Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 64-19-7
NIOSH REL: 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) TWA, 15 ppm (37 mg/m3) STEL
Current OSHA PEL: 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) TWA, 15 ppm (37 mg/m3) STEL
Description of substance: Colorless liquid or crystals with a sour, vinegar-like odor.
LEL: 4.0% (10% LEL, 4,000 ppm)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 1,000 ppm
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the statement by Patty  that Ghiringhelli and DiFabio  determined a 1-hour LC50 of about 5,000 ppm for guinea pigs and mice. AIHA  reported that 1 of 6 rats died following a 4-hour exposure to 16,000 ppm [Smyth et al. 1951]. However, the Standards Completion Program Respirator Committee felt that a worker might have difficulty escaping from 5,000 ppm due to the irritation effects, and reduced the IDLH to 1,000 ppm to allow escape without injury. According to AIHA , workers have repeatedly sustained exposures up to about 200 ppm.
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal concentration data:
|Mouse||Ghiringhelli and DiFabio 1957||5,620||—–||1 hr||7,025 ppm (1.25)||703 ppm|
|Rat||Smyth 1956||16,000||—–||4 hr||32,000 ppm (2.0)||3,200 ppm|
Other animal data: RD50 (mouse), 163 ppm [DeCeaurriz et al. 1981].
Human data: Marked irritation of the eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract which could not be tolerated for more than 3 minutes was noted at 816 to 1,226 ppm [von Oettingen 1960]. It has been reported that 50 ppm or more is intolerable to most persons due to intense lacrimation and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat [AIHA]. It has also been stated that repeated exposures to high concentrations may produce respiratory tract irritation with pharyngeal edema and chronic bronchitis [AIHA 1972].
Revised IDLH: 50 ppm
Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for acetic acid is 50 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in humans [AIHA 1972].
- AIHA . Acetic acid. In: Hygienic guide series. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 33:624-627.
- DeCeaurriz JC, Micillino JC, Bonnet P, Guenier JP . Sensory irritation caused by various industrial airborne chemicals. Toxicol Lett 9(2):137-143.
- Ghiringhelli L, DiFabio A . Pathology due to acetic acid: observations on experimental animals and man. Med Lav 48(10):560-561 (in Italian).
- Patty FA, ed. . Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1779.
- Smyth HF Jr . Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17:129-185.
- Smyth HF Jr, Carpenter CP, Weil CS . Range-finding toxicity data: list IV. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 4:119-122.
- von Oettingen WF . The aliphatic acids and their esters: toxicity and potential dangers. AMA Arch Ind Health 21:40/28-77/65.