About the Vaccine
Two vaccines containing measles, mumps, and rubella virus are licensed for use in the United States.
- M-M-R II® is a combination measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
- ProQuad® is a combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) vaccine.
Both vaccines contain live, attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella virus. MMRV also contains live, attenuated varicella-zoster virus. All vaccine strains, including the Moraten strain (used in the United States) and the Edmonston- Zagreb strain are in genotype A.
The lyophilized live MMR vaccine and MMRV vaccine should be reconstituted and administered as recommended by the manufacturer1,2.
- Merck & Co. Inc. M-M-R II (Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live); 2009.
- Merck & Co. Inc. ProQuad (measles, mumps, rubella and varicella virus vaccine live lyophilized preparation for subcutaneous injection). 2011.
- 1 dose of MMR vaccine is—
- 93% effective for measles (range: 39%–100%)
- 78% effective for mumps (range: 49%−92%)
- 97% effective for rubella (range: 94%–100%)
- 2 doses of MMR are—
- 97% effective for measles (range: 67%–100%)
- 88% effective for mumps (range: 31%–95%)
Duration of Protection
People who receive MMR vaccination according to the U.S. vaccination schedule are usually considered protected for life against measles and rubella. While MMR provides effective protection against mumps for most people, immunity against mumps may decrease over time and some people may no longer be protected against mumps later in life.
- Both serologic and epidemiologic evidence indicate that vaccine-induced measles immunity appears to be long-term and probably lifelong in most persons.
- While the effectiveness of two doses of MMR against mumps is high, serologic and epidemiologic studies suggest this effectiveness decreases with time. A person with a decreased immune response after time may then become infected when exposed to mumps virus through close contact with a person with mumps. A third dose of MMR can provide added short term protection for those who are likely to have close contact with a mumps patient during an outbreak.
- Studies indicate that one dose of vaccine confers long-term, probably lifelong, protection against rubella.
The United States’ long-standing vaccine safety program closely and constantly monitors the safety of vaccines. See in-depth information about the safety of each FDA-approved vaccine: