Outbreak Resources

Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups


  • Adjemian J, Farnon EC, Tschioko F, et al. Outbreak of Marburg hemorrhagic fever among miners in Kamwenge and Ibanda districts, Uganda, 2007. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204(Suppl 3):S796-99.
  • Amman BR, Carroll SA, Reed ZD, et al. Seasonal pulses of Marburg virus circulation in juvenile Rousettus aegyptiacus bats coincide with periods of increased risk of human iInfection. PLoS Pathogens. 2012;8(10):e1002877.
  • Bausch DG, Borchert M, Grein T, et al. Risk Factors for Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(12):1531-1537.
  • Bausch DG , Geisbert TW. Development of vaccines for Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2007;6(1):57-74.
  • Bausch DG, Nichol ST, Muyembe-Tamfum JJ, et al. Marburg hemorrhagic fever associated with multiple genetic lineages of virus. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;355:9099-19.
  • Bausch DG, Sprecher AG, Jeffs B, et al. Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers: A strategy for testing new drugs and vaccines under outbreak conditions. Antiviral Research. 2008;78(1):150-61.
  • Brauburger K, Hume AJ, Muhlberger E, et al. Forty-five years of Marburg virus research. Viruses. 2012;4(10):1878-1927.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Imported case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever – Colorado, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2009;58(49):1377-81.
  • Gear JHS. Haemorrhagic fevers of Africa: an account of two recent outbreaks. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 1977;48(1):5-8.
  • Geisbert TW, Bausch DG, Feldmann H. Prospects for immunisation against Marburg and Ebola viruses. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2010;20(6):344-57.
  • Hensley LE, Alves DA, Geisbert JB, et al. TW. Pathogenesis of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in cynomolgus macaques. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204(Suppl 3):S1021-31.
  • Johnson ED, Johnson BK, Silverstein D, et al. Characterization of a new Marburg virus isolated from a 1987 fatal case in Kenya. Archives of Virology. 1996;11(Suppl):101-14.
  • Kortepeter MG, Bausch DG, Bray M. Basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral hemorrhagic fever. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204(Suppl 3):S810-16.
  • Kuming BS, Kokoris N. Uveal involvement in Marburg virus disease. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1977; 61, 265-266.
  • MacNeil A, Rollin PE. Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases? PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2012;6(6):e1546.
  • Martini GA, Schmidt HA. Spermatogenic transmission of the “Marburg virus”. Klin Wochenschr. 1968; 46(7):398-400.
  • Martini GA, Knauff HG, Schmidt HA, et al. A hitherto unknown infectious disease contracted from monkeys. “Marburg-virus” disease. German Medical Monthly. 1968;13(10):457-70.
  • Mehedi M, Groseth A, Feldmann H, et al. Clinical aspects of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Future Virology 2011;6(9):1091-106.
  • Nyakarahuka L, Shoemaker TR, Balinandi S, et al. (2019) Marburg virus disease outbreak in Kween District Uganda, 2017: Epidemiological and laboratory findings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(3): e0007257.
  • Rollin PE, Nichol ST, Zaki S, et al. Arenaviruses and filoviruses. In: Versalovic J, Carroll KC, Funke G, et al., eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 10th ed. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2011. 2. pp. 1514-29.
  • Smith LM, Hensley LE, Geisbert TW, et al. Interferon-beta therapy prolongs survival in rhesus macaque models of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2013;208(2):310-18.
  • Swanepoel R, Smit SB, Rollin PE, et al. Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(12):1847-51.
  • Teepe RG, Johnson BK, Ocheng D, et al. A probable case of Ebola virus haemorrhagic fever in Kenya. East African Medical Journal. 1983;60(10):718-22.
  • Towner JS, Amman BR, Sealy TK, et al. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats. PLoS Pathogens. 2009;5(7):e1000536.
  • Towner JS , Khristova ML, Sealy TK, et al. Marburgvirus genomics and association with a large hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Angola. Journal of Virology. 2006; 80(13):6497-516.
  • Warren TK , Warfield KL, Wells J, et al. Advanced antisense therapies for postexposure protection against lethal filovirus infections. Nature Medicine. 2010;16(9):991-94.