CDC's Public Health Grand Rounds explored disability in health and practice.
View the December 2012 presentation.
New MMWR Report
Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2011 includes people with disabilities.
People with disabilities need health care and health programs for the same reasons anyone else does—to stay well, active, and a part of the community.
Having a disability does not mean a person is not healthy or that he or she cannot be healthy. Being healthy means the same thing for all of us—getting and staying well so we can lead full, active lives. That means having the tools and information to make healthy choices and knowing how to prevent illness.
For people with disabilities, it also means knowing that health problems related to a disability can be treated. These problems, also called secondary conditions, can include pain, depression, and a greater risk for certain illnesses.
To be healthy, people with disabilities require health care that meets their needs as a whole person, not just as a person with a disability. Most people with or without disabilities can stay healthy by learning about and living healthy lifestyles.
Leading a Long and Healthy Life
Although people with disabilities sometimes have a harder time getting and staying healthy than people without disabilities, there are things we can all do to get and stay healthy.
Tips for leading a long and healthy life:
- Be physically active every day. Learn about physical activity.
- Eat healthy foods in healthy portions. Learn about nutrition.
- Don't get too much sun. Learn about preventing skin cancer.
- Get regular checkups.
- Don't smoke. Learn how to stop smoking.
- Use medicines wisely. Learn about medication safety.
- If you drink alcoholic beverages, drink in moderation. Learn about alcohol.
- Get help for substance abuse. Find treatment services near you.
- Stay in touch with family and friends.
- If you need help, talk with your health care professional.
For more information:
New MMWR report Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2011: According to the report, smoking prevalence higher among those reporting having a disability compared with those who reported no disability. Look up smoking status among state populations here.
Getting the Best Possible Health Care
People with disabilities must get the care and services they need to help them be healthy.
If you have a disability, there are many things you can do to make sure you are getting the best possible health care:
- Know your body, how you feel when you are well and when you're not.
- Talk openly with your health care professional about your concerns.
- Find health care professionals that you are comfortable with in your area.
- Check to be sure you can physically get into your health care professional's office, such as having access to ramps or elevators if you use an assistive device like a wheelchair or scooter.
- Check to see if your health care professional’s office has the equipment you need, such as an accessible scale or examining table.
- Ask for help from your health care professional’s office staff if you need it.
- Think about your questions and health concerns before you visit your health care professional so that you’re prepared.
- Bring your health records with you.
- Take a friend with you if you are concerned you might not remember all your questions or what is said by the health care professional.
- Get it in writing. Write down, or have someone write down for you, what is said by the health care professional.
People with disabilities should follow regular physical activity guidelines that are important for everyone. To be healthy, all adults should be physically active 30 minutes a day at least 5 days each week. All children should be active for 60 minutes a day, at least 5 days each week. If a person with a disability is not able to meet these physical activity guidelines, they should engage in regular physical activity based on their abilities and should avoid inactivity. Adults with disabilities should consult their health care provider about the amounts and types of physical activity that are appropriate for their abilities. Get activity tips for your specific disability or condition.
A Personal Story
"For some years, I could not stand up or stretch my arms above my head. I had to use a walker. My wife and I started using a fitness club regularly. Now, I can again walk upright and stretch my arms over my head. It’s made a difference in my life, like being able to put the dishes in cupboards."
Tips for getting fit:
- Set physical activity goals that you can reach.
- Track what you do.
- Reward yourself when you meet your goals.
- Seek support from your friends and family members. Ask them to join you in your activities.
- Don't give up. If you miss a day, don't quit. Just start again.
- Find exercise facilities that are accessible.
There are many opportunities for those with disabilities to be active in their communities. There are summer camps that are accessible for those with disabilities. Some state parks and recreation areas have accessible playgrounds. Local fitness and community centers may have exercise equipment for people with disabilities. There are also many sports teams for people with disabilities.
For more information:
Abuse and Violence of People with Disabilities
People with disabilities are at greater risk for abuse, violence, and harm than people without disabilities. This is called victimization. Victimization is harm caused on purpose. It is not an “accident” and can happen anywhere. The two most common places where victimization occurs are in hospitals and homes.
- Physical violence with or without a weapon.
- Sexual violence of any kind, including rape.
- Emotional abuse, including verbal attacks or being humiliated.
- Neglect of personal needs for daily life, including medical care or equipment.
In the United States, people with disabilities are 4 to 10 times more likely to be victimized than people without disabilities. Children with disabilities are more than twice as likely to be victimized as children without disabilities. Researchers found that 11.5% of adults with a disability were victims of sexual assault vs. 3.9% of adults without disabilities. In addition, 13.0% of people with disabilities were victims of attempted sexual assault compared to 5.7% without disabilities.123
Victims usually know the person who harms them. They can be health care workers, intimate partners, or family members. More men than women cause harm to people with disabilities. If you or someone you love is being victimized, there is help available.
- Dial 911 if you need immediate assistance.
- Call the National Domestic Violence hotline at:
- 1-800-799-SAFE or TTY 1-800-787-3224
For more information:
Sexual Health and Sexuality
Health care professionals and people with disabilities should feel comfortable talking to each other about sexual health and sexuality. People with disabilities can ask their doctor questions about sexuality, sexual functioning, contraceptives, and reproductive concerns.
For more information:
Mental Health and Well-Being
For everyone, overall mental health and well-being is very important. Mental health is how we think, feel and act as we cope with life. People need to feel good about their life and value themselves.
All people, including those with disabilities might feel isolated from others, or have low self-esteem. They may be depressed. There are different ways to treat depression. Exercise may be effective for some people. Counseling, medication, or both might also be needed.
Everyone feels worried, anxious, sad or stressed sometimes. If these feelings do not go away and they interfere with your daily life, you should talk with other people about your feelings, such as a family member or health care professional.
For more information:
- Petersilia JR. Crime victims with developmental disabilities: a review essay. Criminal Justice & Behavior 2001;28(6):655–94.
- Sobsey D, Mansell S. An international perspective on patterns of sexual assault and abuse of people with disabilities. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine & Health 1994;7(2):153–78.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
Division of Human Development and Disability
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30333
TTY: (888) 232-6348
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