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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acetic acid, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-

RTECS #

AG6825000

CAS #

94-75-7

Updated

December 2015

Molecular Weight

221.04

Molecular Formula

C8H6Cl2O3

Synonyms

(2,4-Dichloor-fenoxy)-azijnzuur (Dutch)
(2,4-Dichlor-phenoxy)-essigsaeure (German)
2,4-D
2,4-D (ACGIH:OSHA)
2,4-D acid
2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
2,4-Dichlorphenoxyacetic acid
2,4-Dwuchlorofenoksyoctowy kwas (Polish)
Acide 2,4-dichloro phenoxyacetique (French)
Acido(2,4-dicloro-fenossi)-acetico (Italian)
Acme LV 4
Agrotect
Amidox
Amoxone
Aqua-Kleen
Barrage
BH 2,4-D
Brush-rhap
B-Selektonon
Chipco turf herbicide D
Chloroxone
Citrus fix
Crop rider
Debroussaillant 600
Deherban
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (OSHA)
Dicopur
DMA-4
Dormone
Emulsamine BK
Emulsamine E-3
ENT 8,538
Envert 171
Envert DT
Estone
Farmco
Fernimine
Fernoxone
Ferxone
Foredex 75
Hedonal (the herbicide)
Herbidal
Hivol-44
Ipaner
Kwas 2,4-dwuchlorofenoksyoctowy (Polish)
Kwasu 2,4-dwuchlorofenoksyoctowego (Polish)
Kyselina 2,4-dichlorfenoxyoctova (Czech)
Lawn-keep
Macrondray
Miracle
Moxone
Netagrone
Netagrone 600
NSC 423
Pennamine
Pennamine D
Phenox
Pielik
Plantgard
RCRA waste number U240
Rhodia
Superormone concentre
U 46DP
U-5043
Vergemaster
Verton 2D
Vidon 638
Weed TOX
Weed-Ag-Bar
Weedar-64
Weedatul
Weedez Wonder BAR
Weedone LV4
Weed-rhap
Weedtrol

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 750 µg/24H severe28ZPAK -,279,1972
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild28ZPAK -,279,1972

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human20 µg/LCYGEDX 8(3),6,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/rat100 µg/kgCYTOAN 52,275,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse100 mg/kgCYGEDX 8(3),6,1974
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster2400 mg/LEMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
Cytogenetic Analysiskidney/cattle1 ppmITCSAF 8,416,1973
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse9.9 mg/kg/3DMUREAV 494,1,2001
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse3.5 mg/kgARTODN 74,560,2000
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human0.4 mg/L/24H (+/-enzymatic activation step)TXAPA9 197,235,2004
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human0.4 mg/L/48H (+/-enzymatic activation step)TXCYAC 200,39,2004
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli20 µmol/LMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA Damagesperm/salmon1 mmol/LPYTCAS 11,3135,1972
DNA DamageAscites tumor/human4 mmol/L/36HFCTOD7 41,385,2003
DNA Damageoral/rat0.14 mg/kg/2W- intermittentTXAPA9 197,202,2004
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)1 mmol/LPYTCAS 11,3135,1972
DNA Damagefibroblast/human10.9 mmol/L/1HTOLED5 147,35,2004
DNA inhibitionovary/hamster1 mmol/LTOLED5 29,137,1985
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse200 mg/kgMUREAV 55,197,1978
DNA repair/Bacillus subtilis5 mg/discNTIS** PB80-133226
DNA repair/Escherichia coli5 mg/discNTIS** PB80-133226
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Aspergillus nidulans4 µmol/LMUREAV 204,615,1988
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human0.4 mg/L/48H (+/-enzymatic activation step)TXCYAC 200,39,2004
micronucleus testlymphocyte/human5 µmol/L/48HMUREAV 521,165,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslung/hamster10 µmol/LCBINA8 19,369,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae4 mmol/L/4HARTODN 74,560,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae150 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step)ECBUDQ 27,193,1978
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium250 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 204,615,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Other microorganisms1 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)MILEDM 5,103,1977
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster25 ppmECBUDQ 27,190,1978
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionunreported route/Drosophila melanogaster1000 ppm/15DECBUDQ 27,182,1978
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 mg/LJOHEA8 73,224,1982
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster167 mg/LEMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse100 mg/kgFCTOD7 39,941,2001
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster5 mmol/LMUREAV 319,237,1993
specific locus testmultiple/Drosophila melanogaster10 ppbEMMUEG 25,148,1995
sperm morphologyoral/mouse33 mg/kgMUREAV 494,1,2001
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisfibroblast/human1 µmol/LMUREAV 42,161,1977

