,1990
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 2 pph/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppmBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
INMEAF 17,199,1948
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 65 mg/m3/5YBlood: Other changesARGEAR 44,145,1974
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 20000 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/1Y- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
BLUTA9 28,293,1974
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9980 ppmBehavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JIHTAB 25,366,1943
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (10 percent kill): 15 mL/kg/2HVCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2000 ppm/30MBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 3013 ppm/30MBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TXAPA9 193,9,2003
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 45000 ppm/30MJIHTAB 26,69,1944
inhalation/rabbit Lowest published lethal concentration: 35000 ppm/22MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Tremor

Eye: Other eye effects
VCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4000 ppmBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation/rat Lowest published lethal concentration: 10000 ppmVCVGH* -,119,1990
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10000 ppm/7H28ZRAQ -,113,1960
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1 ppm/6HKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionFCTOD7 40,1799,2002
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 16.7 gm/m3/2HGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreasVCVGH* -,120,1990
intramuscular/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 0.1 mL/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia
VCVGH* -,119,1990
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 527 mg/kgHBTXAC 1,42,1955
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published lethal dose: 1500 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Irritability
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 340 mg/kgANYAA9 243,104,1975
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1100 µg/kgAPYPAY 12,173,1961
intravenous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 88 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Eye: Hemorrhage

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis
JTEHD6 (Suppl 2),45,1977
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kgHBAMAK 4,1313,1935
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 0.7 mL/kgVCVGH* -,122,1990
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5700 mg/kgGISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kgYAKUD5 22,883,1980
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4700 mg/kgHYSAAV 32(3),349,1967
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 880 mg/kg/12HBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveMUREAV 208,61,1988
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6400 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1280 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kgVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 930 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
TXAPA9 7,767,1965
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mL/kgVCVGH* -,119,1990
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/kgVCVGH* -,119,1990
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): >9400 µL/kgTXAPA9 7,559,1965
skin/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 48 mg/kgNPIRI* 1,5,1974
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >9400 µL/kgTXAPA9 7,559,1965
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.08 mL/kgSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, irritative

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 255,100,2009
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 920 µL/kg/1HSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationTOXID9 44,449,2005
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.92 mL/kgSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,294,2005
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 1400 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1313,1935
subcutaneous/rat lowest published lethal dose: 5 mg/kgBehavioral: TremorNTIS** OTS0544815
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 194 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/human lowest published toxic dose: 87 mg/m3/21W- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 203,111,2011
inhalation/man lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 ppm/14Y- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCTOD7 90,30,2016
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/15D- continuousBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherCBINA8 173,166,2008
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 ppm/6H/10D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
MUREAV 549,195,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 100 ppm/6H/10D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in platelet count
MUREAV 549,195,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Thrombocytopenia

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
AJIMD8 7,457,1985
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOLED5 56,159,1991
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/10W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in spleen
TXAPA9 58,492,1981
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/6H/26W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOLED5 20,337,1984
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/16W- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AJIMD8 7,447,1985
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 48 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentBlood: Luekopenia

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TXAPA9 85,92,1986
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/72W- intermittentBlood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Luekopenia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 54,323,1980
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/2W- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countTOXID9 72,228,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) countCNREA8 63,929,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
CNREA8 63,929,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/26W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 195,19,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/2W- intermittentEndocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Blood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
TOSCF2 72,201,2003
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/2W- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOXID9 66,72,2002
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6H/3W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above
JTEHD6 5,1025,1979
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/3H/13W- intermittentBlood: Hemorrhage

Blood: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
GISAAA 24(1),80,1959
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1172 mg/m3/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TXCYAC 188,161,2003
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 10 ppm/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JAPTO* 25,74,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1000 ppm/7H/28W- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)JIHTAB 26,37,1944
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6H/3W- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
JTEHD6 5,1025,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/13W- intermittentBlood: LuekopeniaAJIMD8 7,457,1985
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/99W- intermittentBlood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTEHD6 4,605,1978
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 23 mg/m3/4H/8D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in pituitary weight
TPKVAL 12,5,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.585 gm/m3/8D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainTPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.023 gm/m3/8D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Other changes
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.585 gm/m3/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.023 gm/m3/2D- intermittentBlood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.023 gm/m3/4D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)TPKVAL 12,100,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.585 gm/m3/2D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 12,100,1971
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBehavioral: StiffnessTXAPA9 228,326,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3600 mg/kg/9D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in aboveMUREAV 676,74,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe
IJEBA6 36,283,1998
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 159.9 µg/kg/3D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 24.97 µg/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
multiple/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 560 gm/m3/4D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 22,263,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4250 mg/kg/17W- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* NTP-TR-289,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 929.6 mg/kg/4W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
IMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 232.4 mg/kg/7D- continuousEndocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasiaIMMPH* 21,23,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 17 gm/kg/17W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
NTPTR* NTP-TR-289,1986
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/28D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22400 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 22400 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: IsomerasesMUREAV 575,85,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBlood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: Proportion of isoenzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
MUREAV 575,85,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kg/14D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 225,171,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5600 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 225,171,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6600 mg/kg/27W- intermittentBlood: Luekopenia

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
AMIHAB 14,387,1956
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 960 µL/kg/4D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 159,261,2005
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.96 mL/kg/4D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Primary irritation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,294,2005
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 960 µL/kg/4D- intermittentSkin: After topical application: Primary irritationTOXID9 44,449,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TXAPA9 103,198,1990
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2197 mg/kg/5D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
INHEAO 3,91,1965
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 mL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Luekopenia

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TCMUD8 20,329,2000
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/6W- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOLED5 109(Suppl 1),32,1999
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AJHYA2 7,276,1927
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2197 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
INHEAO 3,91,1965
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13536 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
BCTKAG 17,101,1984

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.5 ppm;short term exposure limit 2.5 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 7,203,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMSUDL 7,120,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 29,93,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 29,93,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,285,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 7,203,1974
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 100F,285,2012
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMSUDL 7,120,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 1IMEMDT 100F,285,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPAAQ 11,434,1931
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEHLAU 22,373,1971
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAMSVAZ 118,354,1944
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWZHPMAT 166,113,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 (Suppl 2),69,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPHRPA6 41,1357,1926
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAIHAAP 41,616,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 11,531,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWKRANAW 9,403,1932
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 61,339,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 61,353,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 32,1,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,99,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,353,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 197,144,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 14,5,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 14,141,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIMMPH* 46,103,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 582,61,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCBINA8 153-154,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCBINA8 153-154,9,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 32,155,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 566,209,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,251,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 635,81,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,95,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOPADD 32(Suppl. 2),12,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 545,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 540,165,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,93,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 544,313,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 672,1,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 608,136,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 182,7,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,93,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 180,100,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,271,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,150,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,45,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 674,101,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,241,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 636,144,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAIRMJ* 20,8,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 3,71,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 4,226,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,225,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,S2,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,S49,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,503,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,485,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,107,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 24,383,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,165,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,172,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 705,184,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,3,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,1,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,363,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 32,142,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,118,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,38,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,108,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,35,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIHEEC 24,263,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,49,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,39,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,480,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,455,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 746,113,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,485,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 28,375,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,500,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 744,8,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,27,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 759,49,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,171,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,278,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,231,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764-765,36,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 769,34,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 203,20,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 761,40,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 762,133,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 762,76,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 783,66,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 55,596,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 764,31,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 786-788,14,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 231,194,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 765,19,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 793,176,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 55,679,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 58,252,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 768,27,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 276,83,2014
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 802,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 86,298,2015
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 313,3,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,1,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,58,I2
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 770,92,I2

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARDair-ceiling concentration 25 ppm (80 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,22,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 1 ppm (3.2 mg/m3);KZW 4 ppm (12.8 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1 ppm (3.25 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.6 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (3.25 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1 ppm (3.25 mg/m3), C1 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 3 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.6 mg/m3), carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 1 ppm, skin, 1 carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 1 ppm (3.2 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), carcinogen, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.6 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 40 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 15 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 3 ppm (9 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.5 ppm (1.6 mg/m3), carc 1, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 25 ppm (75 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 3.25 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 25 ppm (80 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 20 ppm (64 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 1 ppm (3.25 mg/m3), skin, carc, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)see Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29,1926.1128CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)ceiling concentration 25 ppm (80 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-cancer hazardFEREAC 52,34460,1987

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO BENZENE-air8H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.1 ppm;ceiling concentration 1 ppm/15MNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 09070; Number of Industries 92; Total Number of Facilities 10054; Number of Occupations 117; Total Number of Employees Exposed 272275; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 143066
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 09070; Number of Industries 126; Total Number of Facilities 11184; Number of Occupations 106; Total Number of Employees Exposed 147583

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101157/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mammalian micronucleus; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse,rat
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Benzene, by portable GC, 3700
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, aromatic, 1501
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 degree C, 1500
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Known to be human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (prechronic studies), October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #12
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