NIOSH logo and tagline

Vanadium dust

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS number: 1314–62–1

NIOSH REL: 0.05 mg V/m3 15-minute CEILING

Current OSHA PEL: 0.5 mg V2O5/m3 (respirable dust) CEILING

1989 OSHA PEL: 0.05 mg V2O5/m3 (respirable dust) TWA

1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 mg V2O5/m3 (respirable dust) TWA

Description of substance: Yellow-orange powder or dark-gray, odorless flakes dispersed in air.

LEL: . . Noncombustible Solid

Original (SCP) IDLH: 70 mg/m3 (as V2O5)

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by ACGIH [1971] that vanadium pentoxide dust at 70 mg/m3 is fatal to animals within a few hours [Hudson 1964]. AIHA [1957] reported that rabbits succumb from edema of the lungs at 200 mg/m3 after one 7-hour exposure [Sjoberg 1950].

Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed


Lethal concentration data:

Species Reference LC50 LCLo Time Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF) Derived value
Cat Faulkner 1964 —– 500 mg/m3 23 min 256 mg V/m3 (0.915) 26 mg V/m3
Rat Izrael’son 1963 —– 70 mg/m3 2 hr 63 mg V/m3 (1.6) 6.3 mg V/m3

Lethal dose data:

Species Reference Route LD50(mg/kg) LDLo(mg/kg) Adjusted LD Derived value
Rat Arch Toxikol 1956 oral 10 —– 39 mg V/m3 3.9 mg V/m3
Mouse Izmerov et al. 1982 oral 23 —– 90 mg V/m3 9.0 mg V/m3

Human data: Respiratory irritation following exposures to V2O5 ranging from 1 to 48 mg V/m3 has been described in workers [Sjoberg 1955]. Vanadium intoxication (i.e., rhinorrhea, sneezing, lacrimation, and sore throat) has been reported in workers exposed to concentrations of V2O5 during the workshift ranging from 10 to 33 mg/m3 [Williams 1952]. Concentrations of V2O5 exceeding 56 mg V/m3 have resulted in local respiratory effects [Vintinner et al. 1955]. Other workers exposed intermittently to 56 mg V/m3 showed no evidence of intoxication [McTurk et al. 1956].


1. ACGIH [1971]. Vanadium (as V). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, pp. 275-276.

2. AIHA [1957]. Vanadium pentoxide. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 18:172-173.

3. Arch Toxikol [1956]; 16:182-189 (in German).

4. Faulkner TG [1964]. Vanadium toxicology and biological significance. New York, NY: Elsevier Science Publishing Co., p. 72.

5. Hudson TGF [1964]. Vanadium: toxicology and biological significance. New York, NY: Elsevier Publishing Company, p. 75.

6. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK [1982]. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 119.

7. Izrael’son ZI, ed. [1963]. Toxicology of the rare metals. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Program for Scientific Translations.

8. McTurk LC, Hirs CHW, Eckard RE [1956]. Health hazards of vanadium-containing residual oil ash. Ind Med Surg 25:29-36.

9. Sjoberg S-G [1950]. Vanadium pentoxide dust: a clinical and experimental investigation on its effect after inhalation. Acta Med Scand Suppl 238:81-99.

10. Sjoberg SG [1955]. Vanadium bronchitis from cleaning oil-fired boilers. AMA Arch Ind Health 11:505-512.

11. Vintinner FJ, Vallenas R, Carlin CE, Weiss R, Macher C, Ochoa R [1955]. Study of the health of workers employed in mining and processing of vanadium ore. AMA Arch Ind Health 12:635-642.

12. Williams N [1952]. Vanadium poisoning from cleaning oil-fired boilers. Brit J Ind Med 9:50-55.