Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

TB in Correctional Facilities in the United States


TB in correctional settings is a public health concern. Approximately 4-6% of TB cases reported in the United States occur among people incarcerated at the time of diagnosis. The incarcerated population contains a high proportion of people at greater risk for TB than the overall population.

Risk factors contributing to the high rate of TB in correctional facilities include:

  • The physical structure of correctional facilities that can include close living quarters, overcrowding, and the potential for inadequate ventilation;
  • Interruption of therapy caused by the movement of inmates into and out of facilities, and inmates returning to the community;
  • Language and cultural barriers, including lack of access to health information and stigma associated with the disease; and
  • Relatively high rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among inmates who if co-infected with TB bacteria, are at high risk for progressing from latent TB infection to TB disease. In addition to HIV, other underlying medical conditions may increase the risk that latent TB infection will progress to TB disease.

TB Control in Correctional Facilities

prison with barbed wire fenceTB control can be particularly problematic in correctional facilities, in which persons from diverse backgrounds and communities are housed in close proximity for varying periods.

Effective TB prevention and control measures in correctional facilities include:

  • Early identification of persons with TB disease through entry and periodic follow-up screening;
  • Successful treatment of TB disease and latent TB infection;
  • Appropriate use of airborne precautions (e.g., airborne infection isolation, environmental controls, and respiratory protection);
  • Comprehensive discharge planning; and
  • Thorough and efficient contact investigations when a TB case has been identified.

These measures should be instituted in close collaboration with local or state health department TB-control programs and other key partners. Continuing education of inmates, detainees, and correctional facility staff is necessary to maximize cooperation and participation. To ensure TB prevention and control measures are effective, periodic program evaluation should be conducted.

Data on TB in Correctional Facilities

CDC Resources on TB and Correctional Facilities

For additional CDC resources on TB, see Patient and General Public Materials and Health Care Providers and TB Program Materials.

Contact Us:
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE)
    1600 Clifton Rd., NE
    MS E10
    Atlanta, GA 30329
  • 800-CDC-INFO
    TTY: (888) 232-6348
  • Contact CDC–INFO
  • Page last reviewed: September 1, 2012
  • Page last updated: November 30, 2015 The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC-INFO