Future of Work Initiative
“The future is not predestined; it is influenced by the choices we make today.
No one knows for certain what the future holds for occupational safety and health. What is exceedingly clear, however, is that we must take proactive steps to safeguard the safety, health, and well-being of the workforce.
Now is the time to evaluate the risks and seize the opportunities presented by future of work advances by developing evidence-based research solutions around new industries, technologies, organizational designs, job arrangements, and ways to control risks that affect the future workforce.
There is no launch date for the future; it starts now.”
– John Howard MD, Director of NIOSH
The graphics below demonstrate some of the many ways that work is changing as well as issues for consideration as we look towards the future of work.
In today’s modern world, technological innovations, digital transformation, and globalization accelerate the speed at which we live and work. Indeed, the nature of work is changing more rapidly than ever before. Workers and jobs are impacted by the combined pace of automation and globalization, requiring a forward-thinking approach to occupational safety and health. These forces have an impact on workers and organizations in the U.S. and around the world as they confront complex, emerging workforce issues, such as shifting employment relationships, recruiting and retaining workers in highly competitive labor markets, an aging workforce, gender pay and employment disparities, and the uncertainty of how best to manage new technologies entering into the workplace.
While progress has been made, some existing work-related challenges will likely continue to subsist. However, shaping processes that address these challenges can promote new and positive changes so that the workplace and work are better able to meet the needs of the workforce. The careful balancing of all these issues has the potential to favorably impact the safety and health of workers, their families, communities, employers, and society as a whole.
Future of Work at NIOSH
Because of these new realities, NIOSH launched the Future of Work (FOW) Initiative. To more broadly address future worker safety, health, and well-being, the FOW Initiative applies the Total Worker Health® framework by encouraging collaboration across the spectrum of organizational policies, programs, and practices. The Initiative is a collaborative effort of multidisciplinary research, communication, and partnerships throughout NIOSH, other agencies, and organizations that aims to identify novel research solutions, practical approaches, and partnership opportunities to address the future of work.
The goals of the NIOSH FOW Initiative are to 1) compile studies on the future of work; 2) feature current research projects related to the Initiative; 3) promote research among new industries, technologies, organizational designs, job arrangements, risk profiles, and ways to control risks; and 4) connect trends in workplace, work, and workforce changes to prepare for what the future holds for occupational safety and health.
The categories below represent NIOSH’s current FOW priority topics and sub-topics for the workplace, work, and workforce. This list of topics and sub-topics is not meant to be exhaustive, imply a hierarchy, or be mutually exclusive. Note: issues that impact all three categories include emergency and disaster preparedness and response, exposures and hazards, extreme weather conditions, globalization, industry 4.0, OSH 4.0, policies, politics, resources, and social disruption.
- Autonomy • Burnout and Stress Prevention • Healthy Leadership • Job Flexibility • Leave Systems • Scheduling • Social and Corporate Responsibility • Workplace Built Environment • Workspace • Work-Life Fit
Technological Job Displacement
- Automation • Digitalization • Job Quantity and Quality • Occupational Polarization • Productivity Enhancement and Quality Improvement through Automated Manufacturing • Stable, New, and Redundant Work
- Alternative • App-Based • Contingent • Contractual • Direct Hire • Distributed • Free-Lancer • Job Sharing • Non-Standard • On-Call • On-Demand • Part-Time • Platform • Precarious • Seasonal • Single vs. Multi-Employers • Temporary
- Deep Learning • Machine Learning • Neural Networks
- Autonomous, Collaborative, Industrial, Managerial, Service, and Social Robots • Autonomous Vehicles • Human-Machine Interaction • Unmanned Aerial Systems • Wearable Exoskeletons and Exosuits
- Additive and Smart Manufacturing, and 3D Printing • Advanced, Cloud, and Quantum Computing • Bio-Manufacturing • Bio-Technology • Clean and Green Technologies • Digitalization • Information and Communication Technologies • Internet-of-Things • Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials • Sensors • Sensor Surveillance • Smart Personal Protective Equipment
- Diversity and Inclusivity • Multi-Generational • Productive Aging • Vulnerable
- Adequate Wages • Equitable and Commensurate Compensation and Benefits • Minimum Guaranteed Hours
- Continual Education, Learning, and Training • Re-Skilling and Up-Skilling
Related NIOSH Resources
The NIOSH FOW Initiative serves as an overarching structure to coordinate activities related to the changing nature of work carried out by several NIOSH programs.
- NIOSH Safe Skilled Ready Workforce Program
- NIOSH Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies
- NIOSH Center for Occupational Robotics Research
- Healthy Work Design and Well-Being Program
- NIOSH Total Worker Health Program
- National Center for Productive Aging and Work
- NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies (CWCS)
- Nanotechnology Research Center
- NIOSH Mining Program
The following select NIOSH resources provide further information on the future of work. This information will be updated regularly, so please check back.
- NIOSH Advanced Manufacturing Topic Page
- The Impact of Technology on Work and the Workforceexternal icon
- Expanding Research Partnerships Webinar Series
- “Nonstandard Work Arrangements and Worker Health and Safety”external icon
- “The Face of Occupational Safety and Health: 2020 and Beyond”external icon
- “Potential Occupational Hazards of Additive Manufacturing”external icon
- “Potential Scenarios and Hazards in the Work of the Future: A Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed and Gray Literatures”external icon
- Relevant NIOSH Science Blogs
- “Towards a Biosocial Approach to Occupational Safety and Health”
- Labor Day 2019 Message: Future of Work and Total Worker Health
- “Characterizing 3D Printing Emissions and Controls in an Office Environment”
- “Exoskeletons in Construction: Will They Reduce or Create Hazards?”
- “Wearable Exoskeletons to Reduce Physical Load at Work”
- “Work Arrangement and Access to and Use of Healthcare Services”
- VIDEO: UN Web TV “Safety and Health and the Future of Work”external icon featuring participation by NIOSH Director, John Howard, MD
- Artificial intelligence: Implications for the future of workexternal icon
- “The Future of Jobs Report”external icon from the World Economic Forum
- ILOexternal icon
- “Future of Work Task Force Plan of Action for 2019”pdf iconexternal icon from Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board
- OECD “Policy Responses to New Forms of Work”external icon
- ‘Historical and emerging challenges’: A Q&A with NIOSH Director John Howardexternal icon
- Executive Office of the President 2016, “Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence”pdf iconexternal icon