Social Determinants of Health among Adults with Diagnosed HIV Infection, 2018: Tables

Table 1. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
American Indian/Alaska Native Asian Black/African American Hispanic/Latinoa Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander White Multiple races Total
No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 15 14.0 139 6.4 873 45.9 726 26.6 9 19.4 1,430 6.0 93 14.7 3,285 10.5
6.00–10.99 26 13.3 164 8.5 1,667 57.3 1,629 34.6 13 20.0 1,937 7.8 163 20.7 5,599 16.0
11.00–17.99 33 12.8 190 14.5 2,513 69.4 2,143 38.4 17 30.1 1,773 9.8 167 24.1 6,836 23.4
 ≥18 28 7.0 190 16.8 4,972 83.8 3,411 43.5 19 40.2 1,819 16.0 220 31.3 10,659 39.7
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 22 17.6 178 7.4 1,277 63.1 952 39.0 10 19.9 2,029 7.7 141 19.0 4,609 13.5
6.00–9.99 26 15.8 127 9.1 1,564 63.0 965 36.1 9 18.6 1,553 7.5 128 20.5 4,372 15.7
10.00–17.99 31 9.7 184 12.7 3,289 69.3 1,854 37.1 20 29.5 1,924 9.1 184 23.5 7,486 22.6
 ≥18 23 6.4 195 15.0 3,900 74.9 4,146 38.2 19 38.3 1,454 14.9 190 27.9 9,927 36.0
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 28 7.6 119 15.5 4,817 82.6 2,885 42.9 15 44.0 1,636 14.4 175 28.4 9,675 38.4
42,000–56,999 32 11.6 155 15.3 2,411 68.7 2,155 38.6 14 29.7 1,739 9.0 173 26.5 6,679 22.1
57,000–77,999 26 13.6 186 12.2 1,688 61.2 1,689 35.3 17 26.9 1,871 8.4 155 21.4 5,632 17.6
 ≥78,000 16 12.7 223 6.9 1,098 49.8 1,177 31.5 12 17.1 1,710 6.9 137 16.9 4,373 12.6
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 12 11.9 167 7.2 943 50.1 707 28.3 10 18.1 1,536 5.9 117 16.7 3,492 10.5
5.00–8.99 19 11.2 172 9.6 1,655 55.7 1,217 32.3 13 20.3 1,738 7.8 145 19.2 4,959 15.7
9.00–14.99 28 11.5 174 12.6 2,721 64.9 1,841 37.1 22 41.2 1,829 10.1 153 21.1 6,768 23.1
 ≥15 43 9.6 170 15.9 4,709 88.6 4,145 43.0 13 30.5 1,856 16.1 228 35.8 11,164 39.5
   Gini index (%)
<38 22 12.9 154 8.6 1,800 58.3 1,570 30.3 15 21.9 1,528 7.7 150 20.3 5,239 17.2
38.00–41.99 22 9.2 154 8.8 2,234 66.7 2,016 35.9 14 25.0 1,717 7.6 154 20.8 6,311 18.6
42.00–45.99 27 11.0 151 10.5 2,328 70.3 1,934 40.6 15 31.5 1,665 9.2 146 23.0 6,266 22.3
 ≥46 31 10.1 224 14.1 3,658 80.0 2,388 45.2 14 32.8 2,046 11.7 190 27.3 8,551 28.9
Subtotalb 103 10.6 699 10.6 10,209 70.6 8,009 38.2 58 26.8 7,087 9.1 657 23.2 26,822 21.9
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2 1.9 22 0.9 303 15.3 85 3.1 0 0.0 178 0.7 16 2.5 606 1.8
6.00–10.99 6 3.0 17 0.8 558 17.4 172 3.7 0 0.0 288 1.1 39 4.8 1,080 2.9
11.00–17.99 5 1.9 24 1.6 893 21.8 286 5.2 0 0.0 316 1.7 37 5.1 1,561 5.1
 ≥18 8 1.9 31 2.6 1,780 25.0 580 7.3 4 8.3 425 3.6 70 9.2 2,898 10.1
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 3 2.3 19 0.7 338 15.1 86 3.3 0 0.0 209 0.8 25 3.2 680 1.9
6.00–9.99 1 0.6 16 1.0 500 17.5 107 3.9 2 3.9 236 1.1 26 4.0 888 3.0
10.00–17.99 10 3.0 17 1.0 1,192 21.3 257 5.1 0 0.0 385 1.7 54 6.5 1,915 5.4
 ≥18 7 1.9 42 2.9 1,504 26.2 673 6.4 2 4.0 378 3.8 57 8.4 2,663 9.5
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 9 2.3 23 2.8 1,760 24.8 524 7.6 3 8.5 398 3.3 70 10.6 2,787 10.2
42,000–56,999 4 1.4 20 1.7 823 20.9 296 5.4 0 0.0 358 1.7 36 5.4 1,537 4.8
57,000–77,999 5 2.5 20 1.1 567 18.7 181 3.8 1 1.6 251 1.1 31 4.1 1,056 3.1
 ≥78,000 3 2.3 31 0.8 383 16.4 122 3.2 0 0.0 199 0.8 25 2.9 763 2.1
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 1 1.0 19 0.7 340 17.2 96 3.6 0 0.0 213 0.8 26 3.6 695 2.0
5.00–8.99 3 1.7 23 1.1 529 15.9 167 4.3 1 1.5 260 1.1 35 4.4 1,018 3.0
9.00–14.99 4 1.6 20 1.3 908 18.7 260 5.2 1 1.9 323 1.7 34 4.5 1,550 5.0
 ≥15 13 2.8 32 2.7 1,757 28.1 600 6.5 2 4.5 411 3.5 67 10.1 2,882 9.8
   Gini index (%)
<38 3 1.7 22 1.1 601 17.9 185 3.6 0 0.0 258 1.3 29 3.9 1,098 3.5
38.00–41.99 7 2.8 23 1.2 834 22.2 284 5.1 1 1.7 320 1.4 34 4.4 1,503 4.2
42.00–45.99 5 2.0 23 1.4 824 21.7 266 5.6 2 4.0 293 1.5 29 4.4 1,442 4.8
 ≥46 6 1.9 26 1.4 1,275 23.2 388 7.1 1 2.3 335 1.8 70 9.2 2,101 6.6
Subtotalb 21 2.1 97 1.3 3,599 21.9 1,140 5.5 4 1.8 1,240 1.5 164 5.6 6,265 4.8
Totalc 124 6.3 796 5.7 13,808 44.7 9,149 21.9 62 14.2 8,327 5.2 821 14.2 33,087 13.1

Abbreviations: ACS, American Community Survey (ACS) [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Rates are per 100,000 population. Row entries indicate categories based on census tracts; data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Reported numbers less than 12, and rates based on these numbers, should be interpreted with caution. The ACS does not provide age- and sex-specific SDH variables stratified by race and ethnicity for racial groups except whites (i.e., white, not-Hispanic/Latino). Therefore, the denominators used for computing race-specific rates may include Hispanics/Latinos, and should be interpreted with caution; see Technical Notes for more details. For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see http://www2.census.gov/programssurveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
bBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.
cTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 2. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by age at diagnosis, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
18–24 years 25–34 years 35–44 years 45–54 years ≥55 years
No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate No. Rate
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 674 20.9 1,189 24.8 573 10.7 483 8.0 366 3.1
6.00–10.99 1,137 29.1 2,094 32.5 1,058 18.0 768 12.6 542 4.3
11.00–17.99 1,444 39.0 2,708 46.4 1,304 26.6 823 16.8 557 5.6
 ≥18 2,536 49.9 4,125 73.5 1,846 42.9 1,318 32.0 834 10.8
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 936 19.6 1,749 30.2 849 15.4 613 10.3 462 3.8
6.00–9.99 951 28.9 1,677 33.7 774 17.0 550 11.4 420 4.1
10.00–17.99 1,694 41.8 2,862 46.2 1,355 24.7 938 16.4 637 5.4
≥18 2,212 56.8 3,833 66.2 1,807 36.5 1,294 27.4 781 9.5
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,379 54.0 3,739 74.5 1,597 40.3 1,219 31.1 741 9.4
42,000–56,999 1,434 35.7 2,592 44.3 1,257 25.5 793 16.0 603 5.8
57,000–77,999 1,140 30.3 2,205 36.4 1,075 20.0 718 13.0 494 4.4
 ≥78,000 834 23.0 1,569 27.4 849 13.8 661 9.8 460 3.7
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 684 17.1 1,227 23.5 663 12.5 512 8.5 406 3.2
5.00–8.99 1,067 26.6 1,861 32.8 890 17.2 664 12.2 477 4.2
9.00–14.99 1,485 38.5 2,671 46.8 1,201 24.4 850 17.1 561 5.7
 ≥15 2,557 62.4 4,359 71.6 2,027 40.0 1,366 28.7 855 10.4
   Gini index (%)
<38 1,196 31.2 2,043 35.2 938 16.8 635 11.3 427 4.4
38.00–41.99 1,398 34.2 2,429 39.3 1,126 19.7 823 13.7 535 4.5
42.00–45.99 1,332 38.5 2,373 46.0 1,164 25.2 835 17.3 562 5.6
 ≥46 1,864 41.7 3,264 59.3 1,551 34.2 1,098 23.2 774 7.5
Subtotala 5,913 36.9 10,267 45.1 4,853 23.7 3,456 16.3 2,333 5.5
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 60 2.1 155 3.2 154 2.8 123 2.0 114 0.9
6.00–10.99 139 3.8 271 4.3 257 4.4 210 3.3 203 1.4
11.00–17.99 191 5.4 402 7.1 401 8.3 324 6.5 243 2.1
 ≥18 381 7.5 828 15.1 684 15.6 564 13.2 441 4.6
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 75 1.6 185 3.2 163 2.9 127 2.0 130 0.9
6.00–9.99 105 3.3 243 4.9 205 4.4 182 3.6 153 1.3
10.00–17.99 249 6.5 503 8.2 460 8.2 404 6.8 299 2.2
≥18 342 9.6 726 13.5 668 14.0 508 10.9 419 4.3
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 362 8.3 801 16.1 683 16.7 546 13.2 395 4.0
42,000–56,999 202 5.4 407 7.3 362 7.4 295 5.8 271 2.2
57,000–77,999 126 3.5 260 4.4 276 5.1 215 3.8 179 1.4
≥78,000 81 2.4 188 3.3 173 2.7 165 2.4 156 1.1
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 73 1.9 172 3.3 170 3.1 139 2.2 141 1.0
5.00–8.99 114 3.0 260 4.6 258 4.9 207 3.7 179 1.4
9.00–14.99 197 5.3 419 7.5 378 7.6 314 6.1 242 2.1
 ≥15 387 9.9 805 13.8 690 13.7 561 11.6 439 4.5
   Gini index (%)
<38 129 3.7 275 4.8 291 5.2 236 4.1 167 1.5
38.00–41.99 193 5.0 409 6.8 354 6.1 308 5.0 239 1.7
42.00–45.99 183 5.5 409 8.1 336 7.2 269 5.4 245 2.1
 ≥46 266 5.9 563 10.3 514 11.1 408 8.2 350 2.8
Subtotala 787 5.2 1,696 7.6 1,520 7.4 1,246 5.7 1,016 2.1
Totalb 6,700 21.4 11,963 26.6 6,373 15.5 4,702 10.9 3,349 3.7

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Rates are per 100,000 population. Row entries indicate categories based on census tracts; data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis.
For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.
bTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 3. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by transmission category, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Male-to-male
sexual contact
Injection
drug use
Male-to-male
sexual contact and
injection drug use
Heterosexual
contacta
No. % No. % No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,723 12.6 111 10.6 147 13.3 301 11.9
6.00–10.99 4,685 21.6 189 18.1 247 22.4 473 18.7
11.00–17.99 5,703 26.3 258 24.7 286 26.0 587 23.2
≥18 8,571 39.5 486 46.6 422 38.3 1,171 46.3
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 3,950 18.2 131 12.6 231 21.0 293 11.6
6.00–9.99 3,652 16.8 156 14.9 185 16.8 377 14.9
10.00–17.99 6,078 28.0 293 28.1 322 29.2 788 31.1
 ≥18 8,014 36.9 464 44.4 365 33.1 1,077 42.5
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 7,749 35.8 449 43.2 374 33.9 1,097 43.3
42,000–56,999 5,492 25.3 245 23.6 298 27.0 640 25.3
57,000–77,999 4,736 21.9 198 19.0 225 20.4 468 18.5
 ≥78,000 3,690 17.0 147 14.2 206 18.7 326 12.9
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,878 13.3 147 14.0 187 17.0 277 10.9
5.00–8.99 4,051 18.7 236 22.7 251 22.8 418 16.5
9.00–14.99 5,590 25.8 279 26.7 281 25.5 613 24.2
 ≥15 9,167 42.3 382 36.6 383 34.7 1,224 48.4
   Gini index (%)
<38 4,372 20.2 185 17.8 217 19.7 462 18.3
38.00–41.99 5,199 24.0 257 24.7 262 23.8 588 23.2
42.00–45.99 5,146 23.7 253 24.3 241 21.8 622 24.6
 ≥46 6,957 32.1 346 33.3 383 34.7 859 33.9
Subtotalb 22,055 100 1,065 100 1,123 100 2,559 100
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 76 9.1 526 10.0
6.00–10.99 169 20.2 906 17.1
11.00–17.99 180 21.6 1,378 26.1
 ≥18 410 49.1 2,472 46.8
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 97 11.5 576 10.9
6.00–9.99 124 14.8 762 14.4
10.00–17.99 263 31.5 1,642 31.1
   ≥18 352 42.1 2,302 43.6
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 373 44.6 2,400 45.5
42,000–56,999 220 26.4 1,312 24.8
57,000–77,999 143 17.1 910 17.2
≥78,000 99 11.9 658 12.5
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 127 15.2 562 10.6
5.00–8.99 157 18.8 855 16.2
9.00–14.99 230 27.5 1,315 24.9
 ≥15 322 38.5 2,549 48.3
   Gini index (%)
<38 139 16.6 955 18.1
38.00–41.99 187 22.4 1,309 24.8
42.00–45.99 208 25.0 1,228 23.3
 ≥46 301 36.0 1,789 33.9
Subtotalb 852 100 5,383 100
Totalc 22,055 100 1,917 100 1,123 100 7,943 100

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data have been statistically adjusted to account for missing transmission category. Row entries indicate categories based on census tracts; data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis.
For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aHeterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.
bBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.
cTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 4. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage living below federal poverty level, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Below federal poverty level (%)
Male
<6 6.00–10.99 11.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 13 5.5 35 54 12.1 22 114 21.1 21 194 33.9 21
Alaska 5 5.7 6 4.9 1 1.8 5 20.3
Arizona 62 11.2 15 90 12.6 20 133 24.2 17 265 33.3 22
Arkansas 14 14.8 9 35 13.2 16 49 12.2 31 62 17.8 35
California 394 12.0 14 829 18.8 11 978 25.8 13 1,229 38.0 17
Colorado 56 7.6 22 78 13.1 17 122 24.5 14 75 25.9 25
Connecticut 47 6.9 25 33 10.2 27 40 21.9 20 69 39.6 16
Delaware 11 11.6 16 11.4 24 23 27.2 11 17 45.4 12
District of Columbia 18 34.1 1 19 39.1 1 55 61.8 1 64 87.6 1
Florida 282 20.3 4 761 31.0 3 939 40.7 6 1,445 80.9 2
Georgia 164 23.4 2 337 34.1 2 486 45.8 4 683 69.6 4
Hawaii 14 6.5 29 18 9.5 28 18 18.0 23 9 17.6
Idaho 2 3.2 8 3.2 9 4.4 5 4.8
Illinois 124 8.7 20 187 12.6 19 233 22.8 18 421 48.4 10
Indiana 48 7.4 23 52 6.9 36 68 11.9 32 156 32.4 23
Iowa 13 4.5 36 29 6.0 38 18 7.2 40 22 13.8 38
Kansas 21 6.6 28 23 6.5 37 21 9.7 37 44 22.9 30
Kentucky 29 12.4 13 53 13.8 15 64 15.0 27 120 19.5 33
Louisiana 22 14.3 10 95 23.0 8 155 30.0 9 345 54.8 7
Maine 1 1.0 7 3.8 10 6.3 3 3.9
Maryland 190 19.2 5 191 28.6 5 164 46.1 3 145 74.4 3
Massachusetts 73 6.8 26 89 12.7 18 118 26.3 12 131 34.7 20
Michigan 36 3.7 37 76 7.3 32 77 8.4 38 205 25.1 26
Minnesota 48 5.9 33 51 7.0 33 56 17.1 24 47 22.0 32
Mississippi 16 17.2 7 42 24.8 7 80 22.1 19 186 40.6 14
Missouri 43 8.0 21 78 12.0 23 92 15.3 26 135 27.6 24
Montana 0 0.0 5 3.4 6 5.5 7 7.4
Nebraska 12 5.6 34 16 6.9 34 16 10.1 36 24 24.8 27
Nevada 46 18.7 6 103 26.5 6 100 40.9 5 153 62.7 5
New Hampshire 8 2.9 3 2.1 9 12.3 3 8.7
New Jersey 157 9.8 16 146 18.0 13 167 34.1 8 259 61.7 6
New Mexico 4 4.8 11 8.7 29 11.6 33 20 6.5 41
New York 175 8.7 19 341 16.8 14 462 28.8 10 883 50.7 9
North Carolina 15 2.2 39 32 3.1 40 42 3.7 41 45 5.0 42
North Dakota 6 8.1 6 4.8 5 7.8 3 8.8
Ohio 82 6.5 30 126 10.6 25 146 15.3 25 384 40.6 15
Oklahoma 25 9.8 17 24 6.9 35 54 11.3 34 90 24.4 28
Oregon 15 6.5 31 43 9.1 29 61 11.0 35 56 17.5 37
Pennsylvania 99 6.0 32 116 7.5 31 118 13.4 30 421 51.2 8
Puerto Rico 0 0.0 0 0.0 24 47.4 2 291 24.4 29
Rhode Island 13 9.5 18 13 12.3 21 10 14.5 18 19.2 34
South Carolina 52 15.6 8 88 18.3 12 132 24.2 16 196 41.1 13
South Dakota 1 1.3 2 2.0 10 11.1 7 12.4
Tennessee 52 12.8 12 128 19.6 10 136 18.8 22 256 37.1 18
Texas 509 20.6 3 770 28.9 4 867 34.9 7 1,147 46.2 11
Utah 27 6.6 27 27 8.3 30 26 14.3 28 19 13.4 39
Vermont 4 6.7 6 5.8 3 5.4 2 7.0
Virginia 157 13.0 11 181 19.9 9 159 24.3 15 143 36.1 19
Washington 55 7.1 24 107 10.3 26 87 13.6 29 64 17.6 36
West Virginia 2 3.9 4 2.6 9 3.5 16 6.6 40
Wisconsin 22 3.1 38 44 5.5 39 33 8.2 39 67 22.8 31
Wyoming 1 2.1 0 0.0 2 3.3 3 12.3
Totalb 3,285 10.5 5,599 16.0 6,836 23.4 10,659 39.7

 

Table 4. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage living below federal poverty level, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Below federal poverty level (%)
Female
<6 6.00–10.99 11.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 3 1.2 14 2.9 13 12 2.1 27 61 9.5 16
Alaska 0 0.0 2 1.8 0 0.0 1 4.6
Arizona 8 1.4 17 2.2 15 14 2.5 25 45 5.8 25
Arkansas 1 1.0 5 1.8 8 1.9 23 6.0 23
California 45 1.3 13 82 1.8 18 113 2.9 20 190 5.7 26
Colorado 6 0.8 11 1.8 12 2.4 26 9 3.2
Connecticut 6 0.8 7 2.0 12 6.1 13 30 15.4 7
Delaware 4 4.0 5 3.3 7 7.3 6 14.0
District of Columbia 1 1.8 3 5.7 15 14.7 2 29 32.9 1
Florida 38 2.5 5 146 5.5 3 266 10.9 3 428 22.6 2
Georgia 38 5.1 2 69 6.4 2 115 9.9 5 240 22.4 3
Hawaii 1 0.5 1 0.5 2 1.9 2 3.9
Idaho 0 0.0 1 0.4 2 1.0 2 1.9
Illinois 20 1.3 12 24 1.5 20 49 4.6 16 99 10.3 14
Indiana 7 1.0 19 2.4 14 16 2.6 24 49 9.4 17
Iowa 1 0.3 8 1.6 9 3.4 9 5.7
Kansas 4 1.2 4 1.1 6 2.7 10 5.2
Kentucky 3 1.2 10 2.5 13 2.9 21 39 5.9 24
Louisiana 5 3.0 19 4.4 7 43 7.9 9 151 21.8 4
Maine 1 0.9 1 0.5 0 0.0 1 1.2
Maryland 64 6.0 1 88 11.9 1 62 15.6 1 46 20.3 6
Massachusetts 26 2.2 9 27 3.5 10 49 10.1 4 64 15.4 8
Michigan 8 0.8 9 0.8 20 2.0 28 66 7.4 21
Minnesota 18 2.1 10 13 1.7 19 14 4.1 17 18 8.4 19
Mississippi 1 1.0 6 3.3 20 5.1 15 67 13.1 10
Missouri 6 1.1 3 0.4 10 1.6 21 3.9 31
Montana 0 0.0 1 0.7 0 0.0 2 2.1
Nebraska 0 0.0 1 0.4 1 0.6 4 4.2
Nevada 4 1.6 11 2.8 14 5.8 14 29 12.6 11
New Hampshire 2 0.7 1 0.6 1 1.3 2 6.0
New Jersey 31 1.8 11 36 4.1 8 49 9.5 6 93 20.3 5
New Mexico 1 1.2 3 2.3 2 0.8 7 2.2
New York 52 2.4 6 78 3.5 9 109 6.4 12 234 11.8 12
North Carolina 3 0.4 7 0.6 11 0.9 14 1.4 32
North Dakota 2 2.8 4 3.4 5 8.0 1 3.3
Ohio 15 1.1 15 26 2.0 16 29 2.8 23 82 7.9 20
Oklahoma 2 0.8 6 1.6 14 2.8 22 20 5.3 29
Oregon 3 1.2 8 1.6 10 1.7 7 2.2
Pennsylvania 21 1.2 14 31 1.9 17 36 3.8 18 122 13.1 9
Puerto Rico 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 5.0 68 5.0 30
Rhode Island 1 0.7 1 0.9 3 3.9 8 7.9
South Carolina 15 4.2 3 26 5.0 5 50 8.4 7 52 9.7 15
South Dakota 1 1.3 1 1.0 1 1.1 1 1.8
Tennessee 8 1.8 22 3.1 11 24 3.1 19 70 9.2 18
Texas 81 3.1 4 128 4.7 6 213 8.3 8 297 11.6 13
Utah 1 0.2 3 0.9 0 0.0 4 3.0
Vermont 1 1.6 1 0.9 0 0.0 1 3.4
Virginia 29 2.3 7 53 5.5 4 48 6.9 10 31 7.3 22
Washington 18 2.3 8 31 2.9 12 42 6.6 11 20 5.5 28
West Virginia 0 0.0 3 1.9 4 1.5 5 2.0
Wisconsin 0 0.0 4 0.5 3 0.7 18 5.7 27
Wyoming 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Totalb 606 1.8 1,080 2.9 1,561 5.1 2,898 10.1

 

Table 4. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage living below federal poverty level, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Below federal poverty level (%)
Total
<6 6.00–10.99 11.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 16 3.2 35 68 7.3 19 126 11.2 21 255 21.0 21
Alaska 5 3.0 8 3.4 1 1.0 6 12.9
Arizona 70 6.2 16 107 7.2 20 147 13.1 20 310 19.7 23
Arkansas 15 7.7 10 40 7.3 18 57 7.0 34 85 11.7 35
California 439 6.5 15 911 10.1 13 1,091 14.2 15 1,419 21.7 19
Colorado 62 4.1 26 89 7.4 17 134 13.5 18 84 14.8 27
Connecticut 53 3.8 29 40 5.9 27 52 13.6 16 99 26.8 13
Delaware 15 7.7 11 21 7.2 21 30 16.7 12 23 28.6 11
District of Columbia 19 17.4 1 22 21.7 1 70 36.6 1 93 57.7 1
Florida 320 11.1 5 907 17.7 4 1,205 25.4 4 1,873 50.9 2
Georgia 202 13.9 2 406 19.7 3 601 27.0 3 923 44.9 4
Hawaii 15 3.5 33 19 5.0 30 20 9.7 25 11 10.8
Idaho 2 1.6 9 1.8 11 2.7 7 3.3
Illinois 144 4.9 21 211 6.9 22 282 13.6 17 520 28.5 12
Indiana 55 4.2 25 71 4.6 32 84 7.1 31 205 20.4 22
Iowa 14 2.4 37 37 3.8 37 27 5.2 39 31 9.8 38
Kansas 25 3.8 28 27 3.8 38 27 6.1 36 54 14.0 31
Kentucky 32 6.7 14 63 8.0 15 77 8.8 28 159 12.5 34
Louisiana 27 8.4 9 114 13.4 8 198 18.7 9 496 37.5 7
Maine 2 1.0 8 2.1 10 3.0 4 2.5
Maryland 254 12.3 3 279 19.8 2 226 30.0 2 191 45.3 3
Massachusetts 99 4.4 24 116 7.8 16 167 17.9 10 195 24.6 15
Michigan 44 2.2 38 85 4.0 36 97 5.1 40 271 15.9 24
Minnesota 66 4.0 27 64 4.3 34 70 10.5 23 65 15.2 25
Mississippi 17 8.7 8 48 13.7 7 100 13.3 19 253 26.1 14
Missouri 49 4.5 23 81 6.0 26 102 8.2 30 156 15.2 26
Montana 0 0.0 6 2.0 6 2.8 9 4.8
Nebraska 12 2.7 36 17 3.6 39 17 5.3 38 28 14.5 29
Nevada 50 10.0 6 114 14.5 6 114 23.5 6 182 38.4 6
New Hampshire 10 1.8 4 1.3 10 6.7 5 7.4
New Jersey 188 5.7 17 182 10.8 12 216 21.5 7 352 40.1 5
New Mexico 5 2.9 14 5.5 28 31 6.0 37 27 4.3 40
New York 227 5.4 18 419 9.9 14 571 17.2 11 1,117 29.9 9
North Carolina 18 1.3 40 39 1.8 41 53 2.2 43 59 3.1 42
North Dakota 8 5.5 10 4.1 10 7.9 4 6.2
Ohio 97 3.7 31 152 6.2 25 175 8.8 27 466 23.5 17
Oklahoma 27 5.2 19 30 4.2 35 68 7.0 33 110 14.7 28
Oregon 18 3.8 30 51 5.3 29 71 6.3 35 63 9.8 37
Pennsylvania 120 3.5 32 147 4.7 31 154 8.5 29 543 31.0 8
Puerto Rico 0 0.0 0 0.0 27 24.4 5 359 14.1 30
Rhode Island 14 4.9 20 14 6.3 24 13 8.9 26 26 13.3 33
South Carolina 67 9.7 7 114 11.4 10 182 16.0 13 248 24.5 16
South Dakota 2 1.3 3 1.5 11 6.1 8 7.2
Tennessee 60 7.1 13 150 11.1 11 160 10.8 22 326 22.5 18
Texas 590 11.7 4 898 16.6 5 1,080 21.4 8 1,444 28.7 10
Utah 28 3.4 34 30 4.6 33 26 7.0 32 23 8.4 39
Vermont 5 4.1 7 3.3 3 2.6 3 5.2
Virginia 186 7.5 12 234 12.4 9 207 15.3 14 174 21.2 20
Washington 73 4.7 22 138 6.6 23 129 10.2 24 84 11.5 36
West Virginia 2 1.9 7 2.2 13 2.4 42 21 4.2 41
Wisconsin 22 1.5 39 48 3.0 40 36 4.5 41 85 13.9 32
Wyoming 1 1.0 0 0.0 2 1.7 3 6.5
Totalb 3,891 6.1 6,679 9.3 8,397 14.0 13,557 24.4

