Most of the sodium we consume is in the form of salt, and the vast majority of sodium we consume is in processed and restaurant foods. Too much sodium is bad for your health. It can increase your blood pressure and your risk for a heart attack and stroke. Heart disease and stroke are the leading causes of death in the United States.
In addition to excess sodium intake, other factors also influence blood pressure and the risk for heart disease and stroke. These factors include
- Age. The prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) increases with age and affects more than half of people aged 55–74 years and approximately three-fourths of those aged 75 years and older.
- Family History. Having a family history of high blood pressure, including parents or close relatives with high blood pressure, may increase the likelihood that you or your children develop it also. While you can’t control your family history, making healthy lifestyle choices may decrease your risk.
- Excess Body Weight. Being overweight can increase blood pressure; losing weight can help reduce blood pressure.
- Physical Inactivity. The Surgeon General recommends adults engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for 2 hours and 30 minutes every week. Such activity may help reduce blood pressure.
- Inadequate Intake of Potassium, Fruits, and Vegetables. Adequate consumption of naturally low sodium foods such as fruits and vegetables provide nutrients such as potassium and fiber. In addition to eating low-sodium foods, eating high-potassium foods such as potatoes, beans, bananas, and yogurt can help reduce blood pressure.
- Excess Alcohol Intake. Excess alcohol intake is associated with high blood pressure. Recommendations for alcohol intake advise moderation—no more than one drink per day for women or two drinks per day for men.
Current dietary guidelines for Americans recommend that adults in general should consume no more than 2,300 mg of sodium per day. At the same time, consume potassium-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables. However, if you are in the following population groups, you should consume no more than 1,500 mg of sodium per day, and meet the potassium recommendation (4,700 mg/day) with food.
- You are 51 years of age or older.
- You are African American.
- You have high blood pressure.
- You have diabetes.
- You have chronic kidney disease.
The 1,500 mg recommendation applies to about half of the U.S. population overall and the majority of adults. Nearly everyone benefits from reduced sodium consumption. Eating less sodium can help prevent, or control, high blood pressure. To learn more about sodium in your diet, visit http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/Sodium/index.html.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued their findings on “Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of the Evidence”. CDC commissioned this report to evaluate the results, study design and methodological approaches that have been used to assess the relationship between sodium and health outcomes, primarily focusing on studies published since 2003.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, announces the opportunity to apply for funds for the Sodium Reduction in Communities Program.
April 7, 2013, marks World Health Day and the 65th anniversary of the World Health Organization (WHO). Each World Health Day, the WHO chooses a theme that highlights a public health concern. This year's theme is high blood pressure, also called hypertension. While preventable, high blood pressure remains a leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Most pre-packaged meals and snacks for toddlers contain high levels of sodium according to CDC Research presented at the American Heart Association’s Epidemiology and Prevention/Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism 2013 Scientific Sessions.
You can lower sodium in your diet by reading nutrition facts labels and choosing foods that contain the lowest amount of sodium.
Sodium intake in children and adolescents is high, comparable to that in adults. Higher sodium intake in children and adolescents is associated with higher blood pressure, which is a leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke among adults.
February may be the shortest month of the year, but it’s enough time to achieve some big improvements in your heart health. Now is the perfect time to get started on a new, heart-healthy game plan. Think about making one small change each week to lower sodium, get active, quit smoking, and control blood pressure to boost your heart health this month.
Almost 67 million Americans have high blood pressure, and more than half of them do not have it under control. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, two of the leading causes of death in the United States. View the video "CDC Vital Signs: Getting Blood Pressure Under Control."
This document provides practical guidance to states and localities for use when developing, adopting, implementing, and evaluating a food procurement policy.
The CDC Vital Signs program is a call to action each month concerning a single, important public health topic. For American Heart Month, the February edition of CDC Vital Signs focuses on the amount of sodium in Americans’ diets and what we can do to reduce it.
- Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004. Available from http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=10925
- Miniño AM, Murphy SL, Xu J, et al. Deaths: Final data for 2008. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 59 no 10 [PDF-2.9M]. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2011.