Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 7784-42-1
NIOSH REL: 0.002 mg/m3 15-minute CEILING; NIOSH considers arsine to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990].
Current OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm (0.16 mg/m3) TWA
Description of substance: Colorless gas with a mild, garlic-like odor.
LEL: 5.1% (10% LEL, 5,100 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 6 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by Patty  that 6 to 30 ppm is the maximum concentration that can be inhaled in 1 hour without serious consequences [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. The chosen IDLH falls within the range of 1 to 10 ppm, which AIHA  suggested might be dangerous for a 1-hour exposure [Elkins 1959; Kipling and Fothergill 1964].
Existing short-term exposure: National Research Council [NRC 1984] guidelines Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels (EEGLs):
- 1-hour EEGL: 1.0 ppm
- 24-hour EEGL: 0.1 ppm
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Species||Reference||LC50(ppm)||LCLo(ppm)||Time||Adjusted 0.5-hr LC(CF)||Derived Value|
|Rat||Gates et al. 1946||120||—–||10 min||83 ppm (0.69)||8.3 ppm|
|Mouse||Gates et al. 1946||77||—–||10 min||53 ppm (0.69)||5.3 ppm|
|Rabbit||Gates et al. 1946||201||—–||10 min||138 ppm (0.69)||14 ppm|
|Dog||Gates et al. 1946||108||—–||10 min||75 ppm (0.69)||7.5 ppm|
|Human||Henderson and Haggard 1943||—–||250||30 min||250 ppm (1.0)||25ppm|
|Human||Tab Biol Per 1933||—–||300||5 min||165 ppm (0.55)||17 ppm|
|Human||Teitelbaum and Kier 1969||—–||25||30 min||25 ppm (1.0)||2.5 ppm|
Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 13 ppm [Peterson and Bhattacharyya 1985].
Other human data: It has been reported that poisoning symptoms occur after a few hours exposure to 3 to 10 ppm [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. It has been suggested that 1 to 10 ppm might be dangerous for a 1 hour exposure [AIHA 1965] and that 6 to 30 ppm is the maximum concentration that can be inhaled in 1 hour without serious consequences [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. It has been estimated that 1,543 ppm for 2 minutes and 62 ppm for 30 minutes are minimal disabling exposures [Gates et al. 1946].
Revised IDLH: 3 ppm
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for arsine is 3 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [AIHA 1965; Henderson and Haggard 1943; Teitelbaum and Kier 1969]. [Note: NIOSH recommends as part of its carcinogen policy that the “most protective” respirators be worn for arsine at concentrations above 0.002 mg As/m3.]
- AIHA . Arsine. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 26:438-441.
- Elkins HB . Arsenic, As. In: The chemistry of industrial toxicology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 62-65.
- Gates M, Williams J, Zapp JA . Arsenicals. In: Summary technical report of Division 9, NRDC. Vol. 1. Chemical warfare agents, and related chemical problems. Part 1. Washington, DC: Office of Scientific Research and Development, National Defense Research Committee, pp. 83-114.
- Henderson Y, Haggard HW . Noxious gases. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, p. 242.
- Kipling MD, Fothergill R . Arsine poisoning in a slag-washing plant. Br J Ind Med 21:74-77.
- NRC . Emergency and continuous exposure limits for selected airborne contaminants. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Committee on Toxicology, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, pp. 35-40.
- Patty FA, ed. . Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 880.
- Peterson DP, Bhattacharyya MH . Hematological responses to arsine exposure: quantitation of exposure response in mice. Fundam Appl Toxicol 5:499-505.
- Tab Biol Per ; 3:231 (in German).
- Teitelbaum DT, Kier LC . Arsine poisoning: report of five cases in the petroleum industry and a discussion of the indications for exchange transfusion and hemodialysis. Arch Environ Health 19:133-143.
- Page last reviewed: December 4, 2014
- Page last updated: December 4, 2014
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