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/rat 1600 mg/kg (9-25D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 18,691,1996
intraperitoneal/rat 600 mg/kg (9-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 18,691,1996
intraperitoneal/rat 1 gm/kg (15-24D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNETEEC 18,691,1996
intraperitoneal/rat 700 mg/kg (9-15D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 25,607,2003
intraperitoneal/rat 1700 mg/kg (9-25D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 25,607,2003
intraperitoneal/rat 25 mg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXCYAC 271,13,2010
intraperitoneal/rat 2.5 mg/kg (1D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)

Reproductive: Other effects on female
TXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat 220 µg/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)GISAAA 50(10),76,1985
oral/rat 1 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 22,14,1972
oral/rat 125 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFCTXAV 9,801,1971
oral/rat 500 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
FCTXAV 9,801,1971
oral/rat 80 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemCKSCDN 24,29,1998
oral/rat 240 mg/kg (16D after birth)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FCTOD7 44,8,2006
oral/rat 750 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral/Dog 270 mg/kg (90D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductFEREAC 70,43309,2005
oral/mouse 500 mg/kg (14-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)EMMUEG 42,37,2003
oral/rat 6200 mg/kg (31D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOXID9 -,18,2008
oral/rat 3000 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
FCLPH* 21(Suppl 1),92,2007
oral/rat 525 mg/kg (16-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 32,497,2010
oral/rat 35 mg/kg (7D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat 25 mg/kg (10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat 32.5 mg/kg (13D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/mouse 707 mg/kg (11-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
AECTCV 6,33,1977
oral/mouse 900 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
NTIS** PB223-160
oral/mouse 438 mg/kg (8-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TCMUD8 7,7,1987
oral/hamster 200 mg/kg (7-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)BECTA6 6,559,1971
oral/mouse 715 mg/kg (6-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TXCYAC 165,39,2001
oral/mouse 7150 mg/kg (6-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TXCYAC 165,39,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 20 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)FEREAC 67,10624,2002
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 750 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemFEREAC 67,10624,2002
oral/mouse 407 mg/kg (6-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)VHTODE 42,129,2000
oral/rat 3150 mg/kg (16-22D preg/23D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral/rat 400 mg/kg (7-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
GISAAA 40,102,1975
oral/rat 70 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral/rat 2100 mg/kg (16-22D preg/23D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral/rat 70 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
subcutaneous/mouse 882 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous/mouse 900 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous/mouse 900 mg/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
NTIS** PB223-160

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32850 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
FEREAC 67,10624,2002

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 21656 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 3188 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 11150 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1211 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 3.53 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5.83 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 2.44 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 8.45 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 589 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2630 mg/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 2850 mg/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 190 µmol/L/4MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 269 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 674 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1.05 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 4.25 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/paaInhibitor Concentration Low: 174 µmol/L/44HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTIVIEQ 27,1416,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 900 mg/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 27,1347,2013
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.65 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1.69 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.
TIVIEQ 8,47,1994
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1.79 gm/m3/4HFEREAC 67,10625,2002
inhalation/rabbit lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1800 mg/m3PESFO* -,253,1998
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >1.8 gm/m3/4HFEREAC 69,75066,2004
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 666 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 125 mg/kgTXAPA9 23,288,1972
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 666 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changesTXCYAC 271,13,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXCYAC 271,13,2010
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
oral/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 541 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
AJVRAH 15,622,1954
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgBehavioral: Stiffness