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis, and the proportion of residents in the census tract who were living below the U.S. poverty level at any time during the 12 months before the survey response (individuals aged 18 years and older). Rates are per 100,000 population. Reported numbers less than 12, and rates based on these numbers, should be interpreted with caution. For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aBased on rate. Ranks were not assigned to areas with rates that were based on reported numbers less than 12.
bTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 5. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage with less than high school diploma, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Less than high school diploma (%)
Male
<6 6.00–9.99 10.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 47 15.4 12 55 18.6 14 134 22.1 17 140 23.8 29
Alaska 8 7.4 1 1.0 6 8.4 2 14.0
Arizona 102 12.8 19 85 16.9 15 134 21.5 19 229 32.9 18
Arkansas 41 24.9 7 25 13.8 19 44 8.9 40 50 18.7 36
California 553 15.0 13 417 16.8 16 705 21.7 18 1,755 32.4 19
Colorado 90 8.9 29 65 14.8 18 73 17.2 24 103 38.7 12
Connecticut 33 5.9 38 32 9.3 29 61 20.8 20 63 36.9 16
Delaware 12 13.0 18 13 12.8 23 27 23.6 13 15 31.7 20
District of Columbia 35 31.3 2 18 51.5 1 67 84.4 1 36 96.4 1
Florida 546 27.9 5 625 33.9 4 1,028 43.4 3 1,236 69.2 2
Georgia 269 37.7 1 333 45.0 2 616 49.5 2 452 43.5 8
Hawaii 25 10.5 26 12 7.7 33 20 14.7 27 2 7.3
Idaho 8 4.4 3 1.6 8 4.5 5 7.3
Illinois 193 12.3 21 156 13.0 21 272 23.9 12 344 38.7 13
Indiana 39 7.8 33 62 9.3 30 110 12.4 31 113 27.7 23
Iowa 25 5.2 40 16 3.9 39 22 10.8 35 19 20.6 33
Kansas 35 8.4 30 21 6.8 36 33 14.4 28 20 15.4 37
Kentucky 39 13.3 17 70 25.4 8 88 14.9 26 69 13.6 39
Louisiana 70 30.8 3 70 24.6 10 207 35.6 6 270 43.4 9
Maine 8 4.4 6 3.2 7 4.8 0 0.0
Maryland 140 18.5 9 176 27.7 7 197 37.4 5 177 57.4 3
Massachusetts 83 7.4 35 73 12.1 24 99 19.3 21 156 41.1 10
Michigan 59 5.0 41 83 7.4 35 153 14.3 29 99 24.6 26
Minnesota 68 7.2 36 53 7.7 34 36 10.7 36 45 37.6 15
Mississippi 27 28.5 4 46 29.4 5 122 28.9 8 129 31.5 21
Missouri 85 13.7 16 87 15.9 17 106 13.3 30 70 22.5 31
Montana 6 3.7 5 3.4 6 7.1 1 9.0
Nebraska 20 7.1 37 11 5.1 22 16.9 25 15 19.5 35
Nevada 39 18.4 10 74 25.4 9 136 42.9 4 153 50.5 5
New Hampshire 6 2.7 4 2.0 10 11.4 3 15.9
New Jersey 122 10.0 28 114 13.3 20 192 26.6 10 301 57.0 4
New Mexico 13 8.0 32 12 9.7 27 18 8.2 41 22 7.9 40
New York 230 11.6 23 207 12.9 22 471 24.7 11 955 50.4 6
North Carolina 21 2.4 42 23 3.3 40 47 3.7 42 43 4.7 41
North Dakota 12 11.9 22 3 2.3 5 8.5 0 0.0
Ohio 152 11.3 24 144 11.9 25 222 17.9 22 220 38.1 14
Oklahoma 41 14.5 15 34 9.9 26 51 9.6 38 67 22.7 30
Oregon 55 12.3 20 37 9.0 31 59 10.5 37 24 14.8 38
Pennsylvania 124 8.3 31 140 9.4 28 241 17.7 23 249 45.6 7
Puerto Rico 11 32.8 23 37.7 3 71 22.6 15 210 24.6 27
Rhode Island 12 11.2 25 12 9.9 12 11.7 34 18 23.9 28
South Carolina 71 16.7 11 67 18.9 13 165 28.7 9 165 33.4 17
South Dakota 2 1.9 4 3.3 10 13.5 4 14.5
Tennessee 100 19.6 8 108 23.9 11 205 22.4 16 159 26.4 24
Texas 585 26.9 6 471 27.8 6 765 30.7 7 1,475 39.1 11
Utah 34 7.5 34 15 5.6 37 28 12.0 32 22 21.2 32
Vermont 4 4.4 5 5.0 6 11.2 0 0.0
Virginia 148 14.6 14 145 20.3 12 223 23.1 14 124 25.2 25
Washington 105 10.2 27 67 8.7 32 89 11.9 33 52 19.6 34
West Virginia 4 4.3 8 6.2 12 3.4 43 7 5.2
Wisconsin 50 5.7 39 34 4.6 38 43 9.3 39 39 27.8 22
Wyoming 2 2.5 2 2.2 2 3.8 0 0.0
Totalb 4,609 13.5 4,372 15.7 7,486 22.6 9,927 36.0

 

Table 5. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage with less than high school diploma, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Less than high school diploma (%)
Female
<6 6.00–9.99 10.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 9 2.7 11 3.3 34 5.0 18 36 5.7 26
Alaska 1 1.0 0 0.0 2 3.1 0 0.0
Arizona 13 1.5 14 16 3.0 12 15 2.3 30 40 6.0 24
Arkansas 4 2.3 2 1.0 15 2.9 26 16 5.8 25
California 42 1.1 17 49 1.9 18 92 2.7 28 247 4.6 29
Colorado 11 1.1 11 2.5 6 1.4 10 4.0
Connecticut 5 0.8 6 1.6 15 4.7 19 29 16.0 7
Delaware 1 1.0 8 7.1 6 4.7 7 15.2
District of Columbia 2 1.6 11 29.0 20 21.0 1 15 36.3 1
Florida 61 2.9 6 128 6.3 4 278 10.8 4 411 23.1 2
Georgia 40 5.3 2 72 8.7 1 182 13.0 3 168 15.6 8
Hawaii 2 0.9 2 1.2 1 0.7 1 3.7
Idaho 1 0.5 1 0.5 2 1.1 1 1.5
Illinois 27 1.6 12 39 3.0 13 63 5.1 17 63 7.1 22
Indiana 8 1.5 11 1.6 37 3.9 24 35 8.3 18
Iowa 6 1.2 8 1.9 3 1.4 10 10.7
Kansas 8 1.9 3 1.0 8 3.4 5 4.0
Kentucky 5 1.6 7 2.4 27 4.3 21 26 4.9 28
Louisiana 9 3.7 24 7.7 3 52 8.2 8 133 20.6 3
Maine 1 0.5 2 1.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Maryland 51 6.1 1 59 8.4 2 90 15.4 2 60 19.5 5
Massachusetts 20 1.6 11 22 3.4 10 44 8.0 9 80 19.6 4
Michigan 12 1.0 18 16 1.3 19 43 3.8 25 32 7.7 20
Minnesota 21 2.1 8 14 2.0 16 15 4.4 20 13 11.0 11
Mississippi 3 2.9 4 2.2 45 9.7 5 42 9.6 15
Missouri 5 0.8 5 0.8 21 2.5 29 9 2.9
Montana 0 0.0 1 0.7 2 2.4 0 0.0
Nebraska 0 0.0 3 1.3 2 1.5 1 1.4
Nevada 3 1.4 6 2.0 20 6.3 10 29 10.4 13
New Hampshire 2 0.9 2 1.0 0 0.0 2 10.6
New Jersey 24 1.8 10 23 2.5 14 74 9.5 6 88 16.3 6
New Mexico 3 1.7 1 0.7 3 1.3 6 2.2
New York 35 1.6 13 61 3.5 9 129 6.2 11 249 12.0 10
North Carolina 4 0.4 8 1.1 13 0.9 31 10 1.0
North Dakota 4 4.1 4 3.3 4 7.1 0 0.0
Ohio 16 1.1 16 25 1.9 17 54 4.0 23 57 9.8 14
Oklahoma 6 2.0 0 0.0 16 2.9 27 20 7.0 23
Oregon 7 1.5 6 1.4 10 1.7 5 3.1
Pennsylvania 20 1.2 15 34 2.1 15 76 5.3 16 80 14.2 9
Puerto Rico 0 0.0 4 5.3 20 5.3 15 47 5.0 27
Rhode Island 0 0.0 1 0.7 2 1.8 10 12.6
South Carolina 20 4.4 3 21 5.4 5 57 8.9 7 45 8.6 16
South Dakota 1 1.0 1 0.8 1 1.4 1 3.8
Tennessee 14 2.5 7 23 4.7 6 40 4.1 22 47 7.5 21
Texas 89 3.9 4 73 4.0 7 158 6.0 12 399 10.7 12
Utah 2 0.4 0 0.0 2 0.9 4 4.1
Vermont 2 2.0 1 1.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Virginia 33 3.1 5 24 3.1 11 62 6.0 13 42 8.4 17
Washington 22 2.1 9 29 3.7 8 40 5.3 14 20 7.8 19
West Virginia 1 1.0 2 1.5 7 1.9 2 1.4
Wisconsin 4 0.4 4 0.5 7 1.5 10 7.0
Wyoming 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Totalb 680 1.9 888 3.0 1,915 5.4 2,663 9.5

 

Table 5. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage with less than high school diploma, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Less than high school diploma (%)
Total
<6 6.00–9.99 10.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 56 8.8 12 66 10.6 14 168 13.0 17 176 14.5 30
Alaska 9 4.4 1 0.5 8 5.9 2 7.6
Arizona 115 7.0 19 101 9.7 16 149 11.8 21 269 19.7 20
Arkansas 45 13.2 7 27 7.0 24 59 5.8 39 66 12.1 35
California 595 7.9 16 466 9.2 17 797 12.0 20 2,002 18.6 21
Colorado 101 5.0 30 76 8.6 18 79 9.3 25 113 21.9 17
Connecticut 38 3.3 38 38 5.3 29 76 12.5 19 92 26.1 11
Delaware 13 6.7 22 21 9.8 15 33 13.6 14 22 23.6 15
District of Columbia 37 15.6 3 29 39.8 1 87 49.8 1 51 64.8 1
Florida 607 14.9 6 753 19.5 4 1,306 26.5 3 1,647 46.2 2
Georgia 309 21.0 1 405 25.9 2 798 30.2 2 620 29.3 10
Hawaii 27 5.8 26 14 4.4 35 21 7.6 32 3 5.5
Idaho 9 2.4 4 1.0 10 2.8 6 4.5
Illinois 220 6.8 20 195 7.8 21 335 14.1 13 407 23.0 16
Indiana 47 4.6 34 73 5.3 28 147 8.0 30 148 17.8 23
Iowa 31 3.2 39 24 2.9 39 25 6.1 38 29 15.6 28
Kansas 43 5.1 29 24 3.9 37 41 8.8 28 25 9.8 37
Kentucky 44 7.2 17 77 13.5 10 115 9.5 24 95 9.2 38
Louisiana 79 16.7 2 94 15.8 6 259 21.3 6 403 31.8 5
Maine 9 2.4 8 2.1 7 2.4 0 0.0
Maryland 191 12.0 8 235 17.6 5 287 25.8 4 237 38.5 3
Massachusetts 103 4.4 35 95 7.6 23 143 13.4 15 236 30.0 8
Michigan 71 2.9 41 99 4.3 36 196 8.9 27 131 16.0 27
Minnesota 89 4.6 33 67 4.8 33 51 7.5 33 58 24.4 13
Mississippi 30 15.1 4 50 14.9 8 167 18.8 7 171 20.1 19
Missouri 90 7.0 18 92 8.1 19 127 7.7 31 79 12.6 34
Montana 6 1.8 6 2.0 8 4.8 1 4.5
Nebraska 20 3.5 37 14 3.1 38 24 9.2 26 16 10.7 36
Nevada 42 9.7 11 80 13.4 11 156 24.5 5 182 31.4 6
New Hampshire 8 1.8 6 1.5 10 5.6 5 13.3
New Jersey 146 5.7 27 137 7.7 22 266 17.7 10 389 36.4 4
New Mexico 16 4.8 31 13 5.0 32 21 4.7 41 28 5.0 40
New York 265 6.4 23 268 8.0 20 600 15.0 11 1,204 30.3 7
North Carolina 25 1.4 42 31 2.1 42 60 2.2 43 53 2.8 41
North Dakota 16 8.0 15 7 2.8 9 7.8 0 0.0
Ohio 168 6.1 25 169 6.7 25 276 10.7 23 277 23.9 14
Oklahoma 47 8.1 14 34 4.8 34 67 6.2 36 87 15.0 29
Oregon 62 6.8 21 43 5.1 31 69 6.1 37 29 9.0 39
Pennsylvania 144 4.6 32 174 5.6 27 317 11.3 22 329 29.7 9
Puerto Rico 11 14.9 27 19.8 3 91 13.1 16 257 14.3 31
Rhode Island 12 5.4 28 13 5.1 30 14 6.5 34 28 18.1 22
South Carolina 91 10.3 10 88 11.8 12 222 18.3 8 210 20.6 18
South Dakota 3 1.4 5 2.0 11 7.6 5 9.3
Tennessee 114 10.6 9 131 13.9 9 245 12.9 18 206 16.7 26
Texas 674 15.1 5 544 15.5 7 923 17.9 9 1,874 25.0 12
Utah 36 3.9 36 15 2.8 40 30 6.4 35 26 12.9 33
Vermont 6 3.2 6 3.0 6 5.4 0 0.0
Virginia 181 8.7 13 169 11.4 13 285 14.2 12 166 16.8 25
Washington 127 6.1 24 96 6.2 26 129 8.6 29 72 13.8 32
West Virginia 5 2.7 10 3.8 19 2.6 42 9 3.3
Wisconsin 54 3.0 40 38 2.5 41 50 5.4 40 49 17.3 24
Wyoming 2 1.3 2 1.1 2 1.9 0 0.0
Totalb 5,289 7.5 5,260 9.1 9,401 13.7 12,590 22.6

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis, and the proportion of residents in the census tract with less than a high school diploma (individuals aged 18 years and older). Rates are per 100,000 population. Reported numbers less than 12, and rates based on these numbers, should be interpreted with caution. For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aBased on rate. Ranks were not assigned to areas with rates that were based on reported numbers less than 12.
bTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 6. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by median household income, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Median household income (U.S. $)
Male
<42,000 42,000–56,999 57,000–77,999  ≥78,000
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 225 35.0 19 88 15.2 24 45 12.6 24 17 7.9 23
Alaska 2 12.1 3 7.6 4 4.6 8 5.6
Arizona 225 32.2 21 139 20.3 22 114 18.0 15 72 12.2 14
Arkansas 79 18.2 36 40 10.0 37 34 16.3 17 6 10.0
California 783 40.6 13 853 30.4 11 872 24.0 7 920 14.5 9
Colorado 56 24.4 25 117 25.8 15 98 16.0 18 59 7.2 25
Connecticut 70 44.9 12 39 25.0 17 38 12.0 25 42 5.8 33
Delaware 10 44.6 29 29.5 12 19 14.2 21 9 8.9
District of Columbia 45 110.4 1 22 88.5 1 34 107.3 1 54 32.9 1
Florida 1,509 71.7 3 942 38.2 5 633 31.7 4 340 24.9 2
Georgia 651 67.0 5 433 44.4 3 385 41.5 2 201 23.4 3
Hawaii 3 9.8 21 33.2 9 14 8.9 31 21 6.9 27
Idaho 5 4.3 14 5.3 42 5 2.7 0 0.0
Illinois 363 47.5 9 238 21.3 20 206 15.1 20 158 10.2 17
Indiana 172 31.1 22 71 9.6 38 55 7.3 34 26 6.3 30
Iowa 16 11.2 38 42 10.2 35 12 2.6 40 12 7.1 26
Kansas 49 23.3 27 28 7.9 40 17 6.3 35 15 6.0 32
Kentucky 121 18.9 35 54 11.9 30 76 20.3 13 15 7.9 22
Louisiana 338 55.0 7 148 31.3 10 95 22.5 9 35 17.3 8
Maine 6 5.6 7 4.8 6 2.9 2 3.0
Maryland 115 77.3 2 147 51.9 2 177 34.6 3 251 19.9 5
Massachusetts 87 35.8 17 99 28.7 13 103 17.1 16 121 8.6 20
Michigan 213 24.3 26 90 8.4 39 56 5.3 37 35 4.7 34
Minnesota 36 19.3 34 55 12.5 29 63 8.4 32 48 6.7 28
Mississippi 202 39.4 14 66 21.1 21 44 23.0 8 12 18.1 6
Missouri 153 26.3 23 86 11.8 32 75 13.0 22 34 8.7 19
Montana 8 8.8 5 3.4 4 2.7 1 5.0
Nebraska 17 21.3 31 30 11.8 31 14 6.1 36 7 5.0
Nevada 172 67.3 4 88 36.3 7 99 25.9 6 43 17.8 7
New Hampshire 1 3.5 8 9.5 8 4.5 6 2.5
New Jersey 202 63.1 6 173 43.3 4 158 20.2 14 196 10.8 15
New Mexico 22 7.3 40 22 10.3 34 16 9.2 30 4 5.0
New York 610 52.1 8 431 28.7 14 414 21.8 10 402 14.5 10
North Carolina 49 4.5 42 44 3.5 43 33 4.0 39 8 1.4
North Dakota 4 10.9 4 5.9 6 5.3 6 7.6
Ohio 399 39.1 15 148 12.6 28 126 9.5 28 65 7.9 21
Oklahoma 93 21.9 30 57 11.1 33 30 9.3 29 12 6.4
Oregon 23 9.1 39 58 12.6 27 70 12.7 23 24 7.6 24
Pennsylvania 385 46.7 10 168 12.7 26 118 7.7 33 79 6.6 29
Puerto Rico 295 24.8 24 20 34.6 8 0 0.0 0 0.0
Rhode Island 15 22.4 29 18 21.9 19 8 6.8 13 9.3 18
South Carolina 229 39.0 16 133 25.3 16 71 15.2 19 35 14.1 11
South Dakota 12 20.9 32 5 4.6 1 0.9 2 4.6
Tennessee 265 33.3 20 149 19.0 23 114 21.0 11 44 12.8 13
Texas 1,052 46.1 11 916 36.3 6 754 29.5 5 570 21.0 4
Utah 19 19.8 33 22 10.1 36 34 9.6 27 24 6.1 31
Vermont 1 4.8 5 6.2 7 6.1 2 6.5
Virginia 147 35.2 18 166 24.3 18 143 20.9 12 184 13.3 12
Washington 37 15.7 37 77 13.1 25 83 9.8 26 116 10.3 16
West Virginia 16 5.4 41 11 4.1 3 2.6 1 3.5
Wisconsin 67 22.5 28 48 7.1 41 36 4.7 38 15 3.2 35
Wyoming 1 6.4 2 2.8 2 2.3 1 2.0
Totalb 9,675 38.4 6,679 22.1 5,632 17.6 4,373 12.6

 

Table 6. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by median household income, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Median household income (U.S. $)
Female
<42,000 42,000–56,999 57,000–77,999  ≥78,000
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 60 8.3 18 15 2.4 25 10 2.6 5 2.2
Alaska 0 0.0 1 3.0 1 1.3 1 0.7
Arizona 42 6.0 23 19 2.7 23 16 2.4 14 7 1.1
Arkansas 20 4.3 28 15 3.6 18 1 0.5 1 1.6
California 119 6.0 24 123 4.3 15 102 2.7 13 86 1.3 11
Colorado 7 3.1 10 2.2 11 1.8 10 1.2
Connecticut 25 14.3 8 19 10.9 4 4 1.2 7 0.9
Delaware 5 19.2 8 7.2 7 4.8 2 1.9
District of Columbia 23 42.1 1 7 23.3 8 22.4 10 5.7
Florida 456 20.4 5 253 9.5 6 115 5.4 5 54 3.7 2
Georgia 230 21.3 3 112 10.5 5 89 8.9 2 31 3.4 4
Hawaii 1 3.3 0 0.0 1 0.6 4 1.3
Idaho 2 1.7 2 0.7 0 0.0 1 1.8
Illinois 94 11.1 14 51 4.3 14 26 1.8 16 21 1.3 12
Indiana 50 8.2 19 22 2.8 22 14 1.8 17 5 1.2
Iowa 7 4.9 15 3.5 19 4 0.9 1 0.6
Kansas 10 4.7 8 2.2 1 0.4 5 1.9
Kentucky 40 5.8 25 12 2.5 24 10 2.5 3 1.5
Louisiana 164 23.8 2 30 6.1 10 16 3.6 12 7 3.2
Maine 1 0.9 0 0.0 2 0.9 0 0.0
Maryland 36 20.1 6 56 17.2 1 72 12.7 1 96 7.1 1
Massachusetts 53 18.9 7 44 11.8 3 40 6.1 3 29 1.9 9
Michigan 69 7.2 22 18 1.6 27 7 0.6 9 1.2
Minnesota 19 9.8 16 14 3.1 21 15 2.0 15 15 2.0 8
Mississippi 73 12.7 11 13 3.9 17 6 2.9 2 2.7
Missouri 25 3.9 29 10 1.3 1 0.2 4 1.0
Montana 2 2.2 1 0.7 0 0.0 0 0.0
Nebraska 4 4.8 1 0.4 1 0.4 0 0.0
Nevada 30 12.6 13 13 5.3 13 12 3.1 3 1.2
New Hampshire 1 3.6 2 2.3 1 0.5 2 0.8
New Jersey 76 20.9 4 55 12.6 2 46 5.5 4 32 1.6 10
New Mexico 6 1.9 4 1.8 1 0.6 2 2.4
New York 179 12.8 10 110 6.8 9 99 4.9 6 85 2.8 6
North Carolina 18 1.5 31 12 0.9 28 4 0.4 1 0.2
North Dakota 2 6.1 4 6.0 4 3.7 2 2.7
Ohio 91 8.0 21 27 2.1 26 24 1.7 18 10 1.2
Oklahoma 24 5.5 26 10 1.9 6 1.8 2 1.0
Oregon 5 1.9 10 2.1 10 1.8 3 0.9
Pennsylvania 118 12.6 12 55 3.9 16 21 1.3 19 15 1.2 13
Puerto Rico 70 5.2 27 1 1.5 0 0.0 0 0.0
Rhode Island 9 12.5 2 2.2 2 1.5 0 0.0
South Carolina 70 10.5 15 41 7.3 8 23 4.5 8 9 3.4
South Dakota 1 1.7 1 0.9 1 0.9 1 2.2
Tennessee 70 8.0 20 26 3.1 20 23 3.9 11 5 1.3
Texas 308 12.9 9 197 7.7 7 121 4.6 7 93 3.3 5
Utah 4 4.3 1 0.5 2 0.5 1 0.3
Vermont 0 0.0 0 0.0 3 2.5 0 0.0
Virginia 41 8.9 17 39 5.4 12 29 4.0 10 52 3.6 3
Washington 10 4.1 33 5.5 11 39 4.5 9 29 2.5 7
West Virginia 5 1.6 4 1.4 3 2.6 0 0.0
Wisconsin 12 3.7 30 11 1.6 2 0.3 0 0.0
Wyoming 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Totalb 2,787 10.2 1,537 4.8 1,056 3.1 763 2.1

 

