Mining Publication: The Effects of Water Emulsified Fuel on Diesel Particulate Matter Concentrations in Underground Mines
In this study, we evaluated the ambient diesel particulate matter (DPM) concentrations (at the intakes and exhausts of the mine) as the entire vehicle fleet of a stone mine switched from using 35% biodiesel to a water-emulsified fuel (PuriNOx). Elemental carbon (EC) was reduced by 45% when a PuriNOx blend containing 10% water replaced 35% biodiesel and by 57% when a PuriNOx blend containing 20% water was used. Other factors such as engine duty cycle and production changes could potentially cause some day-to-day EC fluctuations, and no direct comparison to commonly used diesel fuels (No. 1 or No. 2) was achieved. Therefore, a second study was performed in a controlled "isolated zone" environment of a metal mine comparing PuriNOx to No. 1 diesel fuel in a load-haul-dump vehicle. The EC fraction of the DPM was reduced by about 71% when the PuriNOx blend containing 10% water was used and by about 85% when the PuriNOx blend containing 20% water was used. This study did not determine how the water-emulsified fuel would affect the engine or power.