Guidelines & Publications

Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control

West Nile Virus in the United States: Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, and Control

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWR)

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases — United States, 2021

West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases — United States, 2020

West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases — United States, 2019

West Nile Virus and Other Domestic Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases — United States, 2018

Surveillance for West Nile Virus Disease — United States, 2009–2018

Selected Publications in Peer-Reviewed Literature

Baty SA, Gibney KB, Staples JE, et al. Evaluation for West Nile virus (WNV) RNA in urine of patients within 5 months of WNV infection. J Infect Dis 2012;205:1476.

Diamond MS. Progress on the development of therapeutics against West Nile virus. Antiviral Res 2009;83:214–27.

Gibney KB, Edupuganti S, Panella AJ, et al. Detection of yellow fever immunoglobulin M antibodies at 3-4 years following yellow fever vaccination. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012;87(6):1112-1115.

Gibney KB, Colborn J, Baty S, et al. Modifiable risk factors for West Nile virus infection during an outbreak – Arizona, 2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012;86(5):895-901.

Gibney KB, Lanciotti RS, Sejvar JJ, et al. West Nile virus RNA not detected in urine of 40 people tested 6 years after acute West Nile virus disease. J Infect Dis 2011;203(3):344-47.

Hayes EB, Komar N, Nasci RS, et al. Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:1167-73.

Hayes EB, Sejvar JJ, Zaki SR, et al. Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile Virus disease. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:1174-9.

Holcomb KM, Reiner RC, Barker CM.  Spatio-temporal impacts of aerial adulticide applications on populations of West Nile virus vector mosquitoes.  Parasites & Vectors  2021;14:120.

Iwamoto M, Jernigan DB, Guasch A, et al. Transmission of West Nile Virus from an Organ Donor to Four Transplant Recipients. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2196-2203.

Janusz KB, Lehman JA, Panella AJ, Fischer M, Staples JE. Laboratory testing practices for West Nile virus in the United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011:11(5):597-599.

Lindsey NP, Brown JA, Kightlinger L, et al. State health department perceived utility of and satisfaction with ArboNET, the U.S. national arboviral surveillance system. Public Health Rep 2012;127:383-390.

Lindsey NP, Staples JE, Lehman JA, Fischer M. Medical risk factors for severe West Nile virus disease, United States, 2008-2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012;87(1):179-184.

Lindsey NP, Sejvar JJ, Bode AV, Pape WJ, Campbell GL. Delayed mortality in a cohort of persons hospitalized with West Nile virus disease in Colorado in 2003. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2012;12(3):230-235.

Lindsey NP, Hayes EB, Staples JE, Fischer M. West Nile virus in children. Pediatrics 2009;123:e1084-e1089.

Macedo PA, Schleier III JJ, Reed M, Kelley K, Goodman G, Brown D, Peterson RKD.  Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile Virus activity in Sacramento County, California.  J Am Mosq Control Assoc  201026(1):57-66. 

Montgomery SP, Brown JA, Kuehnert M, et al. Transfusion-associated transmission of West Nile virus, United States 2003 through 2005. Transfusion 2006;46:2038-2046.

Mostashari F, Bunning ML, Kitsutani PT, et al. Epidemic West Nile encephalitis, New York, 1999: results of a household-based seroepidemiological survey. Lancet 2001;358:261-264.

Nasci R, Mutebi JP.  Reducing West Nile Virus risk through vector management.  J Med Ent  2019 56(6):1516-1521.  

Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, et al. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. N Engl J Med 2001;3441:1807-1814.

Nett RJ, Kuehnert MJ, Ison MG, Orlowski JP, Fischer M, Staples JE. Current practices and evaluation of screening solid organ donors for West Nile virus. Transpl Infect Dis 2012;14(3):268-277.

O’Leary DR, Marfin AA, Montgomery SP, et al. The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2004;4:61-70

Pealer LN, Marfin AA, Petersen LR, et al. Transmission of West Nile virus through blood transfusion in the United States in 2002. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1236-45.

Petersen LR, Fischer M. Unpredictable and difficult to control: West Nile virus enters adolescence. N Eng J Med 2012;367(14):1281-4.

Petersen LR, Hayes EB. West Nile virus in the Americas. Med Clin N Am 2008; 92:1307-22.

Sejvar JJ, Lindsey NP, Campbell GL. Primary causes of death in reported cases of fatal West Nile fever, United States, 2002-2006. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2011;11(2):161-164.

Sejvar J, Curns A, Welburg L, et al. Neurocognitive and functional outcomes in persons recovering from West Nile virus illness. J Neuropsychol 2008;2(2):477-499.

Sejvar JJ, Haddad MB, Tierney BC, et al. Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA 2003;290:511-515.

Suthar MS, Diamond MS, Gale M. West Nile virus infection and immunity. Nature Rev 2013;11:115-128.

Weber I, Lindsey N, Bunko-Patterson A, et al. Completeness of West Nile virus testing among patients with meningitis and encephalitis during an outbreak in Arizona. Epidemiol Infect 2012;140:1632-1636.