Table 6. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by median household income, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Median household income (U.S. $)
Total
<42,000 42,000–56,999 57,000–77,999  ≥78,000
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 285 20.8 20 103 8.5 25 55 7.4 22 22 4.9 19
Alaska 2 6.6 4 5.4 5 3.0 9 3.2
Arizona 267 19.1 22 158 11.4 22 130 10.0 16 79 6.5 14
Arkansas 99 10.9 37 55 6.7 32 35 8.1 21 7 5.7
California 902 23.0 17 976 17.2 13 974 13.2 7 1,006 7.8 12
Colorado 63 13.7 30 127 14.0 18 109 8.9 19 69 4.1 26
Connecticut 95 28.7 11 58 17.5 11 42 6.4 26 49 3.3 33
Delaware 15 31.0 8 37 17.7 10 26 9.3 18 11 5.3
District of Columbia 68 71.3 1 29 52.8 1 42 62.3 1 64 18.8 1
Florida 1,965 45.2 3 1,195 23.3 5 748 18.1 4 394 14.0 2
Georgia 881 43.0 4 545 26.7 4 474 24.6 2 232 13.1 4
Hawaii 4 6.5 21 16.8 14 15 4.8 31 25 4.1 27
Idaho 7 3.0 16 3.0 42 5 1.3 1 0.9
Illinois 457 28.3 13 289 12.6 19 232 8.3 20 179 5.6 17
Indiana 222 19.0 23 93 6.2 35 69 4.5 33 31 3.7 31
Iowa 23 8.0 39 57 6.8 31 16 1.7 40 13 3.8 30
Kansas 59 14.0 29 36 5.0 39 18 3.3 35 20 4.0 28
Kentucky 161 12.1 35 66 7.1 30 86 11.2 15 18 4.6 21
Louisiana 502 38.5 7 178 18.4 9 111 12.9 9 42 10.0 7
Maine 7 3.2 7 2.3 8 1.9 2 1.5
Maryland 151 46.1 2 203 33.3 2 249 23.1 3 347 13.2 3
Massachusetts 140 26.8 14 143 19.9 8 143 11.4 14 150 5.1 18
Michigan 282 15.3 25 108 4.9 40 63 2.9 37 44 2.9 35
Minnesota 55 14.5 27 69 7.7 27 78 5.2 29 63 4.3 24
Mississippi 275 25.3 15 79 12.3 20 50 12.6 11 14 10.1 6
Missouri 178 14.5 26 96 6.5 33 76 6.4 25 38 4.7 20
Montana 10 5.5 6 2.0 4 1.3 1 2.5
Nebraska 21 12.9 32 31 6.0 36 15 3.3 36 7 2.4
Nevada 202 40.9 5 101 20.6 7 111 14.4 6 46 9.3 8
New Hampshire 2 3.6 10 5.8 9 2.5 8 1.6
New Jersey 278 40.6 6 228 27.3 3 204 12.7 10 228 6.1 16
New Mexico 28 4.6 41 26 5.9 37 17 4.8 32 6 3.7
New York 789 30.8 9 541 17.3 12 513 13.1 8 487 8.4 10
North Carolina 67 2.9 43 56 2.1 44 37 2.2 39 9 0.7
North Dakota 6 8.6 8 5.9 10 4.5 8 5.2
Ohio 490 22.7 18 175 7.2 29 150 5.5 27 75 4.5 23
Oklahoma 117 13.5 31 67 6.4 34 36 5.4 28 14 3.6 32
Oregon 28 5.5 40 68 7.3 28 80 7.1 24 27 4.2 25
Pennsylvania 503 28.6 12 223 8.2 26 139 4.4 34 94 3.8 29
Puerto Rico 365 14.4 28 21 16.7 15 0 0.0 0 0.0
Rhode Island 24 17.3 24 20 11.5 21 10 4.0 13 4.5 22
South Carolina 299 23.9 16 174 15.9 16 94 9.6 17 44 8.5 9
South Dakota 13 11.3 36 6 2.8 2 0.9 3 3.4
Tennessee 335 20.0 21 175 10.8 23 137 12.2 13 49 6.8 13
Texas 1,360 29.1 10 1,113 21.9 6 875 16.9 5 663 11.9 5
Utah 23 12.1 34 23 5.3 38 36 5.0 30 25 3.2 34
Vermont 1 2.4 5 3.0 10 4.2 2 3.2
Virginia 188 21.4 19 205 14.6 17 172 12.2 12 236 8.3 11
Washington 47 9.9 38 110 9.3 24 122 7.2 23 145 6.4 15
West Virginia 21 3.4 42 15 2.7 43 6 2.6 1 1.7
Wisconsin 79 12.8 33 59 4.3 41 38 2.4 38 15 1.6 36
Wyoming 1 3.3 2 1.4 2 1.1 1 1.0
Totalb 12,462 23.7 8,216 13.3 6,688 10.2 5,136 7.2

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis, and the median income (based on all age groups) for a household within the census tract during the 12 months before the survey response. Reported numbers less than 12, and rates based on these numbers, should be interpreted with caution. For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aBased on rate. Ranks were not assigned to areas with rates that were based on reported numbers less than 12.
bTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 7. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage without health insurance, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Without health insurance (%)
Male
<5 5.00–8.99 9.00–14.99 ≥15
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 20 9.6 23 63 15.7 18 118 17.5 26 175 34.3 19
Alaska 1 4.3 4 14.6 3 3.3 9 6.0
Arizona 57 10.0 19 97 15.4 19 122 18.3 25 274 36.7 15
Arkansas 14 11.6 14 41 10.5 30 80 19.3 24 25 13.9 34
California 545 13.4 8 776 19.4 12 972 27.4 14 1,137 36.3 16
Colorado 43 6.6 31 82 13.5 25 84 16.8 29 122 33.3 22
Connecticut 61 7.5 28 43 16.2 16 46 27.5 13 39 32.5 23
Delaware 18 12.5 12 26 19.5 11 16 25.5 18 7 43.3
District of Columbia 86 49.1 1 43 76.2 1 23 79.0 1 4 151.2
Florida 93 13.3 9 349 26.7 4 808 33.5 7 2,177 61.8 1
Georgia 66 23.7 3 176 33.6 2 356 31.5 9 1,072 59.5 2
Hawaii 31 9.0 25 20 12.1 28 8 16.7 0 0.0
Idaho 1 1.7 1 0.8 11 4.4 11 5.7
Illinois 174 9.6 22 193 14.8 23 298 32.4 8 300 39.2 13
Indiana 31 6.2 33 77 9.1 34 87 12.3 35 129 31.5 25
Iowa 23 3.5 37 33 9.1 35 18 14.0 32 8 20.5
Kansas 13 4.9 35 25 8.0 37 28 9.6 38 43 20.2 28
Kentucky 80 13.0 10 112 16.6 15 53 17.0 27 21 34.8 18
Louisiana 38 26.2 2 76 24.7 6 199 30.5 10 304 50.0 8
Maine 3 3.3 5 2.7 11 5.4 2 4.6
Maryland 202 19.7 5 185 31.2 3 175 47.2 2 128 58.3 4
Massachusetts 264 12.6 11 103 25.2 5 40 45.1 3 4 45.9
Michigan 81 5.8 34 143 9.9 31 127 16.9 28 43 24.2 27
Minnesota 83 6.6 32 48 8.1 36 51 27.4 15 20 34.0 20
Mississippi 9 18.9 22 18.3 14 91 25.9 17 202 35.9 17
Missouri 48 10.8 18 82 14.8 22 75 10.3 36 143 25.9 26
Montana 0 0.0 6 4.3 4 2.4 8 11.9
Nebraska 14 6.9 30 6 2.8 24 14.5 30 24 19.4 29
Nevada 21 14.6 7 49 19.2 13 119 33.7 6 213 57.4 6
New Hampshire 6 3.7 1 0.5 10 7.2 6 22.3
New Jersey 119 9.5 24 102 13.3 27 160 25.9 16 348 51.0 7
New Mexico 9 7.1 10 5.5 25 10.2 37 21 9.3 35
New York 333 10.8 17 479 23.1 9 577 41.0 4 473 57.4 5
North Carolina 6 1.5 20 2.4 41 44 3.4 41 64 5.1 36
North Dakota 7 7.0 7 6.0 5 7.5 1 7.5
Ohio 165 10.0 20 217 13.8 24 242 28.3 12 114 40.9 11
Oklahoma 9 11.6 19 9.3 33 36 8.7 39 129 17.1 31
Oregon 36 10.0 21 62 9.6 32 56 12.7 33 21 16.4 33
Pennsylvania 169 7.7 27 212 13.4 26 220 29.1 11 153 41.9 9
Puerto Rico 65 17.2 6 138 23.5 8 88 34.9 5 24 58.9 3
Rhode Island 17 7.3 29 21 22.4 10 12 23.7 20 4 13.5
South Carolina 20 11.3 16 51 14.8 21 162 22.1 21 235 40.2 12
South Dakota 2 3.4 5 3.9 3 3.7 10 17.0
Tennessee 35 11.9 13 88 14.9 20 192 19.8 23 257 41.6 10
Texas 135 20.8 4 316 24.1 7 521 24.6 19 2,322 38.5 14
Utah 12 6.2 23 7.3 38 20 6.9 40 44 16.8 32
Vermont 11 7.4 3 3.3 1 12.9 0 0.0
Virginia 82 11.4 15 132 16.1 17 215 21.3 22 211 33.7 21
Washington 78 8.5 26 111 10.9 29 79 12.4 34 45 18.8 30
West Virginia 7 4.5 12 3.4 40 9 4.6 3 27.3
Wisconsin 48 4.6 36 43 5.6 39 42 14.1 31 33 32.2 24
Wyoming 1 6.1 1 2.1 2 2.3 2 2.7
Totalb 3,492 10.5 4,959 15.7 6,768 23.1 11,164 39.5

 

Table 7. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage without health insurance, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Without health insurance (%)
Female
<5 5.00–8.99 9.00–14.99  ≥15
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 7 3.0 10 2.3 22 3.0 26 51 8.9 17
Alaska 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.2 2 1.5
Arizona 7 1.2 16 2.4 18 13 1.9 27 48 6.4 21
Arkansas 1 0.8 11 2.6 20 4.6 19 5 2.6
California 62 1.4 14 91 2.2 21 120 3.3 25 157 5.0 22
Colorado 6 0.9 7 1.1 11 2.2 14 4.0 24
Connecticut 10 1.2 12 4.1 9 16 8.7 6 17 13.7 8
Delaware 2 1.3 11 7.5 6 9.1 3 16.5
District of Columbia 28 13.8 1 13 20.0 1 7 23.7 0 0.0
Florida 17 2.2 9 56 3.9 10 167 6.4 13 638 17.3 3
Georgia 6 2.1 33 5.9 5 86 7.0 11 337 17.0 4
Hawaii 3 0.9 3 1.8 0 0.0 0 0.0
Idaho 0 0.0 2 1.6 1 0.4 2 1.0
Illinois 31 1.6 12 43 3.1 15 67 6.7 12 51 6.6 20
Indiana 8 1.5 14 1.6 24 30 4.0 22 39 8.9 18
Iowa 10 1.5 8 2.2 7 5.3 2 5.3
Kansas 3 1.1 4 1.2 8 2.7 9 4.2
Kentucky 17 2.6 6 21 2.9 16 19 5.7 15 8 12.7
Louisiana 3 2.0 27 7.9 4 65 9.4 4 123 18.7 2
Maine 0 0.0 2 1.0 1 0.5 0 0.0
Maryland 55 4.9 2 79 11.8 2 65 15.4 1 61 27.2 1
Massachusetts 101 4.4 4 51 11.7 3 13 14.3 2 1 14.4
Michigan 18 1.2 17 25 1.6 23 44 5.6 16 16 8.6 19
Minnesota 24 1.8 10 15 2.5 17 17 9.0 5 7 12.1
Mississippi 0 0.0 6 4.5 30 7.8 8 58 9.3 15
Missouri 4 0.8 3 0.5 11 1.4 22 3.7 25
Montana 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.6 2 2.9
Nebraska 1 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.0 4 3.2
Nevada 2 1.3 4 1.5 14 3.9 23 38 10.8 11
New Hampshire 1 0.6 1 0.5 3 2.1 1 3.7
New Jersey 21 1.5 13 28 3.3 13 52 7.7 9 108 15.3 5
New Mexico 2 1.5 2 1.0 5 1.9 4 1.7
New York 80 2.4 7 125 5.5 6 164 10.4 3 104 12.1 9
North Carolina 3 0.8 4 0.4 14 1.0 28 14 1.0 26
North Dakota 3 3.1 5 4.5 3 4.9 1 8.0
Ohio 23 1.3 15 39 2.3 19 50 5.5 17 40 13.7 7
Oklahoma 0 0.0 3 1.4 5 1.2 34 4.4 23
Oregon 6 1.6 10 1.5 7 1.6 5 3.7
Pennsylvania 29 1.3 16 59 3.5 12 69 8.3 7 53 13.8 6
Puerto Rico 21 4.8 3 29 4.4 8 16 5.4 18 5 11.7
Rhode Island 2 0.8 2 2.0 7 12.5 2 6.9
South Carolina 5 2.6 18 4.8 7 59 7.3 10 61 9.5 14
South Dakota 2 3.3 0 0.0 1 1.2 1 1.8
Tennessee 7 2.2 13 2.0 22 37 3.6 24 67 9.9 13
Texas 16 2.4 8 48 3.5 11 97 4.4 20 558 9.0 16
Utah 1 0.5 2 0.6 1 0.3 4 1.6
Vermont 3 1.9 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Virginia 14 1.8 11 28 3.3 14 47 4.3 21 72 11.0 10
Washington 25 2.7 5 24 2.3 20 38 5.9 14 24 10.6 12
West Virginia 2 1.2 5 1.4 3 1.5 2 17.6
Wisconsin 3 0.3 5 0.6 10 3.2 7 6.7
Wyoming 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Totalb 695 2.0 1,018 3.0 1,550 5.0 2,882 9.8

 

Table 7. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by percentage without health insurance, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Without health insurance (%)
Total
<5 5.00–8.99 9.00–14.99  ≥15
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 27 6.2 17 73 8.7 21 140 10.0 28 226 20.9 21
Alaska 1 2.4 4 7.6 4 2.3 11 3.9
Arizona 64 5.4 24 113 8.7 19 135 10.1 27 322 21.5 20
Arkansas 15 6.0 18 52 6.4 30 100 11.7 23 30 8.1 34
California 607 7.3 11 867 10.6 13 1,092 15.2 19 1,294 20.6 22
Colorado 49 3.7 33 89 7.2 27 95 9.6 30 136 18.9 25
Connecticut 71 4.2 29 55 9.9 15 62 17.6 14 56 22.9 16
Delaware 20 6.6 14 37 13.2 10 22 17.1 15 10 29.1
District of Columbia 114 30.2 1 56 46.1 1 30 51.2 1 4 76.6
Florida 110 7.4 10 405 14.8 6 975 19.4 6 2,815 39.1 2
Georgia 72 12.8 3 209 19.3 3 442 18.7 10 1,409 37.2 3
Hawaii 34 5.0 26 23 6.9 28 8 8.4 0 0.0
Idaho 1 0.8 3 1.2 12 2.4 13 3.4 36
Illinois 205 5.5 23 236 8.7 20 365 19.0 7 351 22.8 17
Indiana 39 3.8 32 91 5.3 36 117 8.0 33 168 19.8 23
Iowa 33 2.5 38 41 5.6 32 25 9.6 29 10 13.1
Kansas 16 3.0 37 29 4.6 38 36 6.1 36 52 12.1 29
Kentucky 97 7.7 9 133 9.5 18 72 11.2 25 29 23.6 14
Louisiana 41 13.7 2 103 15.9 5 264 19.7 5 427 33.7 7
Maine 3 1.6 7 1.8 12 2.9 2 2.2
Maryland 257 12.0 4 264 20.9 2 240 30.3 2 189 42.6 1
Massachusetts 365 8.3 7 154 18.2 4 53 29.5 3 5 32.0
Michigan 99 3.5 35 168 5.6 31 171 11.1 26 59 16.2 26
Minnesota 107 4.2 30 63 5.3 34 68 18.1 12 27 23.2 15
Mississippi 9 9.4 28 11.0 12 121 16.5 16 260 22.0 19
Missouri 52 5.6 20 85 7.4 26 86 5.8 38 165 14.4 28
Montana 0 0.0 6 2.2 5 1.5 10 7.4
Nebraska 15 3.6 34 7 1.6 24 7.2 34 28 11.3 30
Nevada 23 7.8 8 53 10.2 14 133 18.7 9 251 34.8 4
New Hampshire 7 2.1 2 0.5 13 4.6 40 7 13.0
New Jersey 140 5.4 25 130 8.1 24 212 16.5 18 456 32.9 8
New Mexico 11 4.2 12 3.2 40 30 5.9 37 25 5.5 35
New York 413 6.4 16 604 13.9 7 741 24.8 4 577 34.3 6
North Carolina 9 1.1 24 1.4 43 58 2.1 43 78 3.0 37
North Dakota 10 5.1 12 5.3 35 8 6.3 2 7.7
Ohio 188 5.5 22 256 7.8 25 292 16.5 17 154 27.0 10
Oklahoma 9 5.8 22 5.2 37 41 4.9 39 163 10.6 31
Oregon 42 5.6 19 72 5.5 33 63 7.1 35 26 9.9 32
Pennsylvania 198 4.4 28 271 8.3 22 289 18.2 11 206 27.5 9
Puerto Rico 86 10.6 6 167 13.3 9 104 19.0 8 29 34.7 5
Rhode Island 19 3.9 31 23 11.9 11 19 17.8 13 6 10.2
South Carolina 25 6.8 13 69 9.6 16 221 14.4 20 296 24.2 12
South Dakota 4 3.3 5 2.0 4 2.5 11 9.5
Tennessee 42 6.8 12 101 8.2 23 229 11.4 24 324 25.0 11
Texas 151 11.4 5 364 13.6 8 618 14.2 21 2,880 23.6 13
Utah 13 3.3 36 25 3.9 39 21 3.6 41 48 9.3 33
Vermont 14 4.5 27 3 1.6 1 6.4 0 0.0
Virginia 96 6.5 15 160 9.6 17 262 12.5 22 283 22.1 18
Washington 103 5.5 21 135 6.5 29 117 9.2 31 69 14.8 27
West Virginia 9 2.8 17 2.4 42 12 3.0 42 5 22.4
Wisconsin 51 2.4 39 48 3.1 41 52 8.6 32 40 19.3 24
Wyoming 1 3.1 1 1.1 2 1.2 2 1.3
Totalb 4,187 6.1 5,977 9.2 8,318 13.8 14,046 24.4

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis, and the proportion of residents within the census tract without health insurance or health coverage plan (individuals aged 18 years and older).
Rates are per 100,000 population. Reported numbers less than 12, and rates based on these numbers, should be interpreted with caution. For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aBased on rate. Ranks were not assigned to areas with rates that were based on reported numbers less than 12.
bTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

Table 8. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by GINI index percentage, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Gini index (%)
Male
<38 38.00–41.99 42.00–45.99 ≥46
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 40 14.1 19 67 15.4 19 101 21.8 16 167 27.3 17
Alaska 5 4.8 5 5.1 1 1.8 6 20.2
Arizona 143 17.4 14 140 20.3 12 136 24.1 11 131 24.3 20
Arkansas 36 27.2 8 31 9.9 31 37 11.9 31 56 16.1 28
California 702 19.1 12 927 22.9 10 842 23.6 12 959 27.8 16
Colorado 94 12.7 22 93 17.1 17 62 14.7 25 81 19.6 25
Connecticut 28 10.0 29 47 11.4 27 50 16.3 23 64 18.0 27
Delaware 16 18.7 13 19 14.2 21 9 13.4 23 32.8 9
District of Columbia 8 42.5 15 59.8 1 31 48.2 1 101 65.9 1
Florida 568 35.7 3 874 38.1 3 839 44.0 4 1,145 53.3 2
Georgia 324 38.2 2 397 39.6 2 440 47.6 2 509 53.2 3
Hawaii 13 6.6 36 13 9.9 32 19 15.5 24 14 13.3 34
Idaho 5 3.4 10 5.4 0 0.0 9 6.4
Illinois 155 13.1 20 239 16.9 18 221 20.0 17 350 31.6 11
Indiana 72 9.1 30 102 12.5 25 68 14.1 27 82 22.0 23
Iowa 18 6.3 37 27 6.0 40 21 8.0 40 16 8.8 40
Kansas 38 10.0 28 27 8.9 33 21 10.3 35 23 11.7 39
Kentucky 48 15.0 17 79 20.2 13 58 13.5 28 81 15.4 31
Louisiana 39 24.4 10 96 25.1 8 172 36.9 5 310 44.0 5
Maine 2 1.8 2 1.4 13 9.3 37 4 3.3
Maryland 275 28.6 6 185 31.4 6 90 27.0 8 140 43.0 6
Massachusetts 43 10.1 27 92 11.5 26 131 18.5 19 144 21.3 24
Michigan 85 8.5 34 106 8.8 34 89 11.0 33 114 15.3 32
Minnesota 57 9.1 31 59 8.6 36 45 10.0 36 41 12.4 35
Mississippi 48 30.0 4 66 30.4 7 86 31.4 7 124 28.7 15
Missouri 76 11.7 23 82 12.5 22 88 17.1 22 102 22.3 22
Montana 1 1.9 5 4.6 2 1.6 10 8.3
Nebraska 21 9.0 32 19 8.1 38 16 11.8 32 12 11.9 38
Nevada 115 27.8 7 97 32.8 4 97 44.4 3 93 47.6 4
New Hampshire 7 4.4 14 7.1 39 2 2.1 0 0.0
New Jersey 122 15.8 16 172 17.7 16 189 23.2 13 246 32.5 10
New Mexico 8 6.5 21 11.0 29 20 10.5 34 15 5.7 41
New York 143 11.2 24 334 18.3 15 457 26.0 9 923 36.7 8
North Carolina 37 4.6 39 29 2.8 42 38 4.1 43 30 3.0 42
North Dakota 3 6.3 2 2.8 8 8.5 7 8.3
Ohio 146 11.2 25 159 12.5 24 173 19.2 18 260 29.9 14
Oklahoma 44 14.5 18 51 12.5 23 29 8.0 41 69 18.3 26
Oregon 46 12.8 21 54 11.0 28 36 9.0 38 39 12.1 36
Pennsylvania 95 8.8 33 144 8.7 35 203 17.9 21 309 30.7 12
Puerto Rico 12 39.5 1 15 14.8 20 56 22.8 14 232 26.3 19
Rhode Island 11 14.2 8 9.2 14 12.9 29 21 15.7 29
South Carolina 90 25.4 9 111 23.3 9 109 22.5 15 158 30.6 13
South Dakota 3 3.4 5 5.4 5 7.3 7 9.0
Tennessee 126 24.3 11 140 22.6 11 112 18.5 20 194 26.7 18
Texas 887 29.4 5 822 32.1 5 730 32.9 6 853 37.3 7
Utah 40 7.1 35 22 10.3 30 22 14.6 26 15 11.9 37
Vermont 3 7.2 5 7.0 4 4.8 3 6.1
Virginia 213 17.0 15 159 20.1 14 143 24.3 10 125 23.2 21
Washington 92 10.4 26 71 8.5 37 76 12.4 30 74 15.5 30
West Virginia 1 1.2 7 3.5 12 5.5 42 11 5.3
Wisconsin 34 5.2 38 43 5.7 41 41 8.8 39 48 14.2 33
Wyoming 1 1.5 2 3.1 2 4.0 1 2.4
Totalb 5,239 17.2 6,311 18.6 6,266 22.3 8,551 28.9

 

Table 8. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by GINI index percentage, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Gini index (%)
Female
<38 38.00–41.99 42.00–45.99  ≥46
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 9 2.9 24 5.1 9 14 2.8 24 43 6.2 17
Alaska 0 0.0 2 2.3 1 2.0 0 0.0
Arizona 22 2.6 14 25 3.5 16 21 3.6 19 16 2.9 28
Arkansas 4 2.8 11 3.3 7 2.2 15 3.9 25
California 83 2.2 17 134 3.2 18 95 2.6 26 118 3.3 26
Colorado 12 1.6 15 2.7 20 3 0.7 8 1.9
Connecticut 2 0.7 10 2.3 21 6.2 9 22 5.6 19
Delaware 8 9.0 6 4.1 2 2.6 6 7.6
District of Columbia 2 11.2 2 7.5 11 15.6 33 18.1 1
Florida 144 8.5 2 250 10.2 1 214 10.5 3 270 11.8 5
Georgia 77 8.5 3 106 9.8 3 119 11.8 1 160 15.1 2
Hawaii 1 0.5 1 0.7 1 0.8 3 2.7
Idaho 0 0.0 3 1.6 0 0.0 2 1.4
Illinois 19 1.6 18 42 2.9 19 54 4.6 16 77 6.3 16
Indiana 12 1.5 19 35 4.1 13 18 3.5 20 26 6.4 15
Iowa 1 0.4 10 2.1 7 2.6 9 4.8
Kansas 8 2.1 6 1.9 4 1.9 6 3.0
Kentucky 16 4.8 7 15 3.6 15 19 4.2 17 15 2.7 29
Louisiana 8 4.9 41 10.1 2 55 10.8 2 114 14.9 3
Maine 0 0.0 2 1.3 0 0.0 1 0.7
Maryland 132 12.7 1 61 9.5 4 21 5.5 11 46 12.4 4
Massachusetts 11 2.5 39 4.5 10 54 7.0 7 62 8.1 10
Michigan 14 1.4 20 22 1.7 25 29 3.3 21 38 4.7 23
Minnesota 17 2.7 13 15 2.1 22 12 2.6 25 19 5.5 20
Mississippi 5 2.9 14 6.0 8 22 7.4 5 53 11.0 6
Missouri 9 1.3 14 2.0 23 8 1.4 9 1.8
Montana 0 0.0 1 0.9 0 0.0 2 1.6
Nebraska 1 0.4 0 0.0 5 3.6 0 0.0
Nevada 18 4.3 8 10 3.4 13 5.9 10 17 8.9 8
New Hampshire 2 1.2 2 1.0 0 0.0 2 2.4
New Jersey 27 3.3 10 43 4.1 12 62 7.1 6 77 9.2 7
New Mexico 4 3.1 3 1.5 2 1.0 4 1.5
New York 42 3.2 11 84 4.3 11 100 5.2 14 247 8.6 9
North Carolina 8 0.9 7 0.6 12 1.2 27 8 0.7
North Dakota 1 2.3 5 7.4 2 2.2 4 5.1
Ohio 31 2.3 16 35 2.6 21 36 3.7 18 50 5.3 21
Oklahoma 7 2.2 11 2.6 11 2.9 13 3.3 27
Oregon 9 2.4 8 1.6 6 1.4 5 1.5
Pennsylvania 26 2.3 15 35 2.0 24 64 5.2 15 84 7.4 13
Puerto Rico 2 5.3 7 6.1 15 5.4 13 47 4.7 24
Rhode Island 1 1.3 2 2.2 4 3.3 6 4.0
South Carolina 20 5.2 6 40 7.7 5 37 7.0 8 46 7.9 12
South Dakota 1 1.1 1 1.1 0 0.0 2 2.5
Tennessee 31 5.6 4 22 3.3 17 19 3.0 22 52 6.4 14
Texas 165 5.3 5 188 7.1 6 175 7.5 4 191 8.0 11
Utah 4 0.7 0 0.0 2 1.3 2 1.6
Vermont 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.1 2 3.8
Virginia 39 3.0 12 51 6.0 7 35 5.5 12 36 6.1 18
Washington 38 4.3 9 31 3.7 14 18 2.9 23 24 4.9 22
West Virginia 2 2.3 4 1.9 4 1.8 2 0.9
Wisconsin 3 0.5 8 1.0 7 1.4 7 2.0
Wyoming 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
Totalb 1,098 3.5 1,503 4.2 1,442 4.8 2,101 6.6

 

