Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 7723–14–0
NIOSH REL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 0.1 mg/m3 TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.02 ppm (0.1 mg/m3) TWA
Description of substance: White to yellow, soft, waxy solid with acrid fumes in air.
LEL :. . Unknown
Original (SCP) IDLH*: No Evidence [*Note: “Effective” IDLH = 200 mg/m3 — see discussion below.]
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: There is no evidence of an IDLH because, as ACGIH  stated, acute effects rarely result from inhalation of phosphorus vapor. ACGIH  also reported that rabbits survived daily 30-minute exposures to 150 to 160 mg/m3 [Maruo 1955]. For this draft technical standard, therefore, respirators have been selected on the basis of the assigned protection factor afforded by each device up to 2,000 ´ the OSHA PEL of 0.1 mg/m3 (i.e., 200 mg/m3); only the “most protective” respirators are permitted for use in concentrations exceeding 200 mg/m3.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
Lethal dose data:
|Species||Reference||Route||LD50 (mg/kg)||LDLo (mg/kg)||Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Cheng-Chun et al. 1975
Cheng-Chun et al. 1975
Other animal data: It has been reported that rabbits have survived daily 30-minute exposures to 150 to 160 mg/m3 [Maruo 1955].
Human data: Death has reportedly resulted from a single dose of 1 mg/kg [Smyth 1956]. Severe toxic symptoms have been reported following a single oral dose of 15 mg [Sollmann 1943]. However, survival of ingestion up to 1.5 grams have also been reported [Diza-Rivera et al. 1950; Newburger et al. 1948]. [Note: An oral dose of 15 mg is equivalent to a 70-kg worker being exposed to 10 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]
|Revised IDLH: 5 mg/m3
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for phosphorus (yellow) is 5 mg/m3 based on acute oral toxicity data in humans [Sollmann 1943] and animals [Cheng-Chun et al. 1975; Yakkyoku 1977].
1. ACGIH . Phosphorus (yellow). In: Documentation of the threshold limit values for substances in workroom air. 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, p. 210.
2. Cheng-Chun L, Dilley JV, Hodgson JR, Helton DO, Wiagand WJ, Roberts DN, Anderson BS, Halfpap LM, Kurtz LD . Mammalian toxicity of munition compounds: phase I. Acute oral toxicity, primary skin and eye irritation, dermal sensitization and disposition and metabolism. Washington, DC: Headquarters, U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Contract DMD-17-74-C-4073.
3. Diaz-Rivera RS, Collazo PJ, Pons ER, Torregrosa MV . Acute phosphorus poisoning in man. A study of 56 cases. Medicine 29:269-298.
4. Maruo T . Experimental study on poisoning due to gas of yellow phosphor. Part I. The hemogram of rabbits. Fukuoka Acta Medica 46:604-615 (in Japanese).
5. Newburger RA, Beaser SB, Schwachman H . Phosphorus poisoning with recovery accompanied by electrocardiographic changes. Am J Med 4:927-930.
6. Smyth HF Jr . Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17(2):129-185.
7. Sollmann T . A manual of pharmacology and its applications to therapeutics and toxicology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, pp. 884-889.
8. Yakkyoku (Pharmacy) ; 28:329 (in Japanese).