Health Statistics: Measuring Our Nation’s Health
NCHS Fact Sheet, March 2021
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What are the leading causes of death in the United States?*
How many Americans smoke?*
What percentage of children had one or more urgent care visits or retail health clinic visits?*
Are drug-poisoning deaths increasing?*
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) collects data needed to answer these and many other key questions about health and health care in the United States. NCHS is part of the federal statistical system, which includes agencies that are responsible for compiling, analyzing, and disseminating data for statistical purposes.
How does NCHS obtain data?
NCHS uses a variety of data collection mechanisms to fulfill its statutory mandate to obtain accurate statistics on a wide range of health issues. NCHS obtains data from all birth and death records filed in states and U.S. territories. NCHS also conducts national surveys based on samples designed to represent the U.S. population. Survey methods include:
- Personal interviews in households and by phone
- Standardized physical examinations, diagnostic procedures, dental examinations, and laboratory tests in mobile examination centers
- Review of facility information and patient medical records in hospitals, hospital emergency and outpatient departments, physicians’ offices, nursing homes, home and hospice care agencies, and residential care
What data are produced?
NCHS produces data on a wide range of health indicators, such as:
- Accurate, relevant, and timely data to monitor and respond to the COVID-19 pandemic
- Births, such as teen, nonmarital, multiple, preterm, and low birthweight births
- Diseases and health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, heart disease, stroke, HIV/AIDS, lung diseases, osteoporosis, asthma, allergies, ADHD, arthritis, and pain
- Other health status measures, including injuries, disabilities, environmental exposures, oral health, vision, hearing, and mental health
- Health-related behaviors, such as smoking, physical activity, and alcohol use
- Nutrition and growth charts
- Preventive services, such as immunizations and cancer screening
- Reproductive health, including fertility, contraceptive use, and sexual behaviors
- Health insurance coverage and access to care
- Health care use and services delivered by hospitals, hospital emergency and outpatient departments, physicians’ offices, nursing homes, home and hospice care agencies, and residential care facilities
- The health care system, including the use of health information technology and electronic medical records, changing patterns of service delivery, medications prescribed, and complications of care
- Deaths, including life expectancy, leading causes of death, fetal deaths, and infant mortality
NCHS data—a vital public resource for health information—are used and disseminated by a wide range of organizations. To maintain and enhance this resource, NCHS must ensure that these data are relevant, accurate, timely, and accessible.
*The leading causes of death in 2019 were heart disease and cancer (the same as in 2018). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 14.0% in 2019. In 2019, approximately one in four children had one or more urgent care or retail health clinic visits in the past 12 months (26.4%). In 2019, the age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths in the United States (21.6 per 100,000) was higher than in 2018 (20.7).
How does NCHS assure data quality?
- By adopting the highest possible standards for survey design, questionnaire development, and data collection, processing, analysis, and dissemination.
- With a strong commitment to protecting the confidentiality of information collected, so gaining the trust of survey respondents and promoting accurate data.
- Through an active program in research and methodology to address significant issues related to survey design, such as how to use advances in technology and how to achieve high response rates, and to assure validity by verifying that survey questions obtain the information NCHS intends to measure.
- By collaborating with other agencies to assure that surveys include appropriate content and that data are analyzed and interpreted accurately, enhancing the value of data for all users.
Who uses these data?
- Policymakers—to track implementation of health policies and programs, set priorities for research and prevention programs, and evaluate outcomes.
- Epidemiologists and researchers—to understand trends in health, health care delivery, risk factors, and outcomes.
- Businesses—to support health-related activities of manufacturing, marketing, and consulting firms and trade associations.
- Public health professionals—to identify and monitor health problems, risk factors, and disease patterns, and to assess the impact of interventions.
- Physicians—to evaluate health and risk factors of their patients (e.g., norms for cholesterol, body weight, blood pressure, and children’s growth).
- Media and advocacy groups—to obtain accurate information to raise awareness of health issues.
Data are used to compare health indicators over time and across populations and geographic areas. Most data produced from NCHS surveys are national-level data; if sample sizes are large enough, state data can be produced. National, state, and county data are available on births and deaths.
How are data disseminated?
- Through a comprehensive website featuring easy access to published reports and statistics as well as tutorials and interactive web tools to further support use of the data. NCHS produces a wide range of publications—from easily understandable Data Briefs to more in-depth analyses and methodological studies—to meet different data needs.
- By making public-use data files available. Allowing users to work with these data for their own inquiries fosters valuable analyses that build on information presented in routine NCHS reports.
- Through Research Data Centers that provide secure access to detailed data while maintaining confidentiality of respondents.
For more information about NCHS, visit https://www.cdc.gov/nchs.