Table 8. Diagnoses of HIV infection among adults, by GINI index percentage, sex at birth, and area of residence, 2018—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Gini index (%)
Total
<38 38.00–41.99 42.00–45.99  ≥46
Area of residence No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka No. Rate Ranka
Alabama 49 8.3 18 91 10.1 18 115 11.8 18 210 16.1 16
Alaska 5 2.5 7 3.8 2 1.9 6 10.6
Arizona 165 9.9 15 165 11.8 13 157 13.7 13 147 13.5 23
Arkansas 40 14.6 9 42 6.5 28 44 6.9 33 71 9.7 30
California 785 10.6 13 1,061 12.9 10 937 12.9 15 1,077 15.3 18
Colorado 106 7.1 23 108 9.8 19 65 7.7 29 89 10.8 26
Connecticut 30 5.3 32 57 6.6 27 71 11.0 21 86 11.5 25
Delaware 24 13.7 12 25 8.9 21 11 7.7 29 19.5 10
District of Columbia 10 27.2 17 32.8 1 42 31.2 1 134 39.9 1
Florida 712 21.7 2 1,124 23.7 3 1,053 26.7 3 1,415 31.8 3
Georgia 401 22.8 1 503 24.1 2 559 29.0 2 669 33.2 2
Hawaii 14 3.7 37 14 5.2 35 20 8.1 26 17 7.8 35
Idaho 5 1.7 13 3.5 41 0 0.0 11 3.9
Illinois 174 7.3 22 281 9.8 20 275 12.1 17 427 18.3 14
Indiana 84 5.3 31 137 8.2 22 86 8.6 25 108 13.9 22
Iowa 19 3.3 38 37 4.0 40 28 5.3 38 25 6.7 38
Kansas 46 6.0 28 33 5.3 33 25 6.0 35 29 7.3 36
Kentucky 64 9.8 16 94 11.7 14 77 8.7 24 96 8.8 33
Louisiana 47 14.6 11 137 17.4 8 227 23.3 5 424 28.9 4
Maine 2 0.9 4 1.3 13 4.5 41 5 2.0
Maryland 407 20.4 4 246 19.9 4 111 15.6 8 186 26.7 6
Massachusetts 54 6.2 27 131 7.9 23 185 12.5 16 206 14.3 21
Michigan 99 4.9 33 128 5.2 36 118 7.0 32 152 9.8 29
Minnesota 74 5.9 29 74 5.4 32 57 6.2 34 60 8.9 32
Mississippi 53 15.9 7 80 17.8 7 108 18.9 7 177 19.4 11
Missouri 85 6.4 26 96 7.1 26 96 9.0 23 111 11.6 24
Montana 1 1.0 6 2.8 2 0.8 12 4.9 41
Nebraska 22 4.7 35 19 4.0 38 21 7.6 30 12 5.8 40
Nevada 133 16.0 6 107 18.1 6 110 25.1 4 110 28.5 5
New Hampshire 9 2.8 16 4.0 39 2 1.0 2 1.2
New Jersey 149 9.4 17 215 10.7 16 251 14.8 10 323 20.2 9
New Mexico 12 4.8 34 24 6.1 30 22 5.7 36 19 3.5 42
New York 185 7.1 24 418 11.1 15 557 15.2 9 1,170 21.7 8
North Carolina 45 2.7 40 36 1.7 43 50 2.6 43 38 1.8 44
North Dakota 4 4.4 7 5.1 10 5.4 11 6.7
Ohio 177 6.6 25 194 7.3 25 209 11.2 20 310 17.0 15
Oklahoma 51 8.3 19 62 7.5 24 40 5.4 37 82 10.6 27
Oregon 55 7.5 20 62 6.2 29 42 5.1 39 44 6.6 39
Pennsylvania 121 5.5 30 179 5.3 34 267 11.3 19 393 18.4 13
Puerto Rico 14 20.5 3 22 10.2 17 71 13.6 14 279 14.8 19
Rhode Island 12 7.7 10 5.6 18 7.8 28 27 9.6 31
South Carolina 110 15.0 8 151 15.2 9 146 14.4 12 204 18.6 12
South Dakota 4 2.3 6 3.3 5 3.7 9 5.7
Tennessee 157 14.6 10 162 12.6 12 131 10.5 22 246 16.0 17
Texas 1,052 17.2 5 1,010 19.4 5 905 20.0 6 1,044 22.4 7
Utah 44 3.9 36 22 5.1 37 24 7.9 27 17 6.8 37
Vermont 3 3.6 5 3.4 5 2.9 5 4.9
Virginia 252 9.9 14 210 12.9 11 178 14.5 11 161 14.3 20
Washington 130 7.3 21 102 6.1 31 94 7.6 31 98 10.2 28
West Virginia 3 1.7 11 2.7 16 3.6 42 13 3.0 43
Wisconsin 37 2.8 39 51 3.3 42 48 5.1 40 55 7.9 34
Wyoming 1 0.7 2 1.6 2 2.0 1 1.2
Totalb 6,337 10.2 7,814 11.2 7,708 13.3 10,652 17.3

Abbreviation: SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis, and the proportion of household income distribution within the census tract during the 12 months before the survey response.
Rates are per 100,000 population. Reported numbers less than 12, and rates based on these numbers, should be interpreted with caution.
For the definitions of SDH indicator variables used in this report, see http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aBased on rate. Ranks were not assigned to areas with rates that were based on reported numbers less than 12.
bTotals do not represent all adults whose HIV infection was diagnosed during 2018 in these areas. See Technical Notes for exclusion criteria.

9a. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Black/African American
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total diagnoses ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 792 8.7 618 78.0 690 87.1
6.00–10.99 1,533 16.9 1,175 76.6 1,309 85.4
11.00–17.99 2,328 25.6 1,810 77.7 1,993 85.6
 ≥18 4,436 48.8 3,362 75.8 3,742 84.4
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,163 12.8 920 79.1 1,012 87.0
6.00–9.99 1,410 15.5 1,101 78.1 1,215 86.2
10.00–17.99 2,970 32.7 2,218 74.7 2,489 83.8
 ≥18 3,551 39.0 2,729 76.9 3,022 85.1
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 4,317 47.5 3,257 75.4 3,646 84.5
42,000–56,999 2,194 24.2 1,701 77.5 1,876 85.5
57,000–77,999 1,556 17.1 1,209 77.7 1,326 85.2
 ≥78,000 1,014 11.2 793 78.2 880 86.8
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 827 9.1 649 78.5 721 87.2
5.00–8.99 1,424 15.7 1,135 79.7 1,239 87.0
9.00–14.99 2,418 26.6 1,876 77.6 2,076 85.9
 ≥15 4,423 48.6 3,306 74.7 3,700 83.7
   Gini index (%)
<38 1,667 18.3 1,279 76.7 1,429 85.7
38.00–41.99 2,047 22.5 1,539 75.2 1,724 84.2
42.00–45.99 2,087 23.0 1,605 76.9 1,765 84.6
 ≥46 3,284 36.1 2,538 77.3 2,812 85.6
Subtotald 9,236 100 7,068 76.5 7,852 85.0
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 276 8.7 224 81.2 249 90.2
6.00–10.99 507 15.9 414 81.7 458 90.3
11.00–17.99 832 26.1 695 83.5 757 91.0
 ≥18 1,567 49.2 1,232 78.6 1,374 87.7
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 306 9.6 262 85.6 284 92.8
6.00–9.99 453 14.2 369 81.5 413 91.2
10.00–17.99 1,064 33.4 847 79.6 950 89.3
≥18 1,359 42.7 1,087 80.0 1,191 87.6
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,570 49.4 1,231 78.4 1,372 87.4
42,000–56,999 733 23.0 591 80.6 663 90.5
57,000–77,999 520 16.3 441 84.8 477 91.7
 ≥78,000 358 11.3 301 84.1 325 90.8
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 303 9.5 253 83.5 279 92.1
5.00–8.99 459 14.4 392 85.4 420 91.5
9.00–14.99 794 25.0 648 81.6 717 90.3
 ≥15 1,626 51.1 1,272 78.2 1,422 87.5
   Gini index (%)
<38 556 17.5 464 83.5 505 90.8
38.00–41.99 769 24.2 633 82.3 685 89.1
42.00–45.99 723 22.7 576 79.7 648 89.6
 ≥46 1,134 35.6 892 78.7 1,000 88.2
Subtotald 3,243 100 2,608 80.4 2,887 89.0
Total 12,479 100 9,676 77.5 10,739 86.1

 

9a. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Hispanic/Latinoa
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total diagnoses ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 638 9.4 534 83.7 573 89.8
6.00–10.99 1,503 22.1 1,248 83.0 1,359 90.4
11.00–17.99 1,937 28.5 1,649 85.1 1,768 91.3
≥18 2,725 40.1 2,238 82.1 2,427 89.1
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 842 12.4 707 84.0 765 90.9
6.00–9.99 860 12.6 736 85.6 793 92.2
10.00–17.99 1,586 23.3 1,341 84.6 1,449 91.4
 ≥18 3,523 51.7 2,891 82.1 3,127 88.8
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,251 33.1 1,833 81.4 1,988 88.3
42,000–56,999 1,914 28.1 1,617 84.5 1,736 90.7
57,000–77,999 1,552 22.8 1,299 83.7 1,407 90.7
≥78,000 1,083 15.9 918 84.8 994 91.8
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 558 8.2 471 84.4 511 91.6
5.00–8.99 965 14.2 824 85.4 892 92.4
9.00–14.99 1,592 23.4 1,345 84.5 1,450 91.1
 ≥15 3,689 54.2 3,029 82.1 3,274 88.8
   Gini index (%)
<38 1,425 20.9 1,176 82.5 1,282 90.0
38.00–41.99 1,806 26.6 1,487 82.3 1,604 88.8
42.00–45.99 1,666 24.5 1,378 82.7 1,495 89.7
 ≥46 1,905 28.0 1,628 85.5 1,746 91.7
Subtotald 6,879 100 5,725 83.2 6,187 89.9
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 76 8.3 63 82.9 68 89.5
6.00–10.99 158 17.2 133 84.2 144 91.1
11.00–17.99 246 26.7 214 87.0 227 92.3
 ≥18 440 47.8 347 78.9 393 89.3
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 78 8.5 62 79.5 70 89.7
6.00–9.99 96 10.4 85 88.5 91 94.8
10.00–17.99 197 21.4 170 86.3 181 91.9
   ≥18 549 59.7 440 80.1 490 89.3
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 390 42.4 315 80.8 351 90.0
42,000–56,999 258 28.0 215 83.3 230 89.1
57,000–77,999 159 17.3 134 84.3 148 93.1
 ≥78,000 113 12.3 93 82.3 103 91.2
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 69 7.5 60 87.0 63 91.3
5.00–8.99 117 12.7 100 85.5 111 94.9
9.00–14.99 218 23.7 179 82.1 197 90.4
 ≥15 516 56.1 418 81.0 461 89.3
   Gini index (%)
<38 168 18.3 141 83.9 149 88.7
38.00–41.99 246 26.7 197 80.1 219 89.0
42.00–45.99 206 22.4 168 81.6 190 92.2
 ≥46 300 32.6 251 83.7 274 91.3
Subtotald 932 100 767 82.3 842 90.3
Total 7,811 100 6,492 83.1 7,029 90.0

 

9a. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
White
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total diagnoses ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 1,200 19.9 1,008 84.0 1,090 90.8
6.00–10.99 1,712 28.3 1,449 84.6 1,564 91.4
11.00–17.99 1,569 26.0 1,341 85.5 1,430 91.1
   ≥18 1,559 25.8 1,274 81.7 1,382 88.6
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,771 29.3 1,502 84.8 1,610 90.9
6.00–9.99 1,329 22.0 1,138 85.6 1,217 91.6
10.00–17.99 1,681 27.8 1,399 83.2 1,509 89.8
 ≥18 1,260 20.9 1,034 82.1 1,131 89.8
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,383 22.9 1,126 81.4 1,219 88.1
42,000–56,999 1,556 25.8 1,318 84.7 1,423 91.5
57,000–77,999 1,605 26.6 1,349 84.0 1,456 90.7
≥78,000 1,495 24.8 1,278 85.5 1,367 91.4
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 1,243 20.6 1,056 85.0 1,126 90.6
5.00–8.99 1,484 24.6 1,259 84.8 1,359 91.6
9.00–14.99 1,619 26.8 1,367 84.4 1,474 91.0
 ≥15 1,694 28.0 1,390 82.1 1,507 89.0
   Gini index (%)
<38 1,309 21.7 1,105 84.4 1,192 91.1
38.00–41.99 1,481 24.5 1,238 83.6 1,331 89.9
42.00–45.99 1,455 24.1 1,212 83.3 1,316 90.4
 ≥46 1,794 29.7 1,516 84.5 1,626 90.6
Subtotald 6,136 100 5,155 84.0 5,556 90.5
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 148 14.4 121 81.8 137 92.6
6.00–10.99 246 23.9 193 78.5 215 87.4
11.00–17.99 278 27.0 223 80.2 244 87.8
 ≥18 359 34.8 262 73.0 304 84.7
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 173 16.8 144 83.2 158 91.3
6.00–9.99 205 19.9 164 80.0 185 90.2
10.00–17.99 329 31.9 260 79.0 282 85.7
 ≥18 325 31.5 232 71.4 276 84.9
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 331 32.1 245 74.0 286 86.4
42,000–56,999 305 29.6 234 76.7 261 85.6
57,000–77,999 225 21.8 178 79.1 195 86.7
 ≥78,000 170 16.5 142 83.5 158 92.9
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 171 16.6 143 83.6 156 91.2
5.00–8.99 207 20.1 148 71.5 177 85.5
9.00–14.99 275 26.7 223 81.1 240 87.3
 ≥15 378 36.7 285 75.4 327 86.5
   Gini index (%)
<38 220 21.3 181 82.3 198 90.0
38.00–41.99 273 26.5 210 76.9 236 86.4
42.00–45.99 247 24.0 185 74.9 211 85.4
 ≥46 291 28.2 223 76.6 255 87.6
Subtotald 1,058 100 820 77.5 924 87.3
Total 7,194 100 5,975 83.1 6,480 90.1

 

9a. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Otherb
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total diagnoses ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 220 16.5 185 84.1 196 89.1
6.00–10.99 341 25.5 291 85.3 312 91.5
11.00–17.99 374 28.0 310 82.9 335 89.6
 ≥18 401 30.0 336 83.8 363 90.5
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 314 23.5 265 84.4 279 88.9
6.00–9.99 255 19.1 220 86.3 236 92.5
10.00–17.99 371 27.7 311 83.8 338 91.1
   ≥18 397 29.7 326 82.1 353 88.9
  Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 292 21.9 246 84.2 266 91.1
42,000–56,999 335 25.1 275 82.1 300 89.6
57,000–77,999 352 26.4 297 84.4 320 90.9
 ≥78,000 354 26.6 303 85.6 318 89.8
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 274 20.5 238 86.9 251 91.6
5.00–8.99 312 23.4 264 84.6 283 90.7
9.00–14.99 330 24.7 278 84.2 297 90.0
   ≥15 420 31.4 342 81.4 375 89.3
   Gini index (%)
<38 308 23.1 262 85.1 276 89.6
38.00–41.99 307 23.0 259 84.4 281 91.5
42.00–45.99 304 22.8 251 82.6 273 89.8
 ≥46 414 31.1 349 84.3 374 90.3
Subtotald 1,362 100 1,140 83.7 1,225 89.9
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 31 12.4 23 74.2 26 83.9
6.00–10.99 57 22.9 47 82.5 52 91.2
11.00–17.99 62 24.9 53 85.5 56 90.3
 ≥18 99 39.8 81 81.8 84 84.8
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 41 16.5 33 80.5 37 90.2
6.00–9.99 37 14.9 34 91.9 35 94.6
10.00–17.99 73 29.3 56 76.7 59 80.8
≥18 98 39.4 81 82.7 87 88.8
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 93 37.3 77 82.8 79 84.9
42,000–56,999 55 22.1 42 76.4 47 85.5
57,000–77,999 50 20.1 46 92.0 48 96.0
≥78,000 51 20.5 39 76.5 44 86.3
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 40 16.1 33 82.5 35 87.5
5.00–8.99 53 21.3 45 84.9 49 92.5
9.00–14.99 49 19.7 38 77.6 43 87.8
≥15 107 43.0 88 82.2 91 85.0
   Gini index (%)
<38 47 18.9 37 78.7 42 89.4
38.00–41.99 60 24.1 48 80.0 51 85.0
42.00–45.99 52 20.9 44 84.6 46 88.5
    ≥46 90 36.1 75 83.3 79 87.8
Subtotald 254 100 207 81.5 222 87.4
Total 1,616 100 1,347 83.4 1,447 89.5

 

9a. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Total
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total diagnoses ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,850 12.2 2,345 82.3 2,549 89.4
6.00–10.99 5,089 21.9 4,163 81.8 4,544 89.3
11.00–17.99 6,208 26.7 5,110 82.3 5,526 89.0
   ≥18 9,121 39.2 7,210 79.0 7,914 86.8
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 4,090 17.6 3,394 83.0 3,666 89.6
6.00–9.99 3,854 16.6 3,195 82.9 3,461 89.8
10.00–17.99 6,608 28.4 5,269 79.7 5,785 87.5
≥18 8,731 37.5 6,980 79.9 7,633 87.4
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 8,243 35.4 6,462 78.4 7,119 86.4
42,000–56,999 5,999 25.8 4,911 81.9 5,335 88.9
57,000–77,999 5,065 21.8 4,154 82.0 4,509 89.0
≥78,000 3,946 17.0 3,292 83.4 3,559 90.2
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,902 12.5 2,414 83.2 2,609 89.9
5.00–8.99 4,185 18.0 3,482 83.2 3,773 90.2
9.00–14.99 5,959 25.6 4,866 81.7 5,297 88.9
 ≥15 10,226 43.9 8,067 78.9 8,856 86.6
   Gini index (%)
<38 4,709 20.2 3,822 81.2 4,179 88.7
38.00–41.99 5,641 24.3 4,523 80.2 4,940 87.6
42.00–45.99 5,512 23.7 4,446 80.7 4,849 88.0
≥46 7,397 31.8 6,031 81.5 6,558 88.7
Subtotald 23,613 100 19,088 80.8 20,820 88.2
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 531 9.9 431 81.2 480 90.4
6.00–10.99 968 18.0 787 81.3 869 89.8
11.00–17.99 1,418 26.3 1,185 83.6 1,284 90.6
   ≥18 2,465 45.8 1,922 78.0 2,155 87.4
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 598 11.1 501 83.8 549 91.8
6.00–9.99 791 14.7 652 82.4 724 91.5
10.00–17.99 1,663 30.9 1,333 80.2 1,472 88.5
   ≥18 2,331 43.3 1,840 78.9 2,044 87.7
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,384 44.3 1,868 78.4 2,088 87.6
42,000–56,999 1,351 25.1 1,082 80.1 1,201 88.9
57,000–77,999 954 17.7 799 83.8 868 91.0
   ≥78,000 692 12.9 575 83.1 630 91.0
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 583 10.8 489 83.9 533 91.4
5.00–8.99 836 15.5 685 81.9 757 90.6
9.00–14.99 1,336 24.8 1,088 81.4 1,197 89.6
   ≥15 2,627 48.8 2,063 78.5 2,301 87.6
   Gini index (%)
<38 991 18.4 823 83.0 894 90.2
38.00–41.99 1,348 25.0 1,088 80.7 1,191 88.4
42.00–45.99 1,228 22.8 973 79.2 1,095 89.2
≥46 1,815 33.7 1,441 79.4 1,608 88.6
Subtotald 5,487 100 4,402 80.2 4,875 88.8
Total 29,100 100 23,490 80.7 25,695 88.3

Abbreviations: CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage; VL, viral load (copies/mL); CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Linkage to HIV medical care was measured by documentation of ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≤1 month or ≤3 months after HIV diagnosis. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aHispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
bIncludes American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and multiple races.
cRepresents percentage of the sum of each SDH subpopulation.
dBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 9b. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by age at diagnosis, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
18‒24
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %a No. % No. %
Male
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 581 11.3 457 78.7 505 86.9
6.00–10.99 1,037 20.2 825 79.6 915 88.2
11.00–17.99 1,310 25.6 1,032 78.8 1,141 87.1
 ≥18 2,193 42.8 1,671 76.2 1,872 85.4
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 830 16.2 666 80.2 727 87.6
6.00–9.99 843 16.5 662 78.5 732 86.8
10.00–17.99 1,488 29.0 1,158 77.8 1,294 87.0
≥18 1,962 38.3 1,500 76.5 1,682 85.7
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,051 40.1 1,539 75.0 1,748 85.2
42,000–56,999 1,285 25.1 1,017 79.1 1,119 87.1
57,000–77,999 1,024 20.0 808 78.9 887 86.6
   ≥78,000 758 14.8 619 81.7 676 89.2
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 562 11.0 448 79.7 497 88.4
5.00–8.99 906 17.7 731 80.7 792 87.4
9.00–14.99 1,296 25.3 1,028 79.3 1,141 88.0
   ≥15 2,359 46.0 1,779 75.4 2,005 85.0
   Gini index (%)
<38 1,076 21.0 844 78.4 945 87.8
38.00–41.99 1,273 24.9 982 77.1 1,091 85.7
42.00–45.99 1,163 22.7 905 77.8 1,005 86.4
   ≥46 1,608 31.4 1,253 77.9 1,391 86.5
Subtotalb 5,208 100 4,046 77.7 4,503 86.5
Female
   Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 55 7.9 45 81.8 53 96.4
6.00–10.99 124 17.9 97 78.2 108 87.1
11.00–17.99 181 26.1 139 76.8 158 87.3
 ≥18 333 48.1 254 76.3 289 86.8
   Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 65 9.4 53 81.5 60 92.3
6.00–9.99 98 14.1 78 79.6 88 89.8
10.00–17.99 226 32.6 174 77.0 199 88.1
   ≥18 304 43.9 230 75.7 261 85.9
   Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 317 45.7 244 77.0 279 88.0
42,000–56,999 186 26.8 143 76.9 159 85.5
57,000–77,999 118 17.0 93 78.8 106 89.8
   ≥78,000 72 10.4 55 76.4 64 88.9
   Without health insurance (%)
<5 59 8.5 45 76.3 53 89.8
5.00–8.99 100 14.4 77 77.0 90 90.0
9.00–14.99 176 25.4 142 80.7 156 88.6
   ≥15 358 51.7 271 75.7 309 86.3
   Gini index (%)
<38 122 17.6 97 79.5 108 88.5
38.00–41.99 177 25.5 135 76.3 155 87.6
42.00–45.99 158 22.8 121 76.6 136 86.1
   ≥46 236 34.1 182 77.1 209 88.6
Subtotalb 704 100 544 77.3 617 87.6
Total 5,912 100 4,590 77.6 5,120 86.6

 

Table 9b. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by age at diagnosis, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
25–34
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %a No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 1,050 11.7 863 82.2 942 89.7
6.00–10.99 1,903 21.2 1,522 80.0 1,669 87.7
11.00–17.99 2,482 27.6 2,016 81.2 2,189 88.2
≥18 3,551 39.5 2,830 79.7 3,090 87.0
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,551 17.3 1,267 81.7 1,384 89.2
6.00–9.99 1,495 16.6 1,228 82.1 1,336 89.4
10.00–17.99 2,557 28.4 2,012 78.7 2,213 86.5
≥18 3,388 37.7 2,726 80.5 2,959 87.3
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 3,220 35.9 2,528 78.5 2,765 85.9
42,000–56,999 2,326 25.9 1,902 81.8 2,070 89.0
57,000–77,999 1,989 22.2 1,607 80.8 1,756 88.3
≥78,000 1,443 16.1 1,190 82.5 1,294 89.7
Without health insurance (%)
<5 1,032 11.5 849 82.3 926 89.7
5.00–8.99 1,582 17.6 1,305 82.5 1,427 90.2
9.00–14.99 2,374 26.4 1,907 80.3 2,073 87.3
≥15 4,000 44.5 3,170 79.2 3,464 86.6
Gini index (%)
<38 1,857 20.7 1,484 79.9 1,633 87.9
38.00–41.99 2,176 24.2 1,745 80.2 1,902 87.4
42.00–45.99 2,100 23.4 1,668 79.4 1,819 86.6
≥46 2,848 31.7 2,331 81.8 2,532 88.9
Subtotalb 9,102 100 7,314 80.4 7,983 87.7
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 139 9.5 111 79.9 123 88.5
6.00–10.99 251 17.2 204 81.3 226 90.0
11.00–17.99 360 24.7 304 84.4 326 90.6
≥18 707 48.5 547 77.4 620 87.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 164 11.2 136 82.9 145 88.4
6.00–9.99 222 15.2 182 82.0 205 92.3
10.00–17.99 435 29.8 351 80.7 385 88.5
≥18 637 43.7 498 78.2 561 88.1
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 692 47.5 533 77.0 604 87.3
42,000–56,999 357 24.5 288 80.7 314 88.0
57,000–77,999 236 16.2 205 86.9 223 94.5
≥78,000 172 11.8 140 81.4 154 89.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 144 9.9 119 82.6 130 90.3
5.00–8.99 216 14.8 179 82.9 196 90.7
9.00–14.99 359 24.6 289 80.5 319 88.9
≥15 738 50.7 579 78.5 650 88.1
Gini index (%)
<38 252 17.3 202 80.2 227 90.1
38.00–41.99 370 25.4 307 83.0 325 87.8
42.00–45.99 343 23.5 268 78.1 302 88.0
≥46 492 33.8 389 79.1 441 89.6
Subtotalb 1,493 100 1,188 79.6 1,322 88.5
Total 10,595 100 8,502 80.2 9,305 87.8

 

Table 9b. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by age at diagnosis, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
35–44
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %a No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 501 11.8 420 83.8 453 90.4
6.00–10.99 966 22.8 814 84.3 879 91.0
11.00–17.99 1,173 27.7 1,007 85.8 1,060 90.4
≥18 1,588 37.6 1,280 80.6 1,396 87.9
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 763 18.0 648 84.9 694 91.0
6.00–9.99 680 16.1 583 85.7 620 91.2
10.00–17.99 1,203 28.4 986 82.0 1,063 88.4
≥18 1,586 37.5 1,307 82.4 1,415 89.2
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,346 31.9 1,092 81.1 1,186 88.1
42,000–56,999 1,133 26.8 951 83.9 1,012 89.3
57,000–77,999 986 23.3 835 84.7 894 90.7
 ≥78,000 761 18.0 642 84.4 695 91.3
Without health insurance (%)
<5 563 13.3 478 84.9 513 91.1
5.00–8.99 755 17.9 635 84.1 679 89.9
9.00–14.99 1,057 25.0 899 85.1 966 91.4
≥15 1,853 43.8 1,509 81.4 1,630 88.0
Gini index (%)
<38 851 20.1 723 85.0 767 90.1
38.00–41.99 1,005 23.8 836 83.2 898 89.4
42.00–45.99 1,019 24.1 837 82.1 911 89.4
≥46 1,352 32.0 1,125 83.2 1,212 89.6
Subtotalb 4,290 100 3,569 83.2 3,841 89.5
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 137 10.5 111 81.0 124 90.5
6.00–10.99 228 17.4 191 83.8 205 89.9
11.00–17.99 367 28.0 312 85.0 335 91.3
≥18 579 44.2 460 79.4 512 88.4
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 142 10.8 114 80.3 127 89.4
6.00–9.99 181 13.8 159 87.8 169 93.4
10.00–17.99 411 31.4 332 80.8 370 90.0
≥18 577 44.0 469 81.3 510 88.4
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 581 44.4 462 79.5 511 88.0
42,000–56,999 322 24.6 269 83.5 295 91.6
57,000–77,999 251 19.2 217 86.5 230 91.6
 ≥78,000 156 11.9 125 80.1 139 89.1
Without health insurance (%)
<5 144 11.0 122 84.7 130 90.3
5.00–8.99 213 16.2 177 83.1 196 92.0
9.00–14.99 326 24.9 274 84.0 295 90.5
≥15 628 47.9 501 79.8 555 88.4
Gini index (%)
<38 264 20.1 222 84.1 236 89.4
38.00–41.99 312 23.8 255 81.7 283 90.7
42.00–45.99 286 21.8 228 79.7 258 90.2
≥46 449 34.2 369 82.2 399 88.9
Subtotalb 1,331 100 1,090 81.9 1,193 89.6
Total 5,621 100 4,659 82.9 5,034 89.6

