Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 79–24–3
NIOSH REL: 100 ppm (310 mg/m3) TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 100 ppm (310 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 100 ppm (307 mg/m3) TWA
Description of substance: Colorless, oily liquid with a mild, fruity odor.
LEL: . 3.4% (10% LEL, 3,400 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 1,000 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statements by Patty  that exposure to 5,000 ppm for 2 hours was lethal to 1 of 2 rabbits and to 0 of 2 guinea pigs; exposure to the same concentration for 3 hours was fatal to 2 of 2 rabbits and to 0 of 2 guinea pigs [Machle et al. 1940].
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50(ppm)||LCLo(ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hrLC (CF)||Derived value|
|Rat||IMCC 1979||LC100: 13,000||—–||6 hr||29,900 ppm (2.3)||2,990 ppm|
|Mouse||Izmerov et al. 1982||—–||6,250||2 hr||10,000 ppm (1.6)||1,000 ppm|
|Rabbit||Machle et al. 1940||5,000||—–||2 hr||8,000 ppm (1.6)||800 ppm|
|Rabbit||Machle et al. 1940||LC100: 5,000||—–||3 hr||9,000 ppm (1.8)||900 ppm|
Other animal data: Guinea pigs survived both a 2-hour and a 3-hour exposure to 5,000 ppm [Machle et al. 1940]. Rats exposed to 2,200 ppm for 6 hours had no noticeable difficulty [IMCC 1979].
Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.
|Revised IDLH: 1,000 ppm [Unchanged]Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Izmerov et al. 1982; Machle et al. 1940], the original IDLH for nitroethane (1,000 ppm) is not being revised at this time.|
1. IMCC . Technical data sheet no. 21: nitromethane. Des Plaines, IL: International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Inc., NP Division.
2. Izmerov NF, Sanotsky IV, Sidorov KK . Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. Moscow, Russia: Centre of International Projects, GKNT, p. 93.
3. Machle W, Scott EW, Treon J . The physiological response of animals to some simple mononitroparaffins and to certain derivatives of these compounds. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 22(8):315-332.
4. Patty FA, ed. . Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 2077.