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March, 2012
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2012-131

NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities (NAICS 48, 49, 22)

Related Publications:
Air Transportation | Couriers/Messengers | Transit/Ground Transportation | Truck Transportation | Utilities | Warehousing/Storage | Water Transportation

Number, Rate, and Costs of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the U.S. Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities Industry Sector by Selected Characteristics, 2003–2006.

  Costs (2006 Dollars)
Characteristic Number of Fatalities Fatality Rate (per 100,000 workers) Mean (thousands) Median (thousands) Total(millions)
All U.S. Industries 22,197 3.9 $960 $944 $21,316
 
All Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities 3,704 12.9 944 974 3,496
 
Industry Sector1
Utilities 225 4.8 1,250 1,290 281
Air Transportation 179 7.7 1,397 1,242 250
Rail Transportation 82 7.6 1,036 972 85
Water Transportation 112 45.2 1,051 1,040 118
Truck Transportation 2,167 27.8 902 1,000 1,954
Transit and Ground Passenger Transportation 296 9.9 692 730 205
Pipeline Transportation 10 9.0 808 786 8
Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation 31 23.2 1,145 1,082 36
Support Activities for Transportation 319 13.5 969 1,021 309
Postal Service 70 2.1 1,022 1,114 72
Couriers and Messengers 119 4.6 844 825 100
Warehousing and Storage 86 7.7 828 822 71
           
Year
  2003 863 12.4 917 940 792
  2004 926 13.2 966 999 895
  2005 958 13.0 927 970 888
  2006 957 12.8 963 997 921
           
Sex
  Male 3,526 16.1 935 969 3,298
  Female 178 2.6 1,113 1,085 198
           
Age Group
  16-19 17 4.8 843 793 14
  20-24 126 8.0 1,111 1,073 140
  25-34 593 11.1 1,247 1,197 739
  35-44 910 11.4 1,240 1,189 1,129
  45-54 1,067 12.6 978 946 1,043
  55-64 733 17.4 554 542 406
  65+ 258 31.0 97 71 25
           
Race
  White 2,968 13.1 950 984 2,821
  Black 502 11.0 872 908 438
  Other2 234 14.4 1,015 1,045 237
           
Ethnicity1
  Not Hispanic 3,291 13.1 937 964 3,085
  Hispanic 375 10.5 1,006 1,067 377
           
Selected SOC Occupation Group
Construction and Extraction 60 9.1 1,064 1,121 64
Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 189 9.2 1,208 1,253 228
Management 41 1.9 1,537 1,580 63
Office and Administrative Support 108 1.5 894 830 97
Production 54 4.7 1,011 1,064 55
Transportation and Material Moving 3,184 26.4 915 956 2,913
 
Event or Exposure1
0* Contact with objects and equipment 350 1.2 896 930 314
1* Falls 157 0.5 739 726 116
2* Bodily reaction and exertion 6 0.02 941 909 6
3* Exposure to harmful substance or environment 171 0.6 1,188 1,193 203
4* Transportation accidents 2,697 9.4 952 996 2,569
5* Fires and explosions 47 0.2 1,105 1,076 52
6* Assaults and violent acts 275 1.0 861 807 237
 
Source of Injury1
0* Chemicals and chemical products 61 0.2 1,083 1,094 66,071
1* Containers 62 0.2 812 802 50,347
3* Machinery 66 0.2 882 897 58,204
4* Parts and materials 162 0.6 1,117 1,139 181,015
5* Persons, plants, animals, and minerals 36 0.1 909 959 32,738
6* Structures and surfaces 178 0.6 785 786 139,647
7* Tools, instruments, and equipment 23 0.1 810 771 18,639
8* Vehicles 2,844 9.9 951 998 2,703,808

NOTE: Asterisks denote a summary level code not assigned to individual cases.

1Numbers are not reported for “unknown”, “not classified”, “unspecified”, “not reported” or “other” categories.

2This category includes all other races, such as American Indian and Asian, as well as unknown or missing races.

 

Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Model


Theoretical Basis of Cost Estimation

The cost to society of a workplace fatality was estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an occupational fatal injury. For these calculations, only medical expenses were used to estimate the direct cost associated with the fatality. The indirect cost was derived by calculating the present value of future earnings summed from the year of death until the decedent would have reached age 67, accounting for the probability of survival were it not for the premature death. (For more information, see Biddle, E [2004]. Economic Cost of Fatal Occupational Injuries in the United States, 1980–1997. Contemporary Economic Policy 22(3):370–381 or Biddle, E [2009]. The Cost of Fatal Injuries to Civilian Workers in the US, 1992-2001and Biddle E and Keane P [2011]. The Economic Burden of Occupational Injuries to Civilian Workers in the United States, 1992-2002. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS.)

Mathematical Representation of Indirect Costs

formula for PVF = present discounted value of loss per person due to an individual occupational fatal injury
where:

Variable Definition
 PVF = present discounted value of loss per person due to an individual occupational fatal injury
 Py,q,s (n) = probability that a person of age y, race q, and sex s will survive to age n
 q = race of the individual
 s = sex of the individual
 n = age if the individual had survived
 Ys, j(n) = median annual compensation of an employed person of sex s, specific occupation j, and age n (includes median annual earnings, benefits, and wage growth adjustments)
 j = specific occupation of individual at death
formula for mean annual imputed value of household production (h) of a person of sex s and age n = mean annual imputed value of household production (h) of a person of sex s and age n
 g = earnings growth rate attributable to overall productivity
 y = age of the individual at death
 r = real discount rate (3%)

Data Sources

Fatality data: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). This research was conducted with restricted access to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. The views expressed here do not necessarily reflect the views of the BLS.

Probability of survival: National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics.

Median annual earnings: BLS Occupational Employment Statistics Survey. Wage data are based on the occupation of the decedent and the year and State of death adjusted by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Deflator to the base year of dollar. The wage growth adjustment, which is the rate of change in wages between age groups, was calculated by NIOSH using BLS Current Population Survey data.

Benefits: BLS Employer Cost for Employee Benefits. Benefits data are based on the year of death adjusted by the GDP Deflator.

Mean annual home production: Expectancy Data. Data are derived through a time diary study sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and conducted by the University of Maryland.

Earnings growth rate: BLS Employment Compensation Index (ECI).

Medical costs: National Council on Compensation Insurance. This is a single 4-year average medical cost.

Employment estimates for rate calculations: BLS Current Population Survey.

Fatality Rate Calculations

Fatality rates were calculated by NIOSH and may differ from previously published BLS CFOI rates. Fatality rates were calculated as deaths per 100,000 workers. Fatality rates for sex, race, age group, and occupation were calculated using employment estimates by the individual characteristic within the specific industry. Employment estimates for the specific industry were used to generate rates for event and source.

 

NIOSH Fatal Occupational Injury Cost Fact Sheet: Transportation, Warehousing, and Utilities (NAICS 48, 49, 22) [PDF - 371 KB]

 

 
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