Mining Publication: Field Verification of Load Transfer Mechanics of Fully Grouted Roof Bolts
The Bureau of Mines conducted a series of field tests to improve the understanding of the support interaction mechanics between fully grouted bolts and coal mine roofs and to help lay the foundation for improved design and evaluation techniques. Strain gauges were installed on 14 fully grouted bolts placed in shale roof rock at four mines in Colorado, Illinois, and Pennsylvania to determine how load was transferred between the bolts and the rock. The results of field tests on elastic bolt behavior compared well with previous laboratory work and numerical models. The field tests showed that the anchorage length of grouted bolts installed in shale was slightly longer than the anchorage length determined in laboratory tests conducted in concrete blocks. The field results produced more variability because of geological variations. Tests run past the yield point of the steel bolt indicate that the yield zone varies significantly and translates down the length of the bolt anywhere from 4 to 22 in.