 

Table 9b. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by age at diagnosis, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
45–54
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %a No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 410 13.9 344 83.9 368 89.8
6.00–10.99 701 23.8 596 85.0 642 91.6
11.00–17.99 738 25.0 638 86.4 677 91.7
≥18 1,101 37.3 881 80.0 957 86.9
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 545 18.5 468 85.9 490 89.9
6.00–9.99 478 16.2 409 85.6 439 91.8
10.00–17.99 809 27.4 673 83.2 734 90.7
≥18 1,121 38.0 912 81.4 984 87.8
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,012 34.3 807 79.7 877 86.7
42,000–56,999 718 24.3 615 85.7 662 92.2
57,000–77,999 635 21.5 542 85.4 577 90.9
≥78,000 584 19.8 494 84.6 527 90.2
Without health insurance (%)
<5 423 14.3 358 84.6 377 89.1
5.00–8.99 544 18.4 470 86.4 503 92.5
9.00–14.99 743 25.2 626 84.3 672 90.4
≥15 1,240 42.0 1,005 81.0 1,092 88.1
Gini index (%)
<38 549 18.6 466 84.9 501 91.3
38.00–41.99 730 24.8 592 81.1 644 88.2
42.00–45.99 729 24.7 619 84.9 660 90.5
 ≥46 941 31.9 781 83.0 838 89.1
Subtotalb 3,002 100 2,502 83.3 2,689 89.6
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 105 9.9 80 76.2 90 85.7
6.00–10.99 191 18.1 154 80.6 174 91.1
11.00–17.99 293 27.7 241 82.3 265 90.4
≥18 469 44.3 367 78.3 407 86.8
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 112 10.6 96 85.7 108 96.4
6.00–9.99 158 14.9 127 80.4 143 90.5
10.00–17.99 345 32.6 272 78.8 298 86.4
≥18 443 41.9 347 78.3 387 87.4
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 458 43.3 366 79.9 400 87.3
42,000–56,999 253 23.9 190 75.1 222 87.7
57,000–77,999 192 18.1 155 80.7 170 88.5
≥78,000 155 14.7 131 84.5 144 92.9
Without health insurance (%)
<5 122 11.5 100 82.0 110 90.2
5.00–8.99 169 16.0 138 81.7 152 89.9
9.00–14.99 263 24.9 214 81.4 237 90.1
≥15 504 47.6 390 77.4 437 86.7
Gini index (%)
<38 212 20.0 179 84.4 193 91.0
38.00–41.99 280 26.5 220 78.6 243 86.8
42.00–45.99 229 21.6 182 79.5 207 90.4
≥46 337 31.9 261 77.4 293 86.9
Subtotalb 1,081 100 858 79.4 956 88.4
Total 4,083 100 3,360 82.3 3,645 89.3

 

Table 9b. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by age at diagnosis, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
≥55
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %a No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 308 15.5 261 84.7 281 91.2
6.00–10.99 482 24.3 406 84.2 439 91.1
11.00–17.99 505 25.5 417 82.6 459 90.9
≥18 688 34.7 548 79.7 599 87.1
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 401 20.2 345 86.0 371 92.5
6.00–9.99 358 18.0 313 87.4 334 93.3
10.00–17.99 551 27.8 440 79.9 481 87.3
≥18 674 34.0 535 79.4 593 88.0
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 614 31.0 496 80.8 543 88.4
42,000–56,999 537 27.1 426 79.3 472 87.9
57,000–77,999 431 21.7 362 84.0 395 91.6
≥78,000 400 20.2 347 86.8 367 91.8
Without health insurance (%)
<5 322 16.2 281 87.3 296 91.9
5.00–8.99 398 20.1 341 85.7 372 93.5
9.00–14.99 489 24.7 406 83.0 445 91.0
≥15 774 39.0 604 78.0 665 85.9
Gini index (%)
<38 376 19.0 305 81.1 333 88.6
38.00–41.99 457 23.1 368 80.5 405 88.6
42.00–45.99 501 25.3 417 83.2 454 90.6
≥46 648 32.7 541 83.5 585 90.3
Subtotalb 2,011 100 1,657 82.4 1,804 89.7
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 95 11.0 84 88.4 90 94.7
6.00–10.99 174 20.2 141 81.0 156 89.7
11.00–17.99 217 25.1 189 87.1 200 92.2
≥18 377 43.7 294 78.0 327 86.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 115 13.3 102 88.7 109 94.8
6.00–9.99 132 15.3 106 80.3 119 90.2
10.00–17.99 246 28.5 204 82.9 220 89.4
≥18 370 42.9 296 80.0 325 87.8
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 336 38.9 263 78.3 294 87.5
42,000–56,999 233 27.0 192 82.4 211 90.6
57,000–77,999 157 18.2 129 82.2 139 88.5
≥78,000 137 15.9 124 90.5 129 94.2
Without health insurance (%)
<5 114 13.2 103 90.4 110 96.5
5.00–8.99 138 16.0 114 82.6 123 89.1
9.00–14.99 212 24.6 169 79.7 190 89.6
≥15 399 46.2 322 80.7 350 87.7
Gini index (%)
<38 141 16.3 123 87.2 130 92.2
38.00–41.99 209 24.2 171 81.8 185 88.5
42.00–45.99 212 24.6 174 82.1 192 90.6
≥46 301 34.9 240 79.7 266 88.4
Subtotalb 878 100 722 82.2 787 89.6
Total 2,889 100 2,379 82.3 2,591 89.7

Abbreviations: CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage; VL, viral load (copies/mL); CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Linkage to HIV medical care was measured by documentation of ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≤1 month or ≤3 months after HIV diagnosis. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aRepresents percentage of the sum of each SDH subpopulation.
bBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 9c. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by transmission category, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Male-to-male sexual contact
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %b No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,392 12.4 1,984 82.9 2,141 89.5
6.00–10.99 4,280 22.2 3,504 81.9 3,828 89.5
11.00–17.99 5,202 27.0 4,321 83.1 4,656 89.5
≥18 7,407 38.4 5,915 79.9 6,472 87.4
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 3,521 18.2 2,938 83.4 3,159 89.7
6.00–9.99 3,250 16.8 2,705 83.2 2,926 90.0
10.00–17.99 5,417 28.1 4,353 80.4 4,772 88.1
≥18 7,104 36.8 5,735 80.7 6,249 88.0
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 6,672 34.6 5,283 79.2 5,805 87.0
42,000–56,999 4,952 25.7 4,086 82.5 4,423 89.3
57,000–77,999 4,278 22.2 3,520 82.3 3,820 89.3
≥78,000 3,365 17.5 2,828 84.0 3,038 90.3
Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,428 12.6 2,034 83.8 2,186 90.0
5.00–8.99 3,452 17.9 2,893 83.8 3,124 90.5
9.00–14.99 4,972 25.8 4,078 82.0 4,436 89.2
≥15 8,432 43.7 6,721 79.7 7,353 87.2
Gini index (%)
<38 3,961 20.6 3,217 81.2 3,514 88.7
38.00–41.99 4,676 24.3 3,773 80.7 4,108 87.9
42.00–45.99 4,568 23.7 3,712 81.3 4,045 88.5
≥46 6,068 31.5 5,018 82.7 5,424 89.4
Subtotalc 19,569 100 15,943 81.5 17,336 88.6
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6
6.00–10.99
11.00–17.99
≥18
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6
6.00–9.99
10.00–17.99
≥18
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000
42,000–56,999
57,000–77,999
≥78,000
Without health insurance (%)
<5
5.00–8.99
9.00–14.99
≥15
Gini index (%)
<38
38.00–41.99
42.00–45.99
≥46
Subtotalc
Total 19,569 100 15,943 81.5 17,336 88.6

 

Table 9c. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by transmission category, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Injection drug use
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %b No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 83 10.1 63 76.6 71 85.4
6.00–10.99 158 19.3 129 81.7 137 87.1
11.00–17.99 217 26.5 166 76.6 183 84.5
≥18 361 44.1 260 72.0 298 82.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 108 13.3 85 78.5 94 86.6
6.00–9.99 118 14.4 93 78.7 101 85.4
10.00–17.99 228 27.9 173 76.0 193 84.5
≥18 363 44.4 267 73.4 302 83.1
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 338 41.4 239 70.7 274 81.2
42,000–56,999 202 24.8 158 78.0 177 87.5
57,000–77,999 156 19.1 127 81.7 134 86.1
≥78,000 121 14.8 94 77.9 103 85.8
Without health insurance (%)
<5 104 12.7 83 80.5 90 87.1
5.00–8.99 183 22.3 141 77.0 156 85.7
9.00–14.99 211 25.8 160 76.1 178 84.7
≥15 321 39.2 233 72.8 264 82.3
Gini index (%)
<38 147 18.0 115 77.8 126 85.5
38.00–41.99 205 25.1 164 79.9 179 87.2
42.00–45.99 199 24.4 145 72.6 161 81.0
≥46 265 32.5 195 73.5 223 84.1
Subtotalc 836 100 632 75.6 706 84.5
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 66 9 50 77 58 87
6.00–10.99 144 21 115 80 129 90
11.00–17.99 159 23 129 81 139 88
≥18 330 47 236 71 280 85
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 84 12 70 83 77 93
6.00–9.99 107 15 84 78 93 86
10.00–17.99 218 31 167 77 189 87
≥18 291 42 210 72 247 85
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 301 43 219 73 258 86
42,000–56,999 187 27 141 75 158 84
57,000–77,999 125 18 102 81 113 91
≥78,000 86 12 68 79 76 89
Without health insurance (%)
<5 105 15 88 83 95 90
5.00–8.99 124 18 89 72 109 88
9.00–14.99 190 27 152 80 164 86
≥15 279 40 202 72 238 85
Gini index (%)
<38 121 17 96 80 106 88
38.00–41.99 159 23 122 77 136 85
42.00–45.99 166 24 120 72 143 86
≥46 253 36 192 76 221 87
Subtotalc 716 100 539 75 618 86
Total 1,552 100 1,171 75.5 1,324 85.3

 

Table 9c. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by transmission category, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %b No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 124 12.7 101 82.0 114 92.2
6.00–10.99 224 23.0 182 81.2 203 90.8
11.00–17.99 258 26.6 202 78.4 221 85.5
 ≥18 366 37.6 293 80.0 324 88.5
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 202 20.8 169 83.7 187 92.3
6.00–9.99 164 16.9 137 83.4 150 91.4
10.00–17.99 285 29.3 224 78.5 245 85.9
 ≥18 320 33.0 248 77.5 280 87.5
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 313 32.2 248 79.3 275 87.9
42,000–56,999 272 28.0 210 77.2 233 85.7
57,000–77,999 202 20.8 167 82.3 182 89.9
 ≥78,000 183 18.9 153 83.3 171 93.1
Without health insurance (%)
<5 158 16.3 132 83.6 146 92.0
5.00–8.99 221 22.7 185 84.0 204 92.4
9.00–14.99 247 25.4 207 83.7 224 90.9
 ≥15 346 35.6 254 73.4 288 83.2
Gini index (%)
<38 191 19.7 152 79.3 174 90.9
38.00–41.99 239 24.6 192 80.6 208 86.9
42.00–45.99 206 21.2 166 80.9 183 88.8
 ≥46 336 34.6 268 79.7 298 88.7
Subtotalc 986 100 790 80.1 874 88.6
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6
6.00–10.99
11.00–17.99
 ≥18
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6
6.00–9.99
10.00–17.99
 ≥18
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000
42,000–56,999
57,000–77,999
 ≥78,000
Without health insurance (%)
<5
5.00–8.99
9.00–14.99
 ≥15
Gini index (%)
<38
38.00–41.99
42.00–45.99
 ≥46
Subtotalc
Total 986 100 790 80.1 874 88.6

 

Table 9c. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among adults, by transmission category, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Heterosexual contacta
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %b No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 249 11.4 194 78.0 221 88.9
6.00–10.99 425 19.5 346 81.4 373 87.8
11.00–17.99 529 24.2 419 79.2 465 87.9
≥18 980 44.9 737 75.2 815 83.1
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 255 11.7 199 78.1 224 87.8
6.00–9.99 320 14.6 259 80.9 282 88.2
10.00–17.99 673 30.8 515 76.5 572 84.9
≥18 937 42.9 726 77.4 798 85.2
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 913 41.9 688 75.3 759 83.1
42,000–56,999 569 26.1 455 80.0 499 87.7
57,000–77,999 426 19.5 338 79.2 370 86.9
≥78,000 273 12.5 215 78.6 244 89.4
Without health insurance (%)
<5 209 9.6 162 77.4 185 88.3
5.00–8.99 326 14.9 261 79.9 285 87.5
9.00–14.99 525 24.1 418 79.6 455 86.6
≥15 1,122 51.4 855 76.2 948 84.5
Gini index (%)
<38 407 18.6 337 82.8 364 89.4
38.00–41.99 518 23.7 391 75.6 442 85.5
42.00–45.99 535 24.5 420 78.4 457 85.4
≥46 722 33.1 547 75.8 609 84.4
Subtotalc 2,205 100 1,711 77.6 1,892 85.8
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 462 10 378 82 419 91
6.00–10.99 819 18 668 82 735 90
11.00–17.99 1,256 27 1,054 84 1,142 91
≥18 2,122 46 1,675 79 1,863 88
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 508 11 425 84 465 92
6.00–9.99 682 15 567 83 630 92
10.00–17.99 1,436 31 1,158 81 1,274 89
≥18 2,034 44 1,624 80 1,791 88
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,072 44 1,639 79 1,819 88
42,000–56,999 1,160 25 937 81 1,039 90
57,000–77,999 826 18 694 84 752 91
≥78,000 601 13 503 84 549 91
Without health insurance (%)
<5 472 10 396 84 433 92
5.00–8.99 707 15 592 84 644 91
9.00–14.99 1,142 25 933 82 1,029 90
≥15 2,338 50 1,852 79 2,054 88
Gini index (%)
<38 866 19 723 83 784 90
38.00–41.99 1,183 25 961 81 1,050 89
42.00–45.99 1,058 23 850 80 948 90
≥46 1,552 33 1,240 80 1,378 89
Subtotalc 4,747 100 3,842 81 4,235 89
Total 6,952 100 5,553 79.9 6,127 88.1

Abbreviations: CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage; VL, viral load (copies/mL); CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Linkage to HIV medical care was measured by documentation of ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≤1 month or ≤3 months after HIV diagnosis. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aHeterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.
bRepresents percentage of the sum of each SDH subpopulation.
cBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 9d. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among male adults with infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Black/African American
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 635 8.7 501 78.8 551 86.7
6.00–10.99 1,236 17.0 944 76.4 1,058 85.6
11.00–17.99 1,888 26.0 1,471 77.9 1,619 85.8
≥18 3,517 48.3 2,692 76.6 2,990 85.0
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 974 13.4 772 79.2 848 87.1
6.00–9.99 1,182 16.2 928 78.5 1,020 86.3
10.00–17.99 2,380 32.7 1,788 75.1 2,007 84.3
≥18 2,743 37.7 2,120 77.3 2,345 85.5
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 3,431 47.2 2,606 76.0 2,916 85.0
42,000–56,999 1,755 24.1 1,371 78.1 1,510 86.0
57,000–77,999 1,261 17.3 986 78.2 1,080 85.7
≥78,000 822 11.3 640 77.9 707 86.1
Without health insurance (%)
<5 647 8.9 513 79.2 566 87.6
5.00–8.99 1,153 15.8 922 79.9 1,007 87.3
9.00–14.99 1,973 27.1 1,537 77.9 1,698 86.1
≥15 3,505 48.2 2,637 75.2 2,949 84.1
Gini index (%)
<38 1,366 18.8 1,045 76.5 1,170 85.6
38.00–41.99 1,649 22.7 1,247 75.6 1,391 84.4
42.00–45.99 1,661 22.8 1,280 77.1 1,409 84.8
≥46 2,597 35.7 2,032 78.2 2,246 86.5
Totald 7,396 100 5,692 77.0 6,315 85.4

 

Table 9d. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among male adults with infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Hispanic/Latinoa
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 562 9.5 475 84.5 508 90.3
6.00–10.99 1,323 22.3 1,100 83.2 1,194 90.2
11.00–17.99 1,714 28.9 1,468 85.7 1,570 91.6
≥18 2,337 39.4 1,922 82.3 2,091 89.5
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 752 12.7 635 84.4 684 90.9
6.00–9.99 753 12.7 645 85.6 695 92.4
10.00–17.99 1,390 23.4 1,181 85.0 1,275 91.7
≥18 3,047 51.3 2,509 82.4 2,714 89.1
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,928 32.5 1,575 81.7 1,714 88.9
42,000–56,999 1,669 28.1 1,413 84.7 1,514 90.7
57,000–77,999 1,383 23.3 1,157 83.6 1,251 90.5
≥78,000 953 16.1 819 85.9 881 92.4
Without health insurance (%)
<5 487 8.2 414 85.0 447 91.6
5.00–8.99 827 13.9 710 85.8 768 92.9
9.00–14.99 1,388 23.4 1,172 84.5 1,263 91.0
≥15 3,235 54.5 2,670 82.5 2,885 89.2
Gini index (%)
<38 1,255 21.1 1,040 82.9 1,130 90.1
38.00–41.99 1,568 26.4 1,296 82.6 1,395 89.0
42.00–45.99 1,453 24.5 1,206 83.0 1,313 90.4
≥46 1,660 28.0 1,424 85.8 1,525 91.9
Totald 6,002 100 5,014 83.5 5,414 90.2

 

Table 9d. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among male adults with infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
White
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 1,000 20.3 842 84.3 908 90.8
6.00–10.99 1,428 29.0 1,210 84.7 1,308 91.5
11.00–17.99 1,273 25.9 1,107 87.0 1,171 92.0
≥18 1,220 24.8 1,017 83.3 1,089 89.2
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,509 30.7 1,289 85.4 1,373 91.0
6.00–9.99 1,092 22.2 936 85.8 1,003 91.9
10.00–17.99 1,338 27.2 1,126 84.2 1,209 90.3
≥18 983 20.0 825 84.0 892 90.7
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,074 21.8 895 83.3 956 89.0
42,000–56,999 1,244 25.3 1,066 85.7 1,144 92.0
57,000–77,999 1,329 27.0 1,116 84.0 1,208 91.0
≥78,000 1,275 25.9 1,098 86.2 1,167 91.6
Without health insurance (%)
<5 1,049 21.3 892 85.1 948 90.4
5.00–8.99 1,202 24.4 1,031 85.7 1,104 91.9
9.00–14.99 1,328 27.0 1,128 84.9 1,217 91.6
≥15 1,342 27.3 1,125 83.8 1,207 89.9
Gini index (%)
<38 1,071 21.8 903 84.4 974 91.0
38.00–41.99 1,201 24.4 1,007 83.9 1,082 90.1
42.00–45.99 1,204 24.5 1,015 84.3 1,095 91.0
≥46 1,444 29.4 1,249 86.5 1,323 91.6
Totald 5,002 100 4,247 84.9 4,551 91.0

 

Table 9d. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among male adults with infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Otherb
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 195 16.9 166 85.2 174 89.6
6.00–10.99 293 25.5 251 85.8 269 91.9
11.00–17.99 327 28.5 276 84.3 295 90.2
 ≥18 334 29.1 284 85.1 303 90.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 285 24.8 242 84.9 254 89.0
6.00–9.99 224 19.5 196 87.7 208 93.0
10.00–17.99 309 26.8 257 83.4 281 91.1
 ≥18 332 28.9 281 84.7 298 89.9
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 240 21.0 207 86.0 220 91.4
42,000–56,999 285 24.9 236 82.7 256 89.9
57,000–77,999 305 26.6 262 85.9 280 92.0
 ≥78,000 316 27.6 271 85.8 283 89.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 245 21.3 215 87.9 225 91.9
5.00–8.99 270 23.5 231 85.6 245 90.6
9.00–14.99 283 24.7 241 85.1 259 91.2
 ≥15 350 30.5 289 82.6 313 89.4
Gini index (%)
<38 270 23.5 229 85.0 240 88.8
38.00–41.99 259 22.6 223 86.2 241 93.1
42.00–45.99 251 21.9 211 83.9 228 91.0
≥46 367 32.0 313 85.3 330 90.0
Totald 1,169 100 990 84.7 1,056 90.3

 

Table 9d. Linkage to HIV medical care after HIV diagnosis during 2018 among male adults with infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Total
≤1 month ≤3 months
Total ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≥1 CD4 or VL tests
No. %c No. % No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,392 12.4 1,984 82.9 2,141 89.5
6.00–10.99 4,280 22.2 3,504 81.9 3,828 89.5
11.00–17.99 5,202 27.0 4,321 83.1 4,656 89.5
≥18 7,407 38.4 5,915 79.9 6,472 87.4
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 3,521 18.2 2,938 83.4 3,159 89.7
6.00–9.99 3,250 16.8 2,705 83.2 2,926 90.0
10.00–17.99 5,417 28.1 4,353 80.4 4,772 88.1
≥18 7,104 36.8 5,735 80.7 6,249 88.0
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 6,672 34.6 5,283 79.2 5,805 87.0
42,000–56,999 4,952 25.7 4,086 82.5 4,423 89.3
57,000–77,999 4,278 22.2 3,520 82.3 3,820 89.3
≥78,000 3,365 17.5 2,828 84.0 3,038 90.3
Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,428 12.6 2,034 83.8 2,186 90.0
5.00–8.99 3,452 17.9 2,893 83.8 3,124 90.5
9.00–14.99 4,972 25.8 4,078 82.0 4,436 89.2
≥15 8,432 43.7 6,721 79.7 7,353 87.2
Gini index (%)
<38 3,961 20.6 3,217 81.2 3,514 88.7
38.00–41.99 4,676 24.3 3,773 80.7 4,108 87.9
42.00–45.99 4,568 23.7 3,712 81.3 4,045 88.5
≥46 6,068 31.5 5,018 82.7 5,424 89.4
Totald 19,569 100 15,943 81.5 17,336 88.6

Abbreviations: CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage; VL, viral load (copies/mL); CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Linkage to HIV medical care was measured by documentation of ≥1 CD4 or VL tests ≤1 month or ≤3 months after HIV diagnosis. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
aHispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
bIncludes American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and multiple races.
cRepresents percentage of the sum of each SDH subpopulation.
dBecause column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 10a. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among adults with HIV infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Black/African American
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 792 528 66.7
6.00–10.99 1,533 972 63.4
11.00–17.99 2,328 1,463 62.8
≥18 4,436 2,676 60.3
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,163 771 66.3
6.00–9.99 1,410 888 63.0
10.00–17.99 2,970 1,830 61.6
≥18 3,551 2,153 60.6
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 4,317 2,587 59.9
42,000–56,999 2,194 1,397 63.7
57,000–77,999 1,556 963 61.9
≥78,000 1,014 687 67.8
Without health insurance (%)
<5 827 556 67.2
5.00–8.99 1,424 951 66.8
9.00–14.99 2,418 1,534 63.4
≥15 4,423 2,599 58.8
Gini index (%)
<38 1,667 1,042 62.5
38.00–41.99 2,047 1,265 61.8
42.00–45.99 2,087 1,267 60.7
≥46 3,284 2,062 62.8
Subtotalc 9,236 5,724 62.0
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 276 207 75.0
6.00–10.99 507 378 74.6
11.00–17.99 832 594 71.4
≥18 1,567 993 63.4
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 306 232 75.8
6.00–9.99 453 326 72.0
10.00–17.99 1,064 733 68.9
≥18 1,359 881 64.8
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,570 993 63.2
42,000–56,999 733 504 68.8
57,000–77,999 520 402 77.3
≥78,000 358 272 76.0
Without health insurance (%)
<5 303 236 77.9
5.00–8.99 459 343 74.7
9.00–14.99 794 562 70.8
≥15 1,626 1,031 63.4
Gini index (%)
<38 556 406 73.0
38.00–41.99 769 545 70.9
42.00–45.99 723 489 67.6
≥46 1,134 732 64.6
Subtotalc 3,243 2,206 68.0
Total 12,479 7,930 63.5

 

Table 10a. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among adults with HIV infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Hispanic/Latinoa
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 638 458 71.8
6.00–10.99 1,503 1,108 73.7
11.00–17.99 1,937 1,436 74.1
≥18 2,725 1,937 71.1
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 842 646 76.7
6.00–9.99 860 650 75.6
10.00–17.99 1,586 1,167 73.6
≥18 3,523 2,481 70.4
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,251 1,561 69.3
42,000–56,999 1,914 1,418 74.1
57,000–77,999 1,552 1,163 74.9
≥78,000 1,083 795 73.4
Without health insurance (%)
<5 558 424 76.0
5.00–8.99 965 734 76.1
9.00–14.99 1,592 1,178 74.0
≥15 3,689 2,603 70.6
Gini index (%)
<38 1,425 1,019 71.5
38.00–41.99 1,806 1,295 71.7
42.00–45.99 1,666 1,219 73.2
≥46 1,905 1,406 73.8
Subtotalc 6,879 4,988 72.5
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 76 55 72.4
6.00–10.99 158 120 75.9
11.00–17.99 246 183 74.4
≥18 440 298 67.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 78 55 70.5
6.00–9.99 96 75 78.1
10.00–17.99 197 153 77.7
≥18 549 373 67.9
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 390 257 65.9
42,000–56,999 258 200 77.5
57,000–77,999 159 120 75.5
≥78,000 113 79 69.9
Without health insurance (%)
<5 69 50 72.5
5.00–8.99 117 87 74.4
9.00–14.99 218 168 77.1
≥15 516 351 68.0
Gini index (%)
<38 168 118 70.2
38.00–41.99 246 178 72.4
42.00–45.99 206 145 70.4
≥46 300 215 71.7
Subtotalc 932 666 71.5
Total 7,811 5,654 72.4

 