Behavioral: Coma
AEHLAU 7,202,1963
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
JTCTDW 38,747,2000
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
JTCTDW 38,747,2000
oral/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgENTOX* -,569,2005
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 469 mg/kgAJVRAH 15,622,1954
oral/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kgTXAPA9 48,A192,1979
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Behavioral: Coma

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
ARPAAQ 94,270,1972
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 694.4 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
DRSAEA 5,,1990
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Coma

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
HBPTO* 1,60,2001
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kgHBPTO* 1,60,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 375 mg/kgSCIEAS 165,465,1969
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 93 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure thresholdPAREAQ 14,225,1962
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBehavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
ARTODN 66,518,1992
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 5714 mg/kgBehavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Change in rate

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
ARTODN 66,518,1992
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
FCTOD7 39,941,2001
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 347 mg/kgRPZHAW 31,373,1980
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kgAMPMAR 12,26,1951
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 699 mg/kgPESFO* -,253,1998
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3670 mg/kg/18HTOIZAG 19,356,1972
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >300 mg/kgENTOX* -,569,2005
oral/wild bird lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kgPESFO* -,253,1998
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1400 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
AFDOAQ 16,3,1952
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2000 mg/kgFEREAC 69,75066,2004
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kgWRPCA2 9,119,1970
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weaknessFEREAC 67,10624,2002
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 227 mg/kgFEREAC 70,43298,2005

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intravenous/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/6D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBlood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHBC 7,61,1953
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 1820 mg/kg/52W- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
FAATDF 29,78,1996
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FEREAC 70,43298,2005
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/90D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)FEREAC 70,43298,2005
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 50400 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 23.4 mg/kg/9D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 177,143,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/9D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 177,143,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10950 mg/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10950 mg/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightFEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18144 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 91 gm/kg/2Y- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
FAATDF 33,166,1996
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 237,104,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 930 mg/kg/31D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Other changes
TOXID9 -,18,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6200 mg/kg/31D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TOXID9 -,18,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/5D- continuousBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTXCYAC 247,73,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/7D- continuousEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 247,73,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/7D- continuousBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesTXCYAC 247,73,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
FCLPH* 21(Suppl 1),92,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32.5 mg/kg/13D- continuousEndocrine: Other changesTXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/16D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/16D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
TXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/16D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTXCYAC 271,13,2010
oral/rat : 2500 mg/kg/25D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
ENTOX* -,721,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3780 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 418.3 mg/kg/12W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54600 mg/kg/2Y- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FAATDF 33,166,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13650 mg/kg/13W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFAATDF 9,423,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weaknessNTOTDY 5,331,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54750 mg/kg/1Y- continuousEye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
TOXID9 15,23,1995
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54750 mg/kg/2Y- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54750 mg/kg/2Y- continuousEndocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FEREAC 70,43298,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FEREAC 69,75066,2004

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inhal)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Not classifiable as a human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Limited EvidenceIMEMDT 41,357,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 15,111,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 32,233,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWRREVAH 56,107,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWECMAAI 14,141,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBIOGAL 40(2),44,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHYSAAV 31(7-9),383,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJACTDZ 11,5,1992
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTCTDW 38,111,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 21,93,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,721,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,569,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 7,267,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 73,6867,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 72,52013,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 72,31221,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,551,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,251,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,80,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 73,53732,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 74,30487,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFEREAC 74,48408,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,19,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 721,27,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 307,42,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 230,146,2014

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESSupportedRBREV* -,70,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3DTLVS* 3,67,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 1 mg/m3;KZW 4 mg/m3, inhal, skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 10 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 1 mg/m3, inhal, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 4 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 5 mg/m3, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 7 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 20 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 1 mg/m3, KZG-week 8 mg/m3, inhal, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 10 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO 2,4-D-air10H time-weighted average 10 mg/m3NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 24270; Number of Industries 1; Total Number of Facilities 94; Number of Occupations 1; Total Number of Employees Exposed 471
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 24270; Number of Industries 6; Total Number of Facilities 1132; Number of Occupations 8; Total Number of Employees Exposed 6266

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast; TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: B subtilis rec assay; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-nonhuman bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: 2,4-D, 5001
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000
On EPA IRIS database
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