Mining Publication: Diesel Exhaust Particulate Material Expression of in Vitro Genotoxic Activities When Dispersed Into a Phospholipid Component of Lung Surfactant
Bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cell chromosomal and DNA damage in vitro assays were performed on a diesel exhaust particulate material (DPM) standard in two preparations: as an organic solvent extract, and as an aqueous dispersion in a simulated pulmonary surfactant. U.S. National Institute for Standards and Technology DPM SRM 2975 expressed mutagenic activity in the Salmonella reversion assay, and for in vitro genotoxicity to mammalian cells as micronucleus induction and as DNA damage in both preparations: as an acetone extract of the DPM mixed into dimethylsulfoxide, and as a mixture of whole DPM in a dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline. Dispersion in surfactant was used to model the conditioning of DPM depositing on the deep respiratory airways of the lung. DPM solid residue after acetone extraction was inactive when assayed as a surfactant dispersion in the micronucleus induction assay, as was surfactant dispersion of a respirable particulate carbon black. In general, a given mass of the DPM in surfactant dispersion expressed greater activity than the solvent extract of an equal mass of DPM.