Table 10a. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among adults with HIV infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
White
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 1,200 871 72.6
6.00–10.99 1,712 1,259 73.5
11.00–17.99 1,569 1,113 70.9
≥18 1,559 1,047 67.2
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,771 1,310 74.0
6.00–9.99 1,329 965 72.6
10.00–17.99 1,681 1,156 68.8
≥18 1,260 860 68.3
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,383 922 66.7
42,000–56,999 1,556 1,105 71.0
57,000–77,999 1,605 1,151 71.7
≥78,000 1,495 1,111 74.3
Without health insurance (%)
<5 1,243 924 74.3
5.00–8.99 1,484 1,068 72.0
9.00–14.99 1,619 1,154 71.3
≥15 1,694 1,144 67.5
Gini index (%)
<38 1,309 924 70.6
38.00–41.99 1,481 1,051 71.0
42.00–45.99 1,455 1,043 71.7
≥46 1,794 1,271 70.8
Subtotalc 6,136 4,353 70.9
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 148 104 70.3
6.00–10.99 246 159 64.6
11.00–17.99 278 169 60.8
≥18 359 197 54.9
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 173 115 66.5
6.00–9.99 205 141 68.8
10.00–17.99 329 191 58.1
≥18 325 182 56.0
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 331 188 56.8
42,000–56,999 305 186 61.0
57,000–77,999 225 139 61.8
≥78,000 170 116 68.2
Without health insurance (%)
<5 171 119 69.6
5.00–8.99 207 125 60.4
9.00–14.99 275 162 58.9
≥15 378 223 59.0
Gini index (%)
<38 220 146 66.4
38.00–41.99 273 166 60.8
42.00–45.99 247 141 57.1
≥46 291 176 60.5
Subtotalc 1,058 646 61.1
Total 7,194 4,999 69.5

 

Table 10a. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among adults with HIV infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Otherb
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 220 167 75.9
6.00–10.99 341 256 75.1
11.00–17.99 374 272 72.7
≥18 401 277 69.1
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 314 235 74.8
6.00–9.99 255 187 73.3
10.00–17.99 371 273 73.6
≥18 397 277 69.8
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 292 201 68.8
42,000–56,999 335 249 74.3
57,000–77,999 352 252 71.6
≥78,000 354 268 75.7
Without health insurance (%)
<5 274 212 77.4
5.00–8.99 312 235 75.3
9.00–14.99 330 235 71.2
≥15 420 290 69.0
Gini index (%)
<38 308 230 74.7
38.00–41.99 307 221 72.0
42.00–45.99 304 224 73.7
≥46 414 295 71.3
Subtotalc 1,362 986 72.4
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 31 25 80.6
6.00–10.99 57 40 70.2
11.00–17.99 62 44 71.0
≥18 99 68 68.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 41 29 70.7
6.00–9.99 37 29 78.4
10.00–17.99 73 51 69.9
≥18 98 68 69.4
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 93 61 65.6
42,000–56,999 55 35 63.6
57,000–77,999 50 42 84.0
≥78,000 51 39 76.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 40 28 70.0
5.00–8.99 53 45 84.9
9.00–14.99 49 33 67.3
≥15 107 71 66.4
Gini index (%)
<38 47 36 76.6
38.00–41.99 60 42 70.0
42.00–45.99 52 36 69.2
≥46 90 63 70.0
Subtotalc 254 180 70.9
Total 1,616 1,166 72.2

 

Table 10a. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among adults with HIV infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Total
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,850 2,024 71.0
6.00–10.99 5,089 3,595 70.6
11.00–17.99 6,208 4,284 69.0
≥18 9,121 5,937 65.1
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 4,090 2,962 72.4
6.00–9.99 3,854 2,690 69.8
10.00–17.99 6,608 4,426 67.0
≥18 8,731 5,771 66.1
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 8,243 5,271 63.9
42,000–56,999 5,999 4,169 69.5
57,000–77,999 5,065 3,529 69.7
≥78,000 3,946 2,861 72.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,902 2,116 72.9
5.00–8.99 4,185 2,988 71.4
9.00–14.99 5,959 4,101 68.8
≥15 10,226 6,636 64.9
Gini index (%)
<38 4,709 3,215 68.3
38.00–41.99 5,641 3,832 67.9
42.00–45.99 5,512 3,753 68.1
≥46 7,397 5,034 68.1
Subtotalc 23,613 16,051 68.0
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 531 391 73.6
6.00–10.99 968 697 72.0
11.00–17.99 1,418 990 69.8
≥18 2,465 1,556 63.1
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 598 431 72.1
6.00–9.99 791 571 72.2
10.00–17.99 1,663 1,128 67.8
≥18 2,331 1,504 64.5
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,384 1,499 62.9
42,000–56,999 1,351 925 68.5
57,000–77,999 954 703 73.7
≥78,000 692 506 73.1
Without health insurance (%)
<5 583 433 74.3
5.00–8.99 836 600 71.8
9.00–14.99 1,336 925 69.2
≥15 2,627 1,676 63.8
Gini index (%)
<38 991 706 71.2
38.00–41.99 1,348 931 69.1
42.00–45.99 1,228 811 66.0
≥46 1,815 1,186 65.3
Subtotalc 5,487 3,698 67.4
Total 29,100 19,749 67.9

Abbreviations: VL, viral load (copies/mL); CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage [footnotes only]; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Viral suppression was measured by documentation of a VL test result of <200 copies/ml at any time within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection during 2018. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
b Includes American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and multiple races.
c Because column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 10b. HIV Viral Suppression within 6 Months of Diagnosis among Adults with HIV Infection Diagnosed During 2018, by age at Diagnosis, Sex at Birth, and Selected Social Determinants of Health—Census Tract Level, 41 States and the District of Columbia
18‒24 years 25–34 years 35–44 years 45–54 years ≥55 years
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. % No. No. % No. No. % No. No. % No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 581 394 67.8 1,050 753 71.7 501 359 71.7 410 297 72.4 308 221 71.8
6.00–10.99 1,037 694 66.9 1,903 1,314 69.0 966 725 75.1 701 520 74.2 482 342 71.0
11.00–17.99 1,310 863 65.9 2,482 1,737 70.0 1,173 833 71.0 738 499 67.6 505 352 69.7
 ≥18 2,193 1,383 63.1 3,551 2,339 65.9 1,588 1,082 68.1 1,101 712 64.7 688 421 61.2
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 830 573 69.0 1,551 1,112 71.7 763 571 74.8 545 406 74.5 401 300 74.8
6.00–9.99 843 552 65.5 1,495 1,042 69.7 680 495 72.8 478 340 71.1 358 261 72.9
10.00–17.99 1,488 949 63.8 2,557 1,716 67.1 1,203 849 70.6 809 554 68.5 551 358 65.0
 ≥18 1,962 1,261 64.3 3,388 2,275 67.1 1,586 1,086 68.5 1,121 731 65.2 674 418 62.0
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 2,051 1,274 62.1 3,220 2,070 64.3 1,346 907 67.4 1,012 643 63.5 614 377 61.4
42,000–56,999 1,285 857 66.7 2,326 1,642 70.6 1,133 794 70.1 718 507 70.6 537 369 68.7
57,000–77,999 1,024 677 66.1 1,989 1,384 69.6 986 727 73.7 635 449 70.7 431 292 67.7
 ≥78,000 758 523 69.0 1,443 1,042 72.2 761 570 74.9 584 428 73.3 400 298 74.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 562 399 71.0 1,032 748 72.5 563 424 75.3 423 316 74.7 322 229 71.1
5.00–8.99 906 615 67.9 1,582 1,136 71.8 755 548 72.6 544 390 71.7 398 299 75.1
9.00–14.99 1,296 862 66.5 2,374 1,620 68.2 1,057 766 72.5 743 515 69.3 489 338 69.1
 ≥15 2,359 1,459 61.8 4,000 2,639 66.0 1,853 1,261 68.1 1,240 807 65.1 774 470 60.7
Gini index (%)
<38 1,076 691 64.2 1,857 1,265 68.1 851 613 72.0 549 385 70.1 376 261 69.4
38.00–41.99 1,273 840 66.0 2,176 1,482 68.1 1,005 696 69.3 730 514 70.4 457 300 65.6
42.00–45.99 1,163 759 65.3 2,100 1,436 68.4 1,019 724 71.1 729 495 67.9 501 339 67.7
 ≥46 1,608 1,043 64.9 2,848 1,956 68.7 1,352 966 71.4 941 633 67.3 648 436 67.3
Subtotala 5,208 3,383 65.0 9,102 6,212 68.2 4,290 3,037 70.8 3,002 2,062 68.7 2,011 1,357 67.5
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 55 42 76.4 139 102 73.4 137 101 73.7 105 76 72.4 95 70 73.7
6.00–10.99 124 88 71.0 251 179 71.3 228 170 74.6 191 142 74.3 174 118 67.8
11.00–17.99 181 123 68.0 360 245 68.1 367 263 71.7 293 199 67.9 217 160 73.7
 ≥18 333 211 63.4 707 440 62.2 579 367 63.4 469 308 65.7 377 230 61.0
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 65 45 69.2 164 111 67.7 142 98 69.0 112 88 78.6 115 89 77.4
6.00–9.99 98 73 74.5 222 169 76.1 181 133 73.5 158 115 72.8 132 81 61.4
10.00–17.99 226 154 68.1 435 292 67.1 411 288 70.1 345 223 64.6 246 171 69.5
 ≥18 304 192 63.2 637 394 61.9 577 382 66.2 443 299 67.5 370 237 64.1
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 317 200 63.1 692 431 62.3 581 370 63.7 458 298 65.1 336 200 59.5
42,000–56,999 186 128 68.8 357 240 67.2 322 231 71.7 253 162 64.0 233 164 70.4
57,000–77,999 118 87 73.7 236 173 73.3 251 192 76.5 192 143 74.5 157 108 68.8
 ≥78,000 72 49 68.1 172 122 70.9 156 107 68.6 155 122 78.7 137 106 77.4
Without health insurance (%)
<5 59 46 78.0 144 104 72.2 144 108 75.0 122 88 72.1 114 87 76.3
5.00–8.99 100 70 70.0 216 156 72.2 213 154 72.3 169 126 74.6 138 94 68.1
9.00–14.99 176 119 67.6 359 249 69.4 326 227 69.6 263 184 70.0 212 146 68.9
 ≥15 358 229 64.0 738 457 61.9 628 412 65.6 504 327 64.9 399 251 62.9
Gini index (%)
<38 122 83 68.0 252 174 69.0 264 187 70.8 212 162 76.4 141 100 70.9
38.00–41.99 177 123 69.5 370 245 66.2 312 229 73.4 280 190 67.9 209 144 68.9
42.00–45.99 158 107 67.7 343 227 66.2 286 186 65.0 229 154 67.2 212 137 64.6
 ≥46 236 151 64.0 492 320 65.0 449 299 66.6 337 219 65.0 301 197 65.4
Subtotala 704 468 66.5 1,493 986 66.0 1,331 913 68.6 1,081 741 68.5 878 590 67.2
Total 5,912 3,851 65.1 10,595 7,198 67.9 5,621 3,950 70.3 4,083 2,803 68.7 2,889 1,947 67.4

Abbreviations: VL, viral load (copies/mL); CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage [footnotes only]; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Viral suppression was measured by documentation of a VL test result of <200 copies/ml at any time within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection during 2018. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
a Because column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 10c. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among adults with HIV diagnosed during 2018, by transmission category, sex at birth, and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Male-to-male
sexual contact
Injection
drug use
Male-to-male sexual
contact and
injection drug use
Heterosexual
contacta
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. % No. No. % No. No. % No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,392 1,720 71.9 83 54 65.4 124 83 67.0 249 165 66.2
6.00–10.99 4,280 3,051 71.3 158 92 58.6 224 152 67.9 425 299 70.3
11.00–17.99 5,202 3,659 70.3 217 106 49.1 258 170 65.8 529 348 65.8
≥18 7,407 4,937 66.7 361 182 50.5 366 233 63.7 980 580 59.2
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 3,521 2,588 73.5 108 64 59.0 202 135 66.7 255 173 67.8
6.00–9.99 3,250 2,296 70.6 118 66 55.9 164 114 69.5 320 214 66.7
10.00–17.99 5,417 3,700 68.3 228 116 50.8 285 174 61.1 673 433 64.4
≥18 7,104 4,789 67.4 363 189 52.1 320 215 67.1 937 575 61.3
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 6,672 4,363 65.4 338 170 50.2 313 198 63.3 913 537 58.8
42,000–56,999 4,952 3,500 70.7 202 110 54.5 272 172 63.2 569 384 67.6
57,000–77,999 4,278 3,030 70.8 156 81 52.2 202 138 68.0 426 279 65.4
≥78,000 3,365 2,464 73.2 121 74 61.1 183 130 70.6 273 191 69.9
Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,428 1,787 73.6 104 65 62.5 158 116 73.3 209 147 70.1
5.00–8.99 3,452 2,514 72.8 183 100 55.0 221 153 69.5 326 218 66.9
9.00–14.99 4,972 3,473 69.9 211 112 53.3 247 159 64.4 525 354 67.4
≥15 8,432 5,594 66.3 321 157 49.0 346 209 60.6 1,122 673 60.0
Gini index (%)
<38 3,961 2,726 68.8 147 84 57.0 191 130 67.9 407 273 67.2
38.00–41.99 4,676 3,233 69.1 205 109 53.2 239 153 64.0 518 336 64.9
42.00–45.99 4,568 3,183 69.7 199 101 50.6 206 143 69.3 535 324 60.5
≥46 6,068 4,219 69.5 265 141 53.3 336 212 63.3 722 458 63.5
Subtotalb 19,569 13,546 69.2 836 445 53.3 986 645 65.4 2,205 1,406 63.8
Female
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 66 40 60.8 462 349 75.5
6.00–10.99 144 94 65.1 819 600 73.2
11.00–17.99 159 90 56.5 1,256 898 71.5
≥18 330 168 50.9 2,122 1,378 64.9
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 84 54 64.0 508 372 73.3
6.00–9.99 107 69 64.5 682 501 73.4
10.00–17.99 218 112 51.2 1,436 1,010 70.3
≥18 291 157 54.1 2,034 1,341 66.0
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 301 153 50.7 2,072 1,338 64.6
42,000–56,999 187 108 57.8 1,160 814 70.2
57,000–77,999 125 77 61.4 826 624 75.6
≥78,000 86 54 62.6 601 448 74.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 105 68 64.6 472 360 76.3
5.00–8.99 124 69 55.2 707 528 74.6
9.00–14.99 190 110 57.7 1,142 813 71.2
≥15 279 145 52.0 2,338 1,524 65.2
Gini index (%)
<38 121 75 62.1 866 628 72.5
38.00–41.99 159 92 57.9 1,183 835 70.6
42.00–45.99 166 83 50.3 1,058 724 68.5
≥46 253 141 55.7 1,552 1,038 66.9
Subtotalb 716 398 55.6 4,747 3,282 69.1
Total 19,569 13,546 69.2 1,552 843 54.4 986 645 65.4 6,952 4,688 67.4

Abbreviations: VL, viral load (copies/mL); CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage [footnotes only]; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Viral suppression was measured by documentation of a VL test result of <200 copies/ml at any time within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection during 2018. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
a Heterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.
b Because column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table 10d. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among male adults with HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact with infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Black/African American
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 635 428 67.3
6.00–10.99 1,236 791 64.0
11.00–17.99 1,888 1,193 63.2
 ≥18 3,517 2,163 61.5
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 974 648 66.5
6.00–9.99 1,182 758 64.1
10.00–17.99 2,380 1,488 62.5
 ≥18 2,743 1,683 61.4
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 3,431 2,087 60.8
42,000–56,999 1,755 1,129 64.3
57,000–77,999 1,261 798 63.2
 ≥78,000 822 557 67.7
Without health insurance (%)
<5 647 435 67.3
5.00–8.99 1,153 781 67.7
9.00–14.99 1,973 1,266 64.2
 ≥15 3,505 2,094 59.7
Gini index (%)
<38 1,366 860 63.0
38.00–41.99 1,649 1,030 62.5
42.00–45.99 1,661 1,028 61.9
 ≥46 2,597 1,654 63.7
Totalc 7,396 4,643 62.8

 

Table 10d. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among male adults with HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact with infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Hispanic/Latinoa
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 562 407 72.4
6.00–10.99 1,323 983 74.3
11.00–17.99 1,714 1,288 75.1
 ≥18 2,337 1,690 72.3
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 752 584 77.6
6.00–9.99 753 578 76.7
10.00–17.99 1,390 1,032 74.2
 ≥18 3,047 2,178 71.5
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,928 1,362 70.7
42,000–56,999 1,669 1,251 75.0
57,000–77,999 1,383 1,042 75.3
 ≥78,000 953 710 74.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 487 377 77.3
5.00–8.99 827 636 76.9
9.00–14.99 1,388 1,035 74.6
 ≥15 3,235 2,320 71.7
Gini index (%)
<38 1,255 902 71.9
38.00–41.99 1,568 1,147 73.2
42.00–45.99 1,453 1,076 74.1
 ≥46 1,660 1,243 74.9
Totalc 6,002 4,410 73.5

 

Table 10d. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among male adults with HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact with infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
White
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 1,000 739 73.9
6.00–10.99 1,428 1,056 73.9
11.00–17.99 1,273 935 73.4
 ≥18 1,220 846 69.4
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 1,509 1,142 75.7
6.00–9.99 1,092 794 72.7
10.00–17.99 1,338 951 71.0
 ≥18 983 690 70.2
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 1,074 742 69.2
42,000–56,999 1,244 905 72.8
57,000–77,999 1,329 966 72.7
 ≥78,000 1,275 962 75.5
Without health insurance (%)
<5 1,049 785 74.8
5.00–8.99 1,202 889 74.0
9.00–14.99 1,328 967 72.9
 ≥15 1,342 935 69.7
Gini index (%)
<38 1,071 766 71.5
38.00–41.99 1,201 867 72.2
42.00–45.99 1,204 887 73.6
 ≥46 1,444 1,055 73.1
Totalc 5,002 3,633 72.6

 

Table 10d. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among male adults with HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact with infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Otherb
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 195 147 75.5
6.00–10.99 293 221 75.4
11.00–17.99 327 243 74.3
 ≥18 334 238 71.2
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 285 214 75.2
6.00–9.99 224 166 74.4
10.00–17.99 309 229 74.3
 ≥18 332 239 71.8
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 240 171 71.1
42,000–56,999 285 215 75.4
57,000–77,999 305 225 73.8
 ≥78,000 316 236 74.6
Without health insurance (%)
<5 245 190 77.7
5.00–8.99 270 208 76.9
9.00–14.99 283 205 72.5
 ≥15 350 245 70.1
Gini index (%)
<38 270 199 73.7
38.00–41.99 259 188 72.6
42.00–45.99 251 193 76.9
 ≥46 367 267 72.8
Totalc 1,169 860 73.5

 

Table 10d. HIV viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among male adults with HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact with infection diagnosed during 2018, by race/ethnicity and selected social determinants of health—census tract level, 41 states and the District of Columbia
Total
Total diagnoses VL <200 copies/mL
No. No. %
Male
Below federal poverty level (%)
<6 2,392 1,720 71.9
6.00–10.99 4,280 3,051 71.3
11.00–17.99 5,202 3,659 70.3
 ≥18 7,407 4,937 66.7
Less than high school diploma (%)
<6 3,521 2,588 73.5
6.00–9.99 3,250 2,296 70.6
10.00–17.99 5,417 3,700 68.3
 ≥18 7,104 4,789 67.4
Median household income (U.S. $)
<42,000 6,672 4,363 65.4
42,000–56,999 4,952 3,500 70.7
57,000–77,999 4,278 3,030 70.8
 ≥78,000 3,365 2,464 73.2
Without health insurance (%)
<5 2,428 1,787 73.6
5.00–8.99 3,452 2,514 72.8
9.00–14.99 4,972 3,473 69.9
≥15 8,432 5,594 66.3
Gini index (%)
<38 3,961 2,726 68.8
38.00–41.99 4,676 3,233 69.1
42.00–45.99 4,568 3,183 69.7
 ≥46 6,068 4,219 69.5
Totalc 19,569 13,546 69.2

Abbreviations: VL, viral load (copies/mL); CD4, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count (cells/µL) or percentage [footnotes only]; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [footnotes only]; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Data reflect the census tract of the person’s residential address at the time they received an HIV diagnosis. Viral suppression was measured by documentation of a VL test result of <200 copies/ml at any time within 6 months of diagnosis of HIV infection during 2018. Data not provided for states and associated census tracts that do not have laws requiring reporting of all CD4 and viral loads, or that have incomplete reporting of laboratory data to CDC. Areas without laws: Idaho, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Areas with incomplete reporting: Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Vermont, and Puerto Rico.
Definitions for the SDH indicator variables used in this report can be found at http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2018_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
b Includes American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, and multiple races.
c Because column subtotals were calculated independently of the values for the subpopulations, the values in each column may not sum to the column subtotals. See Technical Notes for criteria used to define SDH subpopulations.

Table S1. Adults living below federal poverty level, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Below federal poverty level (%)
Male
<6 6.00–10.99 11.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. %a No. %a No. %a No. %a
Alabama 236,108 13.2 447,071 24.9 540,431 30.1 571,468 31.8
Alaska 88,114 30.4 121,665 42.0 55,483 19.1 24,625 8.5
Arizona 551,199 21.1 715,611 27.4 550,155 21.0 796,696 30.5
Arkansas 94,672 8.6 264,345 23.9 400,246 36.2 347,866 31.4
California 3,293,505 22.3 4,414,899 30.0 3,789,894 25.7 3,238,111 22.0
Colorado 738,495 34.8 595,246 28.1 498,782 23.5 289,226 13.6
Connecticut 680,078 50.0 322,995 23.7 182,808 13.4 174,447 12.8
Delaware 94,637 26.6 139,897 39.3 84,407 23.7 37,474 10.5
District of Columbia 52,755 20.0 48,626 18.5 88,992 33.8 73,032 27.7
Florida 1,388,222 17.5 2,457,038 30.9 2,308,046 29.1 1,787,080 22.5
Georgia 702,332 18.8 988,776 26.5 1,061,513 28.4 981,952 26.3
Hawaii 215,486 38.8 189,026 34.0 100,003 18.0 51,038 9.2
Idaho 63,262 10.2 247,316 39.8 206,474 33.2 104,269 16.8
Illinois 1,425,745 29.7 1,483,305 30.9 1,023,922 21.3 869,365 18.1
Indiana 648,481 26.3 758,773 30.8 572,680 23.3 482,062 19.6
Iowa 290,417 24.6 481,010 40.7 250,802 21.2 159,558 13.5
Kansas 318,814 29.4 355,178 32.8 217,003 20.0 192,362 17.8
Kentucky 234,721 14.1 385,347 23.2 427,541 25.7 614,747 37.0
Louisiana 154,035 9.0 412,708 24.1 516,943 30.2 628,995 36.7
Maine 98,733 18.9 186,426 35.7 159,025 30.5 77,421 14.8
Maryland 989,605 44.8 668,968 30.3 355,979 16.1 194,998 8.8
Massachusetts 1,080,543 41.4 701,541 26.9 448,164 17.2 377,478 14.5
Michigan 981,279 26.1 1,037,535 27.6 917,588 24.4 817,660 21.8
Minnesota 818,485 39.2 729,447 34.9 327,320 15.7 213,606 10.2
Mississippi 93,184 8.6 169,089 15.6 361,864 33.4 458,295 42.3
Missouri 534,831 23.5 651,647 28.6 603,028 26.5 489,793 21.5
Montana 56,510 13.9 147,614 36.3 108,415 26.7 94,086 23.1
Nebraska 216,110 30.7 231,943 33.0 158,122 22.5 96,911 13.8
Nevada 245,568 21.9 388,559 34.6 244,458 21.8 243,943 21.7
New Hampshire 277,714 52.3 145,972 27.5 72,927 13.7 34,293 6.5
New Jersey 1,595,848 48.1 811,268 24.5 489,434 14.8 420,004 12.7
New Mexico 83,829 10.9 125,877 16.4 250,619 32.6 308,020 40.1
New York 2,004,566 27.2 2,028,725 27.5 1,601,870 21.7 1,742,372 23.6
North Carolina 682,092 18.1 1,040,661 27.7 1,148,625 30.5 892,302 23.7
North Dakota 74,178 25.0 124,195 41.8 64,269 21.6 34,235 11.5
Ohio 1,269,215 29.1 1,189,763 27.3 955,073 21.9 946,970 21.7
Oklahoma 256,265 17.7 349,667 24.1 476,379 32.8 368,454 25.4
Oregon 232,491 14.7 472,036 29.9 553,145 35.1 320,288 20.3
Pennsylvania 1,646,421 33.7 1,542,340 31.6 877,662 18.0 821,551 16.8
Puerto Rico 1,722 0.1 13,665 1.1 50,621 4.0 1,193,431 94.8
Rhode Island 137,249 33.8 106,061 26.1 69,068 17.0 93,910 23.1
South Carolina 333,632 18.2 481,130 26.2 545,299 29.7 477,220 26.0
South Dakota 79,230 24.3 100,505 30.8 89,924 27.6 56,579 17.3
Tennessee 406,817 16.5 652,265 26.4 721,594 29.2 689,632 27.9
Texas 2,465,728 24.4 2,664,841 26.4 2,481,131 24.6 2,482,207 24.6
Utah 409,885 38.7 324,586 30.7 182,337 17.2 141,654 13.4
Vermont 59,746 24.2 102,815 41.6 55,776 22.6 28,620 11.6
Virginia 1,211,971 38.2 910,128 28.7 653,383 20.6 396,015 12.5
Washington 769,235 27.4 1,038,989 37.0 637,675 22.7 364,024 13.0
West Virginia 51,672 7.2 156,830 22.0 260,842 36.6 243,449 34.2
Wisconsin 720,975 32.6 796,442 36.0 400,161 18.1 294,109 13.3
Wyoming 48,207 21.3 92,786 41.1 60,551 26.8 24,371 10.8
Total 31,204,614 25.5 35,013,148 28.6 29,258,453 23.9 26,862,274 22.0

 

