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National Immunization Survey (NIS)

Breastfeeding among U.S. Children Born 2002–2013, CDC National Immunization Survey

Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Yeara,b

Any Breastfeeding

	Graph - Any Breastfeeding. Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year

Exclusive Breastfeedingc

	Graph - Exclusive breastfeeding. Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year.

aBreastfeeding rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey's landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bHealthy People 2020 targets for breastfeeding objectives in the early postpartum period (i.e., ever breastfed), at 6 months and 12 months are 81.9%, 60.6% and 34.1%, respectively. Healthy People 2020 targets for exclusive breastfeeding objectives through 3 and 6 months of age are 46.2% and 25.5%, respectively. Data from the U.S. territories are excluded from the national estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2020 targets on breastfeeding.

cNational data on exclusive breastfeeding are not available for children born prior to 2003. See survey methods for details.

Percentage of U.S. Children Who Were Breastfed, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage ± half 95% Confidence Interval)a,b, c

  Landline Sample   Dual-frame Sample
  2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008   2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Ever Breastfed 71.4±0.9 72.6±0.9 73.1±0.8 74.1±1.0 74.0±0.9 75.0±0.9 74.6±0.9   76.1±1.0 76.7±1.2 79.2±1.2 80.0±1.2 81.1±1.1
At 6 months 37.9±1.0 39.1±0.9 42.1±0.9 42.9±1.1 43.5±1.1 43.8±1.1 44.4±1.1   46.6±1.2 47.5±1.4 49.4±1.5 51.4±1.5 51.8±1.4
At 12 months 19.2±0.8 19.6±0.8 21.4±0.8 21.5±0.9 22.7±0.9 22.7±1.0 23.4±1.0   24.6±1.0 25.3±1.3 26.7±1.3 29.2±1.4 30.7±1.3
Exclusively through 3 months   29.6±1.5 31.5±0.9 32.1±1.0 33.6±1.0 33.5±1.0 34.3±1.0   35.9±1.1 37.1±1.4 40.7±1.5 43.3±1.6 44.4±1.4
Exclusively through 6 months   10.3±1.0 12.1±0.7 12.3±0.7 14.1±0.8 13.8±0.8 14.6±0.8   15.6±0.9 17.2±1.2 18.8±1.2 21.9±1.4 22.3±1.1

aBreastfeeding rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey's landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bData from the U.S. territories are excluded from the national estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2020 targets on breastfeeding.

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Percentage of Breastfed Children Who Were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United Statesa,b,c

	Graoh - Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age among Children Born in 2013, National Immunization Survey, United States.

aFormula supplementation rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey's landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bFormula supplementation is defined as supplementation of breast milk with formula (with or without other supplementary liquids or solids) among infants breastfed at the age specified (2 days, 3 months, or 6 months). Data from the U.S. territories are excluded from the national estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2020 targets on breastfeeding.  

cNational data on formula supplementation are not available for children born prior to 2003. ­See survey methods for details on study design.

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Percentage of U.S. Breastfed Infants Who Were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States (Percentage +/- half 95% Confidence Interval)a,b,c

  Landline Sample   Dual-frame Sample
  2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008   2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Before 2 days 22.3±1.6 23.5±1.0 24.9±1.1 24.2±1.1 25.6±1.2 25.1±1.2   23.3±1.1 22.8±1.4 19.4±1.3 19.1±1.3 17.1±1.2
Before 3 months 38.1±2.2 37.4±1.3 38.1±1.4 36.7±1.4 37.1±1.5 37.1±1.5   35.9±1.5 35.4±1.8 31.5±1.8 29.3±1.8 29.2±1.6
Before 6 months 47.4±2.6 44.5±1.5 44.8±1.7 43.6±1.6 43.7±1.7 43.6±1.7   43.4±1.7 42.8±2.2 37.9±2.0 35.4±2.1 34.9±1.8

aFormula supplementation rates through 2008 births are based on the National Immunization Survey's landline sampling frame. Starting with 2009 births, rates are based on a dual-frame sample that includes respondents surveyed on landline or cellular telephones. See survey methods for details on study design and the impact of adding a sample of cellular telephone respondents to the National Immunization Survey starting in 2011.

bFormula supplementation is defined as supplementation of breast milk with formula (with or without other supplementary liquids or solids) among infants breastfed at the age specified (2 days, 3 months, or 6 months). Data from the U.S. territories are excluded from the national estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2020 targets on breastfeeding.

cNational data on formula supplementation are not available for children born prior to 2003. See survey methods for details on study design.

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Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age among Children Born in 2013, National Immunization Survey, United Statesa,b

	Graph - Percentage of Breastfed Children Who Were Supplemented with Infant Formula, by Birth Year, National Immunization Survey, United States.

aBreastfeeding rates presented in this figure are based on dual-frame (landline and cellular telephone) samples from 2014 and 2015 National Immunization Surveys. See survey methods for details on study design.

bExclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk — NO solids, no water, and no other liquids. Data from the U.S. territories are excluded from the national estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2020 targets on breastfeeding.

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Rates of Any and Exclusive Breastfeeding by Age among Children Born in 2013 (Percentage +/- half 95% Confidence Interval)a,b

U.S. National Breastfeeding Rates, 2013 Births
Child Age Breastfeeding
(n=16441)
Exclusive Breastfeeding
(n=15961)
At birth 81.1±1.1  
7 days 80.3±1.1 62.6±1.4
14 days 79.5±1.1 60.3±1.4
21 days 77.8±1.1 58.1±1.4
28 days 76.8±1.2 57.1±1.4
42 days 72.9±1.2 51.4±1.4
1 month 76.6±1.2 56.5±1.4
2 month 71.5±1.2 50.1±1.4
3 month 66.7±1.3 44.4±1.4
4 month 59.3±1.4 35.7±1.4
5 month 54.5±1.4 27.9±1.2
6 month 51.8±1.4 22.3±1.1
7 month 44.3±1.4  
8 month 41.9±1.4  
9 month 38.5±1.4  
10 month 35.2±1.3  
11 month 32.5±1.3  
12 month 30.7±1.3  
18 month 11.8±0.9  

aBreastfeeding rates presented in this table are based on dual-frame (landline and cellular telephone) samples from 2014 and 2015 National Immunization Surveys. See survey methods for details on study design.

bExclusive breastfeeding is defined as ONLY breast milk — NO solids, no water, and no other liquids. Data from the U.S. territories are excluded from the national estimates to be consistent with the analytical methods for the establishment of Healthy People 2020 targets on breastfeeding.

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Breastfeeding Rates by State and Socio-demographics Based on Dual-frame Phone Samples Starting from 2009 Birthsa
"Any" and "Exclusive" Breastfeeding Rates Birth Year
-by States 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
-by Socio-demographics 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
  a Dual-frame phone samples starting from 2009 births (2011 and 2012 NIS survey years) include both landline and cellular phone samples (see survey methods).

Breastfeeding rates for birth years 2000–2008 based on a landline telephone sampling frame and for birth years 2009 and beyond based on a dual-frame sampling frame can be found by visiting the CDC Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Data, Trends & Maps Database at  http://nccd.cdc.gov/NPAO_DTM/.

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