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How are mPINC scores calculated?

Every hospital and birth center in the United States that provides maternity services is asked to identify the person most knowledgeable about the facility's maternity care practices to recieve the mPINC survey. Respondents complete either a paper or a Web-based version of the questionnaire, and may obtain input from other knowledgeable staff.

CDC calculates scores for every facility and state to indicate their performance on the mPINC survey. Sub-scores are further categorized into maternity care practice domains:

  • Labor and delivery care
  • Postpartum feeding of breastfed infants
  • Breastfeeding assistance
  • Postpartum contact between mother and infant
  • Facility discharge care
  • Staff training
  • Structural and organizational aspects of care delivery

Responses are scored using an algorithm developed and reviewed by experts in the field denoting the evidence and best practices to promote breastfeeding within the health care setting. Possible scores range from 0—100, with higher scores denoting better maternity care practices and policies. For more information: mPINC Scoring Algorithm [PDF-61.5KB]

How is mPINC used?

Two main reports are compiled from the results of the mPINC survey:

Benchmark Reports – Individualized benchmark reports are prepared for the facilities that participated in the mPINC survey. These reports compare a facility's total score and subscores on the 7 domains of care, with the scores of other facilities in the same state as well as facilities of a similar size (i.e., number of births annually) from across the country. Read more [PDF-31.8KB]

State Reports -
Aggregate state-level data are shared with state level organizations from state health departments to state breastfeeding coalition to facilitate their work with hospitals and birth centers in improving breastfeeding care. Read more


Centers for Disease Control, Breastfeeding-related maternity practices at hospitals and birth centers--United States, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2008. 57(23): p. 621-625.

Edwards, R. and B. Philipp, Using maternity practices in infant nutrition and care (mPINC) survey results as a catalyst for change. Journal of Human Lactation, 2010. 26(4): p. 399-404.

Centers for Disease Control, Vital signs: hospital practices to support breastfeeding--United States, 2007 and 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2011. 60(30): p. 1020-1025.

Li, C.-M., Li, R., Ashley, C. G., Smiley, J. M., Cohen, J. H., & Dee, D. L. (2013). Associations of Hospital Staff Training and Policies with Early Breastfeeding Practices. Journal of human lactation.