Table S1. Adults living below federal poverty level, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Below federal poverty level (%)
Female
<6 6.00–10.99 11.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. %b No. %b No. %b No. %b
Alabama 256,824 13.0 483,200 24.5 584,681 29.7 645,227 32.8
Alaska 79,592 30.3 112,871 43.0 48,130 18.3 21,898 8.3
Arizona 584,881 21.7 761,745 28.3 568,406 21.1 774,363 28.8
Arkansas 99,441 8.4 282,385 24.0 415,341 35.3 380,432 32.3
California 3,418,435 22.4 4,616,948 30.3 3,907,064 25.6 3,304,644 21.7
Colorado 755,884 35.4 604,665 28.4 492,444 23.1 279,444 13.1
Connecticut 717,829 48.9 355,300 24.2 198,328 13.5 195,253 13.3
Delaware 100,885 25.9 150,566 38.6 95,279 24.5 42,924 11.0
District of Columbia 56,527 18.9 52,574 17.6 102,039 34.1 88,216 29.5
Florida 1,491,260 17.6 2,666,792 31.4 2,443,258 28.8 1,891,619 22.3
Georgia 748,140 18.4 1,074,994 26.5 1,163,417 28.7 1,071,914 26.4
Hawaii 211,081 37.8 190,140 34.0 106,637 19.1 51,046 9.1
Idaho 64,096 10.2 254,510 40.6 203,322 32.4 105,384 16.8
Illinois 1,511,962 29.7 1,568,651 30.8 1,054,026 20.7 957,520 18.8
Indiana 674,397 26.0 785,398 30.3 614,365 23.7 520,971 20.1
Iowa 300,005 24.6 494,663 40.5 267,949 22.0 158,063 12.9
Kansas 331,798 29.9 360,416 32.5 223,789 20.2 193,871 17.5
Kentucky 243,978 13.9 406,802 23.1 451,067 25.6 658,616 37.4
Louisiana 165,554 9.0 436,597 23.7 543,993 29.6 693,826 37.7
Maine 106,282 19.1 198,244 35.6 170,392 30.6 81,629 14.7
Maryland 1,067,154 43.9 741,065 30.5 398,317 16.4 226,948 9.3
Massachusetts 1,159,048 40.8 778,314 27.4 485,677 17.1 416,636 14.7
Michigan 1,024,578 25.7 1,087,146 27.3 976,083 24.5 891,362 22.4
Minnesota 841,110 39.2 749,082 34.9 340,335 15.9 213,110 9.9
Mississippi 101,458 8.6 182,162 15.4 389,519 32.8 512,790 43.2
Missouri 563,192 23.2 692,890 28.6 633,577 26.1 536,041 22.1
Montana 57,143 14.0 150,301 36.9 106,041 26.1 93,453 23.0
Nebraska 223,592 31.0 237,490 32.9 164,207 22.8 96,348 13.4
Nevada 256,778 22.8 397,729 35.3 241,616 21.5 229,709 20.4
New Hampshire 285,846 52.0 154,158 28.0 77,009 14.0 33,140 6.0
New Jersey 1,729,192 48.3 877,785 24.5 515,281 14.4 457,171 12.8
New Mexico 85,728 10.7 129,005 16.1 266,321 33.3 318,005 39.8
New York 2,164,364 26.8 2,198,984 27.3 1,710,130 21.2 1,990,016 24.7
North Carolina 730,854 17.9 1,122,492 27.5 1,241,800 30.4 990,816 24.2
North Dakota 70,732 25.1 117,673 41.8 62,792 22.3 30,409 10.8
Ohio 1,319,144 28.3 1,269,621 27.3 1,036,609 22.3 1,033,522 22.2
Oklahoma 263,767 17.5 372,371 24.7 491,829 32.6 380,699 25.2
Oregon 243,541 14.9 491,895 30.1 577,063 35.3 323,306 19.8
Pennsylvania 1,734,258 33.2 1,614,969 30.9 940,433 18.0 932,683 17.9
Puerto Rico 2,191 0.2 15,716 1.1 59,810 4.2 1,359,795 94.6
Rhode Island 147,391 33.4 115,520 26.2 77,136 17.5 101,407 23.0
South Carolina 358,706 17.9 520,720 25.9 594,222 29.6 534,869 26.6
South Dakota 78,230 24.1 100,678 31.0 91,570 28.2 54,507 16.8
Tennessee 443,565 16.6 699,269 26.2 766,006 28.7 761,332 28.5
Texas 2,583,936 24.7 2,751,631 26.3 2,565,216 24.5 2,549,928 24.4
Utah 410,347 38.5 334,395 31.4 187,204 17.6 133,583 12.5
Vermont 63,441 24.4 107,185 41.3 59,812 23.0 29,236 11.3
Virginia 1,264,362 37.7 970,431 28.9 695,994 20.7 426,671 12.7
Washington 787,951 27.6 1,066,833 37.4 632,750 22.2 364,004 12.8
West Virginia 53,745 7.2 161,005 21.7 273,370 36.8 254,768 34.3
Wisconsin 732,484 32.2 820,418 36.0 408,210 17.9 315,547 13.9
Wyoming 47,386 21.7 89,837 41.2 59,354 27.2 21,625 9.9
Total 32,814,065 25.4 36,976,231 28.6 30,779,220 23.8 28,730,296 22.2

 

Table S1. Adults living below federal poverty level, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Below federal poverty level (%)
Total
<6 6.00–10.99 11.00–17.99  ≥18
Area of residence No. %c %d No. %c %d No. %c %d No. %c %d
Alabama 492,932 13.1 0.8 930,271 24.7 1.3 1,125,112 29.9 1.9 1,216,695 32.3 2.2
Alaska 167,706 30.4 0.3 234,536 42.5 0.3 103,613 18.8 0.2 46,523 8.4 0.1
Arizona 1,136,080 21.4 1.8 1,477,356 27.9 2.1 1,118,561 21.1 1.9 1,571,059 29.6 2.8
Arkansas 194,113 8.5 0.3 546,730 23.9 0.8 815,587 35.7 1.4 728,298 31.9 1.3
California 6,711,940 22.4 10.5 9,031,847 30.1 12.5 7,696,958 25.7 12.8 6,542,755 21.8 11.8
Colorado 1,494,379 35.1 2.3 1,199,911 28.2 1.7 991,226 23.3 1.7 568,670 13.4 1.0
Connecticut 1,397,907 49.4 2.2 678,295 24.0 0.9 381,136 13.5 0.6 369,700 13.1 0.7
Delaware 195,522 26.2 0.3 290,463 38.9 0.4 179,686 24.1 0.3 80,398 10.8 0.1
District of Columbia 109,282 19.4 0.2 101,200 18.0 0.1 191,031 33.9 0.3 161,248 28.7 0.3
Florida 2,879,482 17.5 4.5 5,123,830 31.2 7.1 4,751,304 28.9 7.9 3,678,699 22.4 6.6
Georgia 1,450,472 18.6 2.3 2,063,770 26.5 2.9 2,224,930 28.6 3.7 2,053,866 26.4 3.7
Hawaii 426,567 38.3 0.7 379,166 34.0 0.5 206,640 18.5 0.3 102,084 9.2 0.2
Idaho 127,358 10.2 0.2 501,826 40.2 0.7 409,796 32.8 0.7 209,653 16.8 0.4
Illinois 2,937,707 29.7 4.6 3,051,956 30.8 4.2 2,077,948 21.0 3.5 1,826,885 18.5 3.3
Indiana 1,322,878 26.2 2.1 1,544,171 30.5 2.1 1,187,045 23.5 2.0 1,003,033 19.8 1.8
Iowa 590,422 24.6 0.9 975,673 40.6 1.4 518,751 21.6 0.9 317,621 13.2 0.6
Kansas 650,612 29.7 1.0 715,594 32.6 1.0 440,792 20.1 0.7 386,233 17.6 0.7
Kentucky 478,699 14.0 0.7 792,149 23.1 1.1 878,608 25.7 1.5 1,273,363 37.2 2.3
Louisiana 319,589 9.0 0.5 849,305 23.9 1.2 1,060,936 29.9 1.8 1,322,821 37.2 2.4
Maine 205,015 19.0 0.3 384,670 35.7 0.5 329,417 30.6 0.5 159,050 14.8 0.3
Maryland 2,056,759 44.3 3.2 1,410,033 30.4 2.0 754,296 16.2 1.3 421,946 9.1 0.8
Massachusetts 2,239,591 41.1 3.5 1,479,855 27.2 2.1 933,841 17.1 1.6 794,114 14.6 1.4
Michigan 2,005,857 25.9 3.1 2,124,681 27.5 3.0 1,893,671 24.5 3.2 1,709,022 22.1 3.1
Minnesota 1,659,595 39.2 2.6 1,478,529 34.9 2.1 667,655 15.8 1.1 426,716 10.1 0.8
Mississippi 194,642 8.6 0.3 351,251 15.5 0.5 751,383 33.1 1.3 971,085 42.8 1.7
Missouri 1,098,023 23.3 1.7 1,344,537 28.6 1.9 1,236,605 26.3 2.1 1,025,834 21.8 1.8
Montana 113,653 14.0 0.2 297,915 36.6 0.4 214,456 26.4 0.4 187,539 23.1 0.3
Nebraska 439,702 30.9 0.7 469,433 32.9 0.7 322,329 22.6 0.5 193,259 13.6 0.3
Nevada 502,346 22.3 0.8 786,288 35.0 1.1 486,074 21.6 0.8 473,652 21.1 0.9
New Hampshire 563,560 52.1 0.9 300,130 27.8 0.4 149,936 13.9 0.2 67,433 6.2 0.1
New Jersey 3,325,040 48.2 5.2 1,689,053 24.5 2.3 1,004,715 14.6 1.7 877,175 12.7 1.6
New Mexico 169,557 10.8 0.3 254,882 16.3 0.4 516,940 33.0 0.9 626,025 39.9 1.1
New York 4,168,930 27.0 6.5 4,227,709 27.4 5.9 3,312,000 21.4 5.5 3,732,388 24.2 6.7
North Carolina 1,412,946 18.0 2.2 2,163,153 27.6 3.0 2,390,425 30.5 4.0 1,883,118 24.0 3.4
North Dakota 144,910 25.1 0.2 241,868 41.8 0.3 127,061 22.0 0.2 64,644 11.2 0.1
Ohio 2,588,359 28.7 4.0 2,459,384 27.3 3.4 1,991,682 22.1 3.3 1,980,492 22.0 3.6
Oklahoma 520,032 17.6 0.8 722,038 24.4 1.0 968,208 32.7 1.6 749,153 25.3 1.3
Oregon 476,032 14.8 0.7 963,931 30.0 1.3 1,130,208 35.2 1.9 643,594 20.0 1.2
Pennsylvania 3,380,679 33.4 5.3 3,157,309 31.2 4.4 1,818,095 18.0 3.0 1,754,234 17.4 3.2
Puerto Rico 3,913 0.1 0.0 29,381 1.1 0.0 110,431 4.1 0.2 2,553,226 94.7 4.6
Rhode Island 284,640 33.6 0.4 221,581 26.1 0.3 146,204 17.2 0.2 195,317 23.0 0.4
South Carolina 692,338 18.0 1.1 1,001,850 26.1 1.4 1,139,521 29.6 1.9 1,012,089 26.3 1.8
South Dakota 157,460 24.2 0.2 201,183 30.9 0.3 181,494 27.9 0.3 111,086 17.1 0.2
Tennessee 850,382 16.5 1.3 1,351,534 26.3 1.9 1,487,600 28.9 2.5 1,450,964 28.2 2.6
Texas 5,049,664 24.6 7.9 5,416,472 26.4 7.5 5,046,347 24.6 8.4 5,032,135 24.5 9.1
Utah 820,232 38.6 1.3 658,981 31.0 0.9 369,541 17.4 0.6 275,237 13.0 0.5
Vermont 123,187 24.3 0.2 210,000 41.5 0.3 115,588 22.8 0.2 57,856 11.4 0.1
Virginia 2,476,333 37.9 3.9 1,880,559 28.8 2.6 1,349,377 20.7 2.2 822,686 12.6 1.5
Washington 1,557,186 27.5 2.4 2,105,822 37.2 2.9 1,270,425 22.4 2.1 728,028 12.9 1.3
West Virginia 105,417 7.2 0.2 317,835 21.8 0.4 534,212 36.7 0.9 498,217 34.2 0.9
Wisconsin 1,453,459 32.4 2.3 1,616,860 36.0 2.2 808,371 18.0 1.3 609,656 13.6 1.1
Wyoming 95,593 21.5 0.1 182,623 41.1 0.3 119,905 27.0 0.2 45,996 10.4 0.1
Total 64,018,679 25.4 100 71,989,379 28.6 100 60,037,673 23.9 100 55,592,570 22.1 100

Abbreviations: ACS, American Community Survey; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Proportion of residents in the census tract who were living below the U.S. poverty level at any time during the 12 months before the survey response (individuals aged 18 years and older).
a Percentage of male residents of area.
b Percentage of female residents of area.
c Percentage of residents of area.
d Percentage of SDH subpopulation total.

Table S2. Adults with less than high school diploma, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Less than high school diploma (%)
Male
<6 6.00–9.99 10.00–17.99 ≥18
Area of residence No. %a No. %a No. %a No. %a
Alabama 304,415 17.0 295,349 16.5 607,094 33.8 588,433 32.8
Alaska 108,345 37.4 95,803 33.0 71,416 24.6 14,323 4.9
Arizona 795,685 30.4 503,978 19.2 624,235 23.8 696,448 26.6
Arkansas 164,768 14.9 181,530 16.4 493,281 44.6 267,550 24.2
California 3,678,133 24.8 2,475,093 16.7 3,254,500 22.0 5,410,019 36.5
Colorado 1,006,250 47.1 440,166 20.6 423,628 19.8 266,018 12.5
Connecticut 554,810 40.7 343,904 25.2 292,701 21.5 170,754 12.5
Delaware 92,599 26.0 101,906 28.6 114,527 32.1 47,383 13.3
District of Columbia 111,806 42.4 34,935 13.3 79,337 30.1 37,327 14.2
Florida 1,956,229 24.6 1,843,782 23.2 2,367,245 29.8 1,786,051 22.5
Georgia 713,718 19.1 740,084 19.8 1,245,613 33.3 1,038,235 27.8
Hawaii 237,452 42.7 155,517 27.9 135,911 24.4 27,550 5.0
Idaho 182,201 29.3 191,614 30.8 179,198 28.8 68,308 11.0
Illinois 1,571,913 32.7 1,204,449 25.1 1,137,060 23.7 889,298 18.5
Indiana 498,270 20.2 669,688 27.2 889,070 36.1 408,387 16.6
Iowa 476,779 40.3 409,072 34.6 203,729 17.2 92,207 7.8
Kansas 416,635 38.5 307,095 28.3 229,451 21.2 130,176 12.0
Kentucky 293,632 17.6 275,090 16.5 592,174 35.5 506,602 30.4
Louisiana 227,167 13.2 284,622 16.6 581,833 33.9 621,489 36.2
Maine 181,237 34.7 187,035 35.9 144,404 27.7 8,929 1.7
Maryland 755,410 34.0 634,316 28.5 526,254 23.7 308,480 13.9
Massachusetts 1,115,175 42.7 600,858 23.0 513,717 19.7 379,341 14.5
Michigan 1,180,319 31.3 1,124,874 29.8 1,068,586 28.3 401,728 10.6
Minnesota 943,112 45.1 690,418 33.0 337,633 16.1 119,838 5.7
Mississippi 94,793 8.8 156,657 14.5 421,654 39.0 409,421 37.8
Missouri 621,589 27.3 547,278 24.0 799,163 35.1 311,269 13.7
Montana 162,793 40.0 149,116 36.6 84,173 20.7 11,117 2.7
Nebraska 282,315 39.9 217,808 30.8 130,313 18.4 76,853 10.9
Nevada 211,614 18.9 291,134 25.9 316,988 28.2 302,805 27.0
New Hampshire 223,635 42.1 200,400 37.7 87,993 16.6 18,878 3.6
New Jersey 1,222,198 36.7 855,820 25.7 723,046 21.7 527,780 15.9
New Mexico 162,471 20.7 124,026 15.8 219,236 28.0 278,151 35.5
New York 1,988,662 26.9 1,609,704 21.7 1,908,835 25.8 1,895,867 25.6
North Carolina 878,385 23.3 690,054 18.3 1,284,885 34.0 920,890 24.4
North Dakota 101,091 34.1 131,361 44.2 59,039 19.9 5,386 1.8
Ohio 1,340,917 30.7 1,208,769 27.7 1,236,981 28.3 578,148 13.2
Oklahoma 282,060 19.4 342,601 23.6 531,498 36.6 294,606 20.3
Oregon 445,828 28.3 410,806 26.0 559,546 35.5 161,780 10.3
Pennsylvania 1,489,058 30.4 1,494,904 30.5 1,363,116 27.9 546,430 11.2
Puerto Rico 33,582 2.7 61,046 4.8 313,867 24.9 852,985 67.6
Rhode Island 107,446 26.4 120,633 29.7 102,757 25.3 75,452 18.6
South Carolina 424,645 23.0 353,737 19.1 575,015 31.1 493,867 26.7
South Dakota 104,428 32.0 120,454 36.9 73,818 22.6 27,538 8.4
Tennessee 509,528 20.6 451,195 18.2 913,485 36.9 602,873 24.3
Texas 2,176,177 21.5 1,694,467 16.7 2,491,406 24.6 3,767,784 37.2
Utah 456,270 43.0 268,144 25.3 232,670 21.9 103,557 9.8
Vermont 91,801 37.2 99,090 40.1 53,762 21.8 2,304 0.9
Virginia 1,011,618 31.8 714,195 22.4 967,401 30.4 491,274 15.4
Washington 1,025,702 36.5 768,734 27.4 750,412 26.7 265,075 9.4
West Virginia 92,371 13.0 129,576 18.2 355,029 49.8 135,817 19.1
Wisconsin 874,925 39.5 734,972 33.2 462,569 20.9 140,326 6.3
Wyoming 78,788 34.9 89,735 39.7 52,700 23.3 4,692 2.1
Total 34,060,750 27.8 27,827,594 22.7 33,183,954 27.1 27,587,799 22.5

 

Table S2. Adults with less than high school diploma, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Less than high school diploma (%)
Female
<6 6.00–9.99 10.00–17.99 ≥18
Area of residence No. %b No. %b No. %b No. %b
Alabama 334,133 17.0 329,318 16.7 680,850 34.6 626,295 31.8
Alaska 97,833 37.3 87,334 33.3 65,310 24.9 12,014 4.6
Arizona 850,609 31.6 534,176 19.8 641,506 23.8 666,265 24.7
Arkansas 176,357 15.0 203,727 17.3 519,422 44.1 278,093 23.6
California 3,864,628 25.3 2,606,712 17.1 3,403,921 22.3 5,382,099 35.3
Colorado 1,019,635 47.8 442,317 20.7 423,444 19.8 249,864 11.7
Connecticut 592,378 40.4 375,958 25.6 317,032 21.6 181,342 12.4
Delaware 101,859 26.1 113,350 29.1 128,517 33.0 45,928 11.8
District of Columbia 124,777 41.7 37,915 12.7 95,299 31.8 41,365 13.8
Florida 2,128,377 25.1 2,019,089 23.8 2,567,140 30.2 1,781,674 21.0
Georgia 760,614 18.7 824,640 20.3 1,396,991 34.4 1,076,294 26.5
Hawaii 231,850 41.5 161,683 28.9 138,839 24.8 26,726 4.8
Idaho 186,897 29.8 196,513 31.3 177,606 28.3 66,296 10.6
Illinois 1,670,038 32.8 1,302,437 25.6 1,236,973 24.3 882,768 17.3
Indiana 526,655 20.3 708,947 27.3 940,397 36.2 421,719 16.2
Iowa 497,296 40.7 422,301 34.6 207,833 17.0 93,250 7.6
Kansas 431,963 38.9 315,298 28.4 237,577 21.4 125,036 11.3
Kentucky 314,440 17.9 295,337 16.8 621,229 35.3 529,681 30.1
Louisiana 245,382 13.3 311,347 16.9 636,594 34.6 646,708 35.1
Maine 198,956 35.7 198,358 35.6 150,912 27.1 8,321 1.5
Maryland 838,008 34.4 703,550 28.9 585,742 24.1 307,498 12.6
Massachusetts 1,228,868 43.3 654,588 23.0 550,257 19.4 407,492 14.3
Michigan 1,246,099 31.3 1,197,494 30.0 1,126,436 28.3 415,854 10.4
Minnesota 984,771 45.9 697,668 32.5 343,963 16.0 118,348 5.5
Mississippi 103,336 8.7 178,727 15.1 464,500 39.2 439,366 37.0
Missouri 663,037 27.3 592,650 24.4 855,382 35.3 314,631 13.0
Montana 162,579 40.0 150,763 37.0 82,689 20.3 10,910 2.7
Nebraska 295,249 40.7 226,740 31.3 130,115 17.9 72,849 10.0
Nevada 221,989 19.7 306,633 27.2 319,649 28.4 277,561 24.7
New Hampshire 232,369 42.2 208,521 37.9 90,414 16.4 18,849 3.4
New Jersey 1,324,404 37.0 931,326 26.0 782,462 21.9 541,407 15.1
New Mexico 173,692 21.3 135,033 16.6 227,983 28.0 277,678 34.1
New York 2,171,992 26.9 1,740,723 21.6 2,081,524 25.8 2,079,513 25.8
North Carolina 942,366 23.0 755,808 18.5 1,403,006 34.3 987,614 24.2
North Dakota 98,604 35.0 121,458 43.1 56,336 20.0 5,208 1.8
Ohio 1,433,496 30.8 1,307,764 28.1 1,334,810 28.7 582,826 12.5
Oklahoma 297,819 19.7 369,429 24.5 555,782 36.8 285,636 18.9
Oregon 469,350 28.7 432,926 26.5 573,839 35.1 159,690 9.8
Pennsylvania 1,616,744 31.0 1,598,382 30.6 1,444,766 27.7 562,451 10.8
Puerto Rico 40,266 2.8 75,260 5.2 378,180 26.3 943,810 65.7
Rhode Island 115,273 26.1 134,269 30.4 112,519 25.5 79,393 18.0
South Carolina 457,140 22.7 388,902 19.3 640,655 31.8 525,713 26.1
South Dakota 104,588 32.2 123,454 38.0 70,587 21.7 26,356 8.1
Tennessee 561,793 21.0 493,697 18.5 986,312 36.9 630,812 23.6
Texas 2,291,981 21.9 1,804,286 17.2 2,652,304 25.4 3,714,104 35.5
Utah 459,703 43.1 274,358 25.7 233,816 21.9 97,783 9.2
Vermont 97,681 37.6 103,075 39.7 56,750 21.9 2,168 0.8
Virginia 1,059,151 31.5 762,843 22.7 1,041,782 31.0 498,083 14.8
Washington 1,047,995 36.8 791,702 27.8 755,964 26.5 255,877 9.0
West Virginia 95,289 12.8 136,099 18.3 372,391 50.1 139,109 18.7
Wisconsin 912,874 40.1 756,137 33.2 463,956 20.4 143,692 6.3
Wyoming 77,234 35.4 86,596 39.7 49,991 22.9 4,381 2.0
Total 36,180,417 28.0 29,727,618 23.0 35,412,254 27.4 28,068,400 21.7

 

Table S2. Adults with less than high school diploma, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Less than high school diploma (%)
Total
<6 6.00–9.99 10.00–17.99 ≥18
Area of residence No. %c %d No. %c %d No. %c %d No. %c %d
Alabama 638,548 17.0 0.9 624,667 16.6 1.1 1,287,944 34.2 1.9 1,214,728 32.3 2.2
Alaska 206,178 37.3 0.3 183,137 33.2 0.3 136,726 24.8 0.2 26,337 4.8 0.0
Arizona 1,646,294 31.0 2.3 1,038,154 19.5 1.8 1,265,741 23.8 1.8 1,362,713 25.6 2.4
Arkansas 341,125 14.9 0.5 385,257 16.9 0.7 1,012,703 44.3 1.5 545,643 23.9 1.0
California 7,542,761 25.1 10.7 5,081,805 16.9 8.8 6,658,421 22.1 9.7 10,792,118 35.9 19.4
Colorado 2,025,885 47.4 2.9 882,483 20.7 1.5 847,072 19.8 1.2 515,882 12.1 0.9
Connecticut 1,147,188 40.6 1.6 719,862 25.4 1.3 609,733 21.6 0.9 352,096 12.4 0.6
Delaware 194,458 26.1 0.3 215,256 28.9 0.4 243,044 32.6 0.4 93,311 12.5 0.2
District of Columbia 236,583 42.0 0.3 72,850 12.9 0.1 174,636 31.0 0.3 78,692 14.0 0.1
Florida 4,084,606 24.8 5.8 3,862,871 23.5 6.7 4,934,385 30.0 7.2 3,567,725 21.7 6.4
Georgia 1,474,332 18.9 2.1 1,564,724 20.1 2.7 2,642,604 33.9 3.9 2,114,529 27.1 3.8
Hawaii 469,302 42.1 0.7 317,200 28.4 0.6 274,750 24.6 0.4 54,276 4.9 0.1
Idaho 369,098 29.6 0.5 388,127 31.1 0.7 356,804 28.6 0.5 134,604 10.8 0.2
Illinois 3,241,951 32.8 4.6 2,506,886 25.3 4.4 2,374,033 24.0 3.5 1,772,066 17.9 3.2
Indiana 1,024,925 20.2 1.5 1,378,635 27.2 2.4 1,829,467 36.1 2.7 830,106 16.4 1.5
Iowa 974,075 40.5 1.4 831,373 34.6 1.4 411,562 17.1 0.6 185,457 7.7 0.3
Kansas 848,598 38.7 1.2 622,393 28.4 1.1 467,028 21.3 0.7 255,212 11.6 0.5
Kentucky 608,072 17.7 0.9 570,427 16.6 1.0 1,213,403 35.4 1.8 1,036,283 30.2 1.9
Louisiana 472,549 13.3 0.7 595,969 16.8 1.0 1,218,427 34.3 1.8 1,268,197 35.7 2.3
Maine 380,193 35.3 0.5 385,393 35.7 0.7 295,316 27.4 0.4 17,250 1.6 0.0
Maryland 1,593,418 34.2 2.3 1,337,866 28.7 2.3 1,111,996 23.9 1.6 615,978 13.2 1.1
Massachusetts 2,344,043 43.0 3.3 1,255,446 23.0 2.2 1,063,974 19.5 1.6 786,833 14.4 1.4
Michigan 2,426,418 31.3 3.5 2,322,368 29.9 4.0 2,195,022 28.3 3.2 817,582 10.5 1.5
Minnesota 1,927,883 45.5 2.7 1,388,086 32.8 2.4 681,596 16.1 1.0 238,186 5.6 0.4
Mississippi 198,129 8.7 0.3 335,384 14.8 0.6 886,154 39.1 1.3 848,787 37.4 1.5
Missouri 1,284,626 27.3 1.8 1,139,928 24.2 2.0 1,654,545 35.2 2.4 625,900 13.3 1.1
Montana 325,372 40.0 0.5 299,879 36.8 0.5 166,862 20.5 0.2 22,027 2.7 0.0
Nebraska 577,564 40.3 0.8 444,548 31.0 0.8 260,428 18.2 0.4 149,702 10.5 0.3
Nevada 433,603 19.3 0.6 597,767 26.6 1.0 636,637 28.3 0.9 580,366 25.8 1.0
New Hampshire 456,004 42.2 0.6 408,921 37.8 0.7 178,407 16.5 0.3 37,727 3.5 0.1
New Jersey 2,546,602 36.9 3.6 1,787,146 25.9 3.1 1,505,508 21.8 2.2 1,069,187 15.5 1.9
New Mexico 336,163 21.0 0.5 259,059 16.2 0.5 447,219 28.0 0.7 555,829 34.8 1.0
New York 4,160,654 26.9 5.9 3,350,427 21.6 5.8 3,990,359 25.8 5.8 3,975,380 25.7 7.1
North Carolina 1,820,751 23.2 2.6 1,445,862 18.4 2.5 2,687,891 34.2 3.9 1,908,504 24.3 3.4
North Dakota 199,695 34.5 0.3 252,819 43.7 0.4 115,375 19.9 0.2 10,594 1.8 0.0
Ohio 2,774,413 30.7 3.9 2,516,533 27.9 4.4 2,571,791 28.5 3.7 1,160,974 12.9 2.1
Oklahoma 579,879 19.6 0.8 712,030 24.1 1.2 1,087,280 36.7 1.6 580,242 19.6 1.0
Oregon 915,178 28.5 1.3 843,732 26.3 1.5 1,133,385 35.3 1.7 321,470 10.0 0.6
Pennsylvania 3,105,802 30.7 4.4 3,093,286 30.6 5.4 2,807,882 27.8 4.1 1,108,881 11.0 2.0
Puerto Rico 73,848 2.7 0.1 136,306 5.1 0.2 692,047 25.6 1.0 1,796,795 66.6 3.2
Rhode Island 222,719 26.3 0.3 254,902 30.1 0.4 215,276 25.4 0.3 154,845 18.3 0.3
South Carolina 881,785 22.8 1.3 742,639 19.2 1.3 1,215,670 31.5 1.8 1,019,580 26.4 1.8
South Dakota 209,016 32.1 0.3 243,908 37.5 0.4 144,405 22.2 0.2 53,894 8.3 0.1
Tennessee 1,071,321 20.8 1.5 944,892 18.3 1.6 1,899,797 36.9 2.8 1,233,685 24.0 2.2
Texas 4,468,158 21.7 6.4 3,498,753 17.0 6.1 5,143,710 25.0 7.5 7,481,888 36.3 13.4
Utah 915,973 43.1 1.3 542,502 25.5 0.9 466,486 21.9 0.7 201,340 9.5 0.4
Vermont 189,482 37.4 0.3 202,165 39.9 0.4 110,512 21.8 0.2 4,472 0.9 0.0
Virginia 2,070,769 31.6 2.9 1,477,038 22.6 2.6 2,009,183 30.7 2.9 989,357 15.1 1.8
Washington 2,073,697 36.6 3.0 1,560,436 27.6 2.7 1,506,376 26.6 2.2 520,952 9.2 0.9
West Virginia 187,660 12.9 0.3 265,675 18.3 0.5 727,420 50.0 1.1 274,926 18.9 0.5
Wisconsin 1,787,799 39.8 2.5 1,491,109 33.2 2.6 926,525 20.6 1.4 284,018 6.3 0.5
Wyoming 156,022 35.1 0.2 176,331 39.7 0.3 102,691 23.1 0.1 9,073 2.0 0.0
Total 70,241,167 27.9 100 57,555,212 22.8 100 68,596,208 27.2 100 55,656,199 22.1 100

Abbreviations: ACS, American Community Survey; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Proportion of residents in the census tract with less than a high school diploma at the time of the survey response (individuals aged 18 years and older).
a Percentage of male residents of area.
b Percentage of female residents of area.
c Percentage of residents of area.
d Percentage of SDH subpopulation total.

