Glossary

| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

 

A

B

C

95% Confidence Interval (CI)

A range of values to express how large the random error for an estimate is likely to be. Technically, if we hypothetically repeated a study 100 times, 95 times out of the 100, the true value of our estimate would fall within the upper and lower limit of this confidence interval.

Confidence Limits (CL)

A range of values to express how large the random error for an estimate is likely to be. Technically, if we hypothetically repeated a study 100 times, 95 times out of the 100, the true value of our estimate would fall within the upper and lower limit of this confidence interval.

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D

Data

Information, often in the form of facts or figures obtained from experiments or surveys, used as a basis for making calculations or drawing conclusions.

Datasets

A data file or collection of interrelated data.

 

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E

Exposure

Contact with a substance by swallowing or breathing or by direct contact such as through the skin or eyes. Exposure may be short term, intermediate duration, or long term.

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F

Fact Sheets

A one-page document highlighting a country’s survey results.

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G

GATS

Global Adult Tobacco Survey

GHPSS

Global Health Professions Student Survey

GSPS

Global School Personnel Survey

GTSSData

Global Tobacco Surveillance System Data

GYTS

Global Youth Tobacco Survey

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H

High School (HS)

Data are based on a sample of students in grades 9–12.

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I

Indicators

Measurable variable used as a representation of an associated (but non-measured or non-measurable) factor or quantity.

Insufficient Sample Size

Sample was too small to support statistically valid results.

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J

K

L

M

Mean

The average of a list of numbers by calculating the sum of all the members of the list and dividing by the number of items in the list.

Middle School (MS)

Data are based on a sample of students in grades 6–8.

MPOWER

A package of six proven policies used by World Health Organization to expand the fight against the tobacco epidemic.

  • Monitor tobacco use – Obtain nationally representative and population-based periodic data on key indicators of tobacco use for youth and adults.
  • Protect people from tobacco smoke – Completely smoke-free environments in all indoor public spaces and workplaces, including restaurants and bars.
  • Offer help to quit tobacco use – Easily accessible services to manage tobacco dependence clinically at 100 percent of primary health-care facilities and through community resources.
  • Warn about the dangers of tobacco – High levels of awareness of the health risks of tobacco use across age groups, sexes and places of residence, so that all people understand that the result of tobacco use is suffering, disfigurement and early death.
  • Enforce bans on tobacco advertising ,promotion and sponsorship – Complete absence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.
  • Raise taxes on tobacco products – Progressively less affordable tobacco products.

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N

O

P

Percentage (%)

A weighted percentage reflecting the population.

Prevalence

The number of existing disease cases in a defined population during a specific time period.

Prevention

Proactive activities conducted to avoid health hazards and their consequences.

Public Health Surveillance

The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data. This activity also involves timely dissemination of the data and use for public health programs.

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Q

R

Race and Ethnicity

Individuals are grouped into one of four race categories or one ethnic group (Hispanic). Hispanic origin is determined first; then, all non-Hispanics are classified by self-reported race.

Research

A systematic investigation, including the design, implementation, testing and evaluation to contribute to the scientific literature.

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S

Sample Size (n)

The unweighted number of cases.

Second-hand Smoke

Second-hand smoke, also known as passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke, is a mixture of “sidestream” smoke from the burning tip of a cigarette and “mainstream” smoke exhaled by a smoker. It contains at least 50 cancer-producing chemicals.

Smokeless Tobacco

Tobacco in a form that is not smoked but used in some other way such as chewing tobacco or snuff.

Smokers

Persons who reported having ever smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and who smoke now.

 

Stratification

The process of partitioning data into distinct or non-overlapping groups.

Survey

A systematic collection of information or data. A survey can be conducted to collect information from a group of people or from the environment. Surveys of a group of people can be conducted by telephone, by mail, or in person. Some surveys are done by interviewing a group of people.

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T

Tobacco

An agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. It can be consumed, used as an organic pesticide and, in the form of nicotine tartrate, it is used in some medicines.

Trend Data

Pattern of gradual change in a condition, output, or process, or an average or general tendency of a series of data points to move in a certain direction over time, represented by a line or curve on a graph.

U

V

Vital Records

Certificates of birth, death, marriage, and divorce required for legal and demographic purposes.

W

WHO

World Health Organization

X

Y

Z

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