Ammonia

RTECS #
BO0875000
CAS #
7664-41-7; 8007-57-6
See: NMAM or OSHA Methods
Updated
June 2018
Molecular Weight
17.04
Molecular Formula
H3N
Synonyms
AM-Fol
Ammonia (ACGIH:OSHA)
Ammonia anhydrous
Ammonia gas
Ammoniac (French)
Ammoniaca (Italian)
Ammoniak (German)
Amoniak (Polish)
Nitro-sil
R 717
Spirit of hartshorn

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisinhalation/rat19800 µg/m3/16WBZARAZ 27(6),102,1974
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli1500 ppm/3H (-enzymatic activation step)AMNTA4 85,119,1951

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1680 mg/kg/24W- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
CALEDQ 65,15,1992

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 15 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETOX* 49,28,2015
In Vitro/paxInhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TIVIEQ 29,2022,2015
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 5 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.NETOX* 49,28,2015
In Vitro/Rat, neurons Inhibitor Concentration Low: 10 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell morphology: overgrowth of cell appendixes etc.NETOX* 49,28,2015
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/cat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement
JIHTAB 26,29,1944
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppmOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
AGGHAR 13,528,1955
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/8HCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1200 mg/m3Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 1500 mg/m3/30MVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/10MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 110 ppm/1HEye: Conjunctiva irritationTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) Lowest published lethal concentration: 5000 ppm/5MAEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic concentration: 3500 mg/m3/90MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4600 mg/m3/2HVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2HBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/2HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerveVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 3317 ppm/1HTOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4500 ppm/1HENTOX* -,101,2005
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4230 ppm/1HBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
FEPRA7 41,1568,1982
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21430 ppm/30MFEREAC 69,13740,2004
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 582 mg/m3/45MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTXCYAC 276,135,2010
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement
JIHTAB 26,29,1944
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 18600 mg/m3/5MVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7040 mg/m3/30MVCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: CoughVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2000 ppm/4H34ZIAG -,607,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: DyspneaVCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17401 ppm/15MFEREAC 69,13740,2004
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 905 mg/m3/45MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionTXCYAC 276,135,2010
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9500 ppm/1HENTOX* -,101,2005
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 15 µL/kgGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagusAJEMEN 3,320,1985
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.095 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachJPETAB 323,308,2007
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 132 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentEye: LacrimationTXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 6 mg/m3/7H/17W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesVCVN5* -,13,1989
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/5Y- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema
VCVN5* -,14,1989
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 0.058 gm/m3/18D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TPKVAL 11,106,1969
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 711 ppm/6H/14D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effectsJJATDK 15,207,1995
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 145 ppm/5W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JANSAG 28,844,1969
inhalation/pig lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6D- continuousBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AJVRAH 55,1335,1994
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentEye: Corneal damage

Eye: Other eye effects
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6H/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
PHTOEH 64,244,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 455 mg/m3/8H/90D- intermittentOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 960 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSGISAAA 50(5),90,1985
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.058 gm/m3/19D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TPKVAL 11,106,1969
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 173 mg/kg/4W- continuousGastrointestinal: Other changesDDSCDJ 36,33,1991

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 25 ppm;short term exposure limit 35 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** AD-A094-501
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,30,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,101,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,1863,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWISMEA* 10,537,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCCACL* 21,719,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPRESR* 7,123,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,46,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 199,203,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 94,93,2016
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTIVIEQ 36,105,2016

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESActive registrationRBREV* -,352,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,11,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 20 ppm (14 mg/m3);KZW 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-ECtime-weighted average 14 mg/m3 (20 ppm);short term exposure limit 36 mg/m3 (50 ppm), JUN2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 ppm (7 mg/m3), VLE 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 14 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 36 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 27 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), KZG-week 40 ppm (28 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 14 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 50 ppm (30 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 25 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 35 ppm (25 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO AMMONIA-air10H time-weighted average 25 ppm;short term exposure limit 35 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 05250; Number of Industries 270; Total Number of Facilities 42116; Number of Occupations 174; Total Number of Employees Exposed 805962; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 287974
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 05250; Number of Industries 363; Total Number of Facilities 115139; Number of Occupations 198; Total Number of Employees Exposed 1168429

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180315/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ammonia, 6015
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Ammoinia by IC, 6016
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-164
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-188
Page last reviewed: November 16, 2018