Table S3. Median household income among adults, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Median household income (U.S. $)
Male
<42,000 42,000–56,999 57,000–77,999 ≥78,000
Area of residence No. %a No. %a No. %a No. %a
Alabama 642,323 35.8 578,511 32.2 356,883 19.9 216,389 12.1
Alaska 16,516 5.7 39,536 13.8 87,352 30.4 144,110 50.1
Arizona 697,807 26.8 685,695 26.3 633,841 24.3 589,846 22.6
Arkansas 434,763 39.4 400,954 36.3 209,185 18.9 59,797 5.4
California 1,929,210 13.1 2,808,400 19.1 3,629,094 24.6 6,360,752 43.2
Colorado 229,279 10.8 454,368 21.4 611,524 28.8 825,086 38.9
Connecticut 156,051 11.5 155,966 11.5 316,031 23.3 727,022 53.7
Delaware 22,400 6.3 98,158 27.5 134,207 37.7 101,650 28.5
District of Columbia 40,751 15.6 24,871 9.5 31,685 12.1 164,309 62.8
Florida 2,103,201 26.5 2,467,886 31.1 1,996,019 25.2 1,365,239 17.2
Georgia 971,201 26.0 975,281 26.1 926,651 24.8 857,217 23.0
Hawaii 30,489 5.5 63,330 11.4 157,561 28.4 303,399 54.7
Idaho 117,509 18.9 262,215 42.2 187,934 30.2 53,663 8.6
Illinois 763,742 15.9 1,119,551 23.3 1,360,761 28.3 1,556,081 32.4
Indiana 553,366 22.5 739,020 30.1 752,857 30.7 410,358 16.7
Iowa 142,823 12.1 412,672 35.0 453,566 38.5 169,617 14.4
Kansas 210,538 19.5 354,081 32.7 268,335 24.8 248,256 23.0
Kentucky 640,744 38.6 452,756 27.3 374,204 22.6 190,827 11.5
Louisiana 614,564 35.9 473,083 27.6 421,824 24.6 202,376 11.8
Maine 107,544 20.6 144,622 27.7 203,500 39.0 65,939 12.6
Maryland 148,863 6.7 282,988 12.8 511,809 23.2 1,261,974 57.2
Massachusetts 243,233 9.3 344,430 13.2 601,549 23.1 1,415,115 54.3
Michigan 876,121 23.4 1,066,447 28.4 1,063,997 28.4 744,103 19.8
Minnesota 186,253 8.9 440,748 21.1 745,572 35.7 716,285 34.3
Mississippi 513,025 47.4 312,092 28.8 190,911 17.6 66,374 6.1
Missouri 581,953 25.5 729,281 32.0 574,966 25.2 392,196 17.2
Montana 90,871 22.3 146,857 36.1 148,831 36.6 20,066 4.9
Nebraska 79,873 11.4 254,302 36.2 228,052 32.4 140,859 20.0
Nevada 255,464 22.8 242,586 21.6 382,546 34.1 241,932 21.6
New Hampshire 28,249 5.3 84,519 15.9 179,489 33.8 238,649 45.0
New Jersey 320,147 9.7 399,866 12.1 780,611 23.5 1,815,236 54.7
New Mexico 299,612 39.0 214,118 27.9 174,629 22.7 79,986 10.4
New York 1,171,801 15.9 1,502,387 20.4 1,896,118 25.8 2,780,236 37.8
North Carolina 1,082,025 28.8 1,262,636 33.7 821,086 21.9 586,113 15.6
North Dakota 36,809 12.4 68,050 22.9 113,160 38.1 78,858 26.6
Ohio 1,019,950 23.5 1,177,344 27.1 1,326,089 30.5 818,587 18.9
Oklahoma 424,469 29.3 512,270 35.4 323,621 22.3 188,261 13.0
Oregon 252,523 16.0 458,991 29.1 549,244 34.8 317,202 20.1
Pennsylvania 823,900 16.9 1,319,738 27.1 1,524,411 31.3 1,194,935 24.6
Puerto Rico 1,188,401 94.4 57,849 4.6 9,966 0.8 3,135 0.2
Rhode Island 67,054 16.5 82,011 20.2 117,627 29.0 139,596 34.4
South Carolina 586,867 32.1 526,208 28.8 468,254 25.6 248,293 13.6
South Dakota 57,416 17.6 109,811 33.7 115,632 35.4 43,379 13.3
Tennessee 795,291 32.2 784,763 31.8 543,065 22.0 344,185 13.9
Texas 2,283,760 22.7 2,520,292 25.0 2,552,942 25.3 2,720,063 27.0
Utah 95,835 9.1 218,743 20.7 353,470 33.4 390,414 36.9
Vermont 20,696 8.4 80,376 32.5 115,234 46.7 30,651 12.4
Virginia 417,112 13.2 684,021 21.6 684,915 21.6 1,383,202 43.6
Washington 235,320 8.4 589,413 21.0 845,922 30.2 1,130,510 40.4
West Virginia 298,295 41.9 271,484 38.1 113,864 16.0 28,679 4.0
Wisconsin 297,198 13.4 679,477 30.7 772,101 34.9 462,911 20.9
Wyoming 15,531 6.9 70,898 31.4 88,830 39.3 50,656 22.4
Total 25,218,738 20.6 30,205,952 24.7 32,031,527 26.2 34,684,574 28.4

 

Table S3. Median household income among adults, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Median household income (U.S. $)
Female
<42,000 42,000–56,999 57,000–77,999 ≥78,000
Area of residence No. %b No. %b No. %b No. %b
Alabama 724,612 36.8 626,501 31.8 385,596 19.6 231,757 11.8
Alaska 13,700 5.2 33,887 12.9 78,535 30.0 135,885 51.9
Arizona 697,280 25.9 697,313 25.9 669,249 24.9 625,404 23.3
Arkansas 470,513 40.0 421,791 35.8 221,535 18.8 62,882 5.3
California 1,998,557 13.1 2,872,183 18.8 3,763,245 24.7 6,609,650 43.4
Colorado 229,386 10.8 451,373 21.2 613,499 28.8 837,748 39.3
Connecticut 174,510 11.9 175,044 11.9 341,595 23.3 774,406 52.8
Delaware 25,984 6.7 110,666 28.4 146,708 37.7 106,296 27.3
District of Columbia 54,674 18.4 30,065 10.1 35,755 12.0 176,848 59.5
Florida 2,239,790 26.4 2,656,286 31.3 2,141,014 25.2 1,445,687 17.0
Georgia 1,078,838 26.6 1,064,573 26.2 1,000,895 24.7 913,347 22.5
Hawaii 30,690 5.5 61,972 11.1 156,097 27.9 310,134 55.5
Idaho 117,268 18.7 266,977 42.6 187,115 29.8 55,952 8.9
Illinois 849,905 16.7 1,173,836 23.1 1,432,633 28.1 1,635,773 32.1
Indiana 612,176 23.6 772,926 29.8 778,491 30.0 428,348 16.5
Iowa 142,943 11.7 430,699 35.3 468,179 38.4 176,635 14.5
Kansas 211,137 19.1 362,720 32.7 276,390 25.0 257,492 23.2
Kentucky 690,570 39.3 474,286 27.0 392,235 22.3 197,908 11.3
Louisiana 688,345 37.4 492,942 26.8 440,550 24.0 217,029 11.8
Maine 113,239 20.3 154,698 27.8 216,758 38.9 71,852 12.9
Maryland 178,970 7.4 325,917 13.4 567,883 23.3 1,360,682 55.9
Massachusetts 279,914 9.9 374,237 13.2 654,716 23.1 1,529,362 53.9
Michigan 961,625 24.2 1,125,019 28.3 1,120,147 28.2 769,059 19.3
Minnesota 193,518 9.0 454,333 21.2 756,858 35.3 738,928 34.5
Mississippi 575,481 48.5 332,617 28.0 204,883 17.3 72,913 6.1
Missouri 643,998 26.6 758,260 31.3 610,014 25.2 411,983 17.0
Montana 89,805 22.1 147,248 36.2 150,532 37.0 19,353 4.8
Nebraska 82,757 11.5 261,150 36.2 229,797 31.8 147,933 20.5
Nevada 238,728 21.2 246,799 21.9 388,689 34.5 251,616 22.3
New Hampshire 27,765 5.0 88,849 16.1 184,682 33.6 248,857 45.2
New Jersey 364,111 10.2 435,641 12.2 829,548 23.2 1,949,157 54.5
New Mexico 308,274 38.6 225,428 28.2 181,545 22.7 83,812 10.5
New York 1,393,371 17.3 1,617,006 20.1 2,017,103 25.1 3,015,136 37.5
North Carolina 1,207,807 29.6 1,347,833 33.0 893,947 21.9 634,179 15.5
North Dakota 32,919 11.7 67,172 23.9 107,309 38.1 74,206 26.4
Ohio 1,142,214 24.6 1,258,844 27.1 1,391,167 29.9 858,532 18.5
Oklahoma 440,164 29.2 531,382 35.2 338,729 22.5 197,788 13.1
Oregon 258,626 15.8 477,188 29.2 570,686 34.9 329,305 20.1
Pennsylvania 934,612 17.9 1,397,743 26.8 1,603,349 30.8 1,275,706 24.5
Puerto Rico 1,354,602 94.2 67,657 4.7 11,080 0.8 4,050 0.3
Rhode Island 71,902 16.3 91,797 20.8 130,277 29.5 147,478 33.4
South Carolina 664,878 33.2 564,732 28.2 505,925 25.3 267,614 13.4
South Dakota 57,887 17.8 108,094 33.3 112,904 34.7 46,100 14.2
Tennessee 875,750 32.8 833,384 31.2 583,285 21.9 374,749 14.1
Texas 2,387,448 22.9 2,571,406 24.6 2,637,951 25.3 2,850,158 27.3
Utah 93,690 8.8 216,057 20.3 363,739 34.1 392,043 36.8
Vermont 21,605 8.3 85,110 32.8 121,340 46.7 31,619 12.2
Virginia 460,342 13.7 719,923 21.4 728,433 21.7 1,447,608 43.1
Washington 241,281 8.5 595,146 20.9 860,163 30.2 1,151,730 40.4
West Virginia 312,841 42.1 283,324 38.2 116,982 15.8 29,286 3.9
Wisconsin 322,208 14.2 696,982 30.6 785,001 34.5 472,468 20.8
Wyoming 15,211 7.0 69,179 31.7 85,927 39.4 47,885 21.9
Total 27,398,421 21.2 31,706,195 24.5 33,590,665 26.0 36,502,328 28.3

 

Table S3. Median household income among adults, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Median household income (U.S. $)
Total
<42,000 42,000–56,999 57,000–77,999 ≥78,000
Area of residence No. %c %d No. %c %d No. %c %d No. %c %d
Alabama 1,366,935 36.3 2.6 1,205,012 32.0 1.9 742,479 19.7 1.1 448,146 11.9 0.6
Alaska 30,216 5.5 0.1 73,423 13.4 0.1 165,887 30.2 0.3 279,995 51.0 0.4
Arizona 1,395,087 26.3 2.7 1,383,008 26.1 2.2 1,303,090 24.6 2.0 1,215,250 22.9 1.7
Arkansas 905,276 39.7 1.7 822,745 36.1 1.3 430,720 18.9 0.7 122,679 5.4 0.2
California 3,927,767 13.1 7.5 5,680,583 19.0 9.2 7,392,339 24.7 11.3 12,970,402 43.3 18.2
Colorado 458,665 10.8 0.9 905,741 21.3 1.5 1,225,023 28.8 1.9 1,662,834 39.1 2.3
Connecticut 330,561 11.7 0.6 331,010 11.7 0.5 657,626 23.3 1.0 1,501,428 53.2 2.1
Delaware 48,384 6.5 0.1 208,824 28.0 0.3 280,915 37.7 0.4 207,946 27.9 0.3
District of Columbia 95,425 17.1 0.2 54,936 9.8 0.1 67,440 12.1 0.1 341,157 61.0 0.5
Florida 4,342,991 26.5 8.3 5,124,172 31.2 8.3 4,137,033 25.2 6.3 2,810,926 17.1 3.9
Georgia 2,050,039 26.3 3.9 2,039,854 26.2 3.3 1,927,546 24.8 2.9 1,770,564 22.7 2.5
Hawaii 61,179 5.5 0.1 125,302 11.3 0.2 313,658 28.2 0.5 613,533 55.1 0.9
Idaho 234,777 18.8 0.4 529,192 42.4 0.9 375,049 30.0 0.6 109,615 8.8 0.2
Illinois 1,613,647 16.3 3.1 2,293,387 23.2 3.7 2,793,394 28.2 4.3 3,191,854 32.3 4.5
Indiana 1,165,542 23.1 2.2 1,511,946 30.0 2.4 1,531,348 30.3 2.3 838,706 16.6 1.2
Iowa 285,766 11.9 0.5 843,371 35.2 1.4 921,745 38.5 1.4 346,252 14.4 0.5
Kansas 421,675 19.3 0.8 716,801 32.7 1.2 544,725 24.9 0.8 505,748 23.1 0.7
Kentucky 1,331,314 39.0 2.5 927,042 27.2 1.5 766,439 22.5 1.2 388,735 11.4 0.5
Louisiana 1,302,909 36.7 2.5 966,025 27.2 1.6 862,374 24.3 1.3 419,405 11.8 0.6
Maine 220,783 20.5 0.4 299,320 27.8 0.5 420,258 39.0 0.6 137,791 12.8 0.2
Maryland 327,833 7.1 0.6 608,905 13.1 1.0 1,079,692 23.3 1.6 2,622,656 56.5 3.7
Massachusetts 523,147 9.6 1.0 718,667 13.2 1.2 1,256,265 23.1 1.9 2,944,477 54.1 4.1
Michigan 1,837,746 23.8 3.5 2,191,466 28.4 3.5 2,184,144 28.3 3.3 1,513,162 19.6 2.1
Minnesota 379,771 9.0 0.7 895,081 21.1 1.4 1,502,430 35.5 2.3 1,455,213 34.4 2.0
Mississippi 1,088,506 48.0 2.1 644,709 28.4 1.0 395,794 17.4 0.6 139,287 6.1 0.2
Missouri 1,225,951 26.1 2.3 1,487,541 31.6 2.4 1,184,980 25.2 1.8 804,179 17.1 1.1
Montana 180,676 22.2 0.3 294,105 36.2 0.5 299,363 36.8 0.5 39,419 4.8 0.1
Nebraska 162,630 11.4 0.3 515,452 36.2 0.8 457,849 32.1 0.7 288,792 20.3 0.4
Nevada 494,192 22.0 0.9 489,385 21.8 0.8 771,235 34.3 1.2 493,548 22.0 0.7
New Hampshire 56,014 5.2 0.1 173,368 16.0 0.3 364,171 33.7 0.6 487,506 45.1 0.7
New Jersey 684,258 9.9 1.3 835,507 12.1 1.3 1,610,159 23.4 2.5 3,764,393 54.6 5.3
New Mexico 607,886 38.8 1.2 439,546 28.0 0.7 356,174 22.7 0.5 163,798 10.5 0.2
New York 2,565,172 16.7 4.9 3,119,393 20.3 5.0 3,913,221 25.4 6.0 5,795,372 37.6 8.1
North Carolina 2,289,832 29.2 4.4 2,610,469 33.3 4.2 1,715,033 21.9 2.6 1,220,292 15.6 1.7
North Dakota 69,728 12.1 0.1 135,222 23.4 0.2 220,469 38.1 0.3 153,064 26.5 0.2
Ohio 2,162,164 24.0 4.1 2,436,188 27.1 3.9 2,717,256 30.2 4.1 1,677,119 18.6 2.4
Oklahoma 864,633 29.2 1.6 1,043,652 35.3 1.7 662,350 22.4 1.0 386,049 13.1 0.5
Oregon 511,149 15.9 1.0 936,179 29.1 1.5 1,119,930 34.8 1.7 646,507 20.1 0.9
Pennsylvania 1,758,512 17.5 3.3 2,717,481 27.0 4.4 3,127,760 31.0 4.8 2,470,641 24.5 3.5
Puerto Rico 2,543,003 94.3 4.8 125,506 4.7 0.2 21,046 0.8 0.0 7,185 0.3 0.0
Rhode Island 138,956 16.4 0.3 173,808 20.5 0.3 247,904 29.2 0.4 287,074 33.9 0.4
South Carolina 1,251,745 32.7 2.4 1,090,940 28.5 1.8 974,179 25.4 1.5 515,907 13.5 0.7
South Dakota 115,303 17.7 0.2 217,905 33.5 0.4 228,536 35.1 0.3 89,479 13.7 0.1
Tennessee 1,671,041 32.5 3.2 1,618,147 31.5 2.6 1,126,350 21.9 1.7 718,934 14.0 1.0
Texas 4,671,208 22.8 8.9 5,091,698 24.8 8.2 5,190,893 25.3 7.9 5,570,221 27.1 7.8
Utah 189,525 8.9 0.4 434,800 20.5 0.7 717,209 33.8 1.1 782,457 36.8 1.1
Vermont 42,301 8.3 0.1 165,486 32.7 0.3 236,574 46.7 0.4 62,270 12.3 0.1
Virginia 877,454 13.4 1.7 1,403,944 21.5 2.3 1,413,348 21.7 2.2 2,830,810 43.4 4.0
Washington 476,601 8.4 0.9 1,184,559 21.0 1.9 1,706,085 30.2 2.6 2,282,240 40.4 3.2
West Virginia 611,136 42.0 1.2 554,808 38.1 0.9 230,846 15.9 0.4 57,965 4.0 0.1
Wisconsin 619,406 13.8 1.2 1,376,459 30.7 2.2 1,557,102 34.7 2.4 935,379 20.8 1.3
Wyoming 30,742 6.9 0.1 140,077 31.5 0.2 174,757 39.3 0.3 98,541 22.2 0.1
Total 52,617,159 20.9 100 61,912,147 24.6 100 65,622,192 26.1 100 71,186,902 28.3 100

Abbreviations: ACS, American Community Survey; SDH, social determinants of health [footnotes only].
Note. Median household income (all age groups) in the census tract during the 12 months before the survey response.
a Percentage of male residents of area.
b Percentage of female residents of area.
c Percentage of residents of area.
d Percentage of SDH subpopulation total.

Table S4. Adults without health insurance, by sex at birth and area of residence, 2014–2018 5-year ACS estimates—census tract level, United States and Puerto Rico
Without health insurance (%)
Male
<5 5.00–8.99 9.00–14.99  ≥15
Area of residence No. %a No. %a No. %a No. %a
Alabama 208,392 11.6 402,276 22.4 674,642 37.6 509,981 28.4
Alaska 23,068 8.0 27,446 9.5 90,189 31.1 149,184 51.5
Arizona 567,938 21.7 630,247 24.1 668,412 25.6 747,064 28.6
Arkansas 120,866 10.9 391,598 35.4 415,109 37.5 179,556 16.2
California 4,075,459 27.6 3,990,369 27.1 3,546,791 24.1 3,129,997 21.2
Colorado 648,935 30.5 609,283 28.7 501,393 23.6 366,373 17.2
Connecticut 808,175 59.4 265,218 19.5 167,071 12.3 119,864 8.8
Delaware 143,931 40.4 133,576 37.5 62,729 17.6 16,179 4.5
District of Columbia 175,213 66.5 56,433 21.4 29,114 11.1 2,645 1.0
Florida 700,866 8.8 1,306,294 16.4 2,411,392 30.4 3,524,190 44.4
Georgia 278,561 7.5 523,429 14.0 1,130,683 30.3 1,801,900 48.2
Hawaii 342,615 61.7 164,781 29.7 47,873 8.6 284 0.1
Idaho 59,493 9.6 119,325 19.2 249,369 40.1 193,134 31.1
Illinois 1,808,042 37.6 1,307,811 27.2 920,713 19.2 765,771 15.9
Indiana 502,751 20.4 844,166 34.2 709,300 28.8 409,198 16.6
Iowa 651,865 55.2 362,688 30.7 128,267 10.9 38,967 3.3
Kansas 266,707 24.6 313,071 28.9 290,274 26.8 213,290 19.7
Kentucky 614,796 37.0 675,321 40.6 311,892 18.8 60,347 3.6
Louisiana 145,050 8.5 308,282 18.0 651,680 38.1 607,669 35.5
Maine 89,663 17.2 185,727 35.6 202,379 38.8 43,836 8.4
Maryland 1,027,274 46.5 592,192 26.8 370,668 16.8 219,416 9.9
Massachusetts 2,103,204 80.6 408,189 15.6 88,768 3.4 8,724 0.3
Michigan 1,385,363 36.8 1,448,467 38.5 749,441 19.9 177,472 4.7
Minnesota 1,254,605 60.0 589,979 28.2 186,176 8.9 58,787 2.8
Mississippi 47,600 4.4 120,339 11.1 351,849 32.5 562,644 52.0
Missouri 446,217 19.6 555,228 24.4 724,699 31.8 553,155 24.3
Montana 36,301 8.9 138,869 34.2 164,376 40.4 67,079 16.5
Nebraska 202,332 28.7 214,474 30.4 165,296 23.4 123,801 17.5
Nevada 143,681 12.8 255,098 22.7 352,745 31.4 371,004 33.1
New Hampshire 162,775 30.7 201,972 38.0 139,274 26.2 26,885 5.1
New Jersey 1,251,792 37.7 766,163 23.1 616,777 18.6 681,822 20.6
New Mexico 127,538 16.3 183,070 23.4 245,442 31.3 226,957 29.0
New York 3,086,679 41.8 2,069,542 28.0 1,405,858 19.0 823,744 11.2
North Carolina 389,163 10.3 819,092 21.8 1,313,271 34.9 1,243,947 33.0
North Dakota 100,687 33.9 116,205 39.1 66,683 22.5 13,302 4.5
Ohio 1,652,860 37.9 1,573,386 36.1 856,047 19.6 278,728 6.4
Oklahoma 77,582 5.3 204,317 14.1 412,442 28.4 756,424 52.1
Oregon 361,475 22.9 646,663 41.0 441,655 28.0 128,167 8.1
Pennsylvania 2,181,767 44.6 1,584,613 32.4 756,018 15.5 365,576 7.5
Puerto Rico 378,108 30.0 588,419 46.7 252,141 20.0 40,771 3.2
Rhode Island 232,297 57.2 93,638 23.0 50,653 12.5 29,700 7.3
South Carolina 176,525 9.6 344,972 18.8 731,853 39.8 583,931 31.8
South Dakota 58,599 18.0 127,996 39.2 80,792 24.8 58,851 18.0
Tennessee 293,086 11.9 590,451 23.9 970,639 39.3 617,903 25.0
Texas 650,293 6.4 1,309,511 13.0 2,116,427 20.9 6,029,522 59.7
Utah 193,980 18.3 314,646 29.7 287,870 27.2 261,966 24.7
Vermont 149,353 60.5 89,841 36.4 7,763 3.1 0 0.0
Virginia 719,127 22.6 820,573 25.8 1,010,082 31.8 626,217 19.7
Washington 915,504 32.6 1,020,178 36.3 635,254 22.6 238,987 8.5
West Virginia 154,166 21.6 351,852 49.4 195,806 27.5 10,969 1.5
Wisconsin 1,044,375 47.2 766,853 34.7 298,025 13.5 102,434 4.6
Wyoming 16,515 7.3 46,525 20.6 87,696 38.8 75,179 33.3
Totalc 33,253,209 27.2 31,570,654 25.8 29,341,758 24.0 28,